Deng Xiaoping's southern tour

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The statue of Deng Xiaoping on top of the Lianhuashan Park in Shenzhen, China.

Deng Xiaoping's southern tour (simplified Chinese: 邓小平南巡; traditional Chinese: 鄧小平南巡), or 1992 southern tour (simplified Chinese: 九二南巡; traditional Chinese: 九二南巡), was the tour of Deng Xiaoping, late Paramount leader of China, in southern China, including in Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Guangzhou and Shanghai, from January 18 to February 21, 1992.[1][2][3][4][5] The talks and remarks made by Deng during the tour resumed and reinforced the implementation of his "Reforms and Opening-up" program in mainland China, which came to a halt after the military crackdown on 1989 Tiananmen Square protests ordered by Deng himself.[1][6][7][8] The 1992 Southern Tour is widely regarded as a critical point in the modern history of China, as it saved the Chinese economic reform as well as the capital market, and preserved the stability of the society.[1][6][9][10][11][12]

During the southern tour, Deng emphasized to several military leaders of the People's Liberation Army including Yang Shangkun, Liu Huaqing and Yang Baibing, that "those who do not promote reform should be brought down from their leadership positions", forcing Jiang Zemin, then General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), to support and continue the Reforms and Opening-up program.[13] He also wished that Guangdong province would catch up with the "Four Asian Tigers" in terms of economic development within 20 years.[14][15] Some of the notable remarks and comments from Deng during the tour included "I don't care if the cat is black or white, so long as it catches mice" (不管黑猫白猫,能捉到老鼠就是好猫), which was originally published by him in 1960s, and "development is of overriding importance (发展才是硬道理)” as well as "[the Shenzhen government] should be bolder in carrying out the Reforms and Opening-up, dare to make experiments and should not act as women with bound feet".[10][16][17][18]

However, although Deng himself mentioned that anti-corruption must be imposed throughout the entire Reforms and Opening-up process and emphasized the importance of rule of law,[19][20] the Southern Tour did not resolve the corruption issue as well as the widening economic inequality in China, nor did it resume China's political reforms which failed and ended in the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests.[21][22][23][24][25]

Historical background[edit]

Halt of Reforms and Opening-up[edit]

Members of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) had serious disagreements on whether the Reforms and Opening-up program should continue after Deng Xiaoping ordered the military crackdown on 1989 Tiananmen Square protests.[8][26] After Zhao Ziyang, former CCP General Secretary and a leading reformist, was forced to leave his position for supporting the students and opposing military suppression in the Tiananmen Square protests, Jiang Zemin was appointed the new General Secretary with the support of several powerful left-wing conservative leaders such as Chen Yun and Li Xiannian.[27][28]

In November 1989, the Central Committee of CPC passed a resolution ("关于进一步治理整顿和深化改革的决定"), stating that the pace of reforms was too fast, and decided to overhaul the changes.[29] As a result, the Reforms and Opening-up program came to a virtual halt, especially after the Revolutions of 1989 in Europe and around the time of the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Media war[edit]

Starting from the spring of 1991, the Liberation Daily newspaper in Shanghai published several articles authored by "Huang Fuping (皇甫平)", promoting reforms, which quickly gained support amongst local officials and populace.[26][30] On the other hand, several media in Beijing, controlled by Jiang Zemin and Li Peng (then Premier of China), responded by directly criticizing the "Huang Fuping" articles and questioned whether China was following a capitalist path or a socialist path.[26][30]

The tour[edit]

At 87 years old, Deng Xiaoping began his southern tour on January 18, 1992, when he visited the Wuchang District of Wuhan in Hubei Province as well as Changsha in Hunan Province.[2] He then visited several cities in Guangdong Province, including Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Guangzhou from January 19 to 29.[2] After that, he briefly stayed in Jiangxi Province, and on January 31 Deng arrived in Shanghai, the last stop of his southern tour.[2] After spending the 1992 Chinese New Year in Shanghai, Deng briefly visited Nanjing in Jiangsu Province as well as Anhui Province on his way back to Beijing on February 20.[2]

At first, Deng's southern tour was ignored by Beijing and national media, which were then under the control of Deng's political rivals. Jiang Zemin, General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party since 1989, showed little support. Nevertheless, media in Hong Kong first reported Deng's tour after receiving confirmation from Shenzhen government, while Shenzhen Special Zone Daily (深圳特区报) later gave a detailed report on Deng's southern tour in an article on March 26 without receiving approval from the China's central government, making it the first media to do so in the mainland China.[31]

Shenzhen[edit]

The hotel room in which Deng Xiaoping stayed while visiting Shenzhen.

Around 9am on January 19, 1992, Deng Xiaoping arrived in Shenzhen, one of China's first special economic zones approved by himself, and was warmly received by local officials including Xie Fei, the Communist Party Secretary of Guangdong Province.[2][32] Deng visited Guomao Building and some technology company the next day.[2] On January 21, he visited the Overseas Chinese Town and the Splendid China Folk Village.[2] In the morning of January 22, Deng visited the Fairy Lake Botanical Garden together with his wife, children and grandchildren, planting a tree there; in the afternoon, Deng delivered his famous lines to the officials of the Shenzhen government:[2][17][18]

"[The Shenzhen government] should be bolder in carrying out the Reforms and Opening-up, dare to make experiments and should not act as women with bound feet. If you think something is right, then bravely test it and embrace it. The important experience of Shenzhen is the daring spirit. Without this daring spirit and the courage, without the energy, you can not find a good path or a new path, and you can not create a new career. (改革开放胆子要大一些,敢于试验,不能像小脚女人一样。看准了的,就大胆地试,大胆地闯。深圳的重要经验就是敢闯。没有一点闯的精神,没有一点“冒”的精神,没有一股气呀、劲呀,就走不出一条好路,走不出一条新路,就干不出新的事业)

During the visit, Deng wished that Guangdong Province would catch up with the "Four Asian Tigers" in terms of economic development within 20 years.[2][14][15] Deng's visit also saved China's capital market, especially the two newly established stock exchanges: the Shanghai Stock Exchange (since November 1990) and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange (since December 1990).[12][33][34][35] Deng pointed out that:[35][36]

It’ll take careful study to determine whether stocks and the stock market are good for socialism or not, or whether they only belong to capitalism. This also means that we must first try it out! (证券、股票,这些东西究竟好不好,有没有危险,是不是资本市场独有的东西,社会主义能不能用?允许看,但要坚决地试)

Zhuhai[edit]

On January 23, Deng set off for Zhuhai, another special economic zone in Guangdong Province.[2] In Zhuhai, Deng emphasized to several military leaders of the People's Liberation Army including Yang Shangkun, Liu Huaqing and Yang Baibing, that "those who do not promote reform should be brought down from their leadership positions".[13] He also paid visits to several high-tech companies in Zhuhai, where he underlined the importance of science and technology and called on Chinese overseas students to come back to their motherland.[2] Deng left the area on January 29.[2]

Deng visited the Nanpu Bridge of Shanghai on February 7, 1992.

Shanghai[edit]

On January 31, Deng arrived in Shanghai, where he celebrated the 1992 Chinese New Year.[2]

In Shanghai, Deng visited the Nanpu Bridge on February 7, and on the next day he toured the Huangpu River on a cruise ship, accompanied by local officials including Huang Ju and Wu Bangguo.[2] Together with Yang Shangkun and others, Deng visited several high-tech companies in Shanghai beginning February 10.[2] On February 18, he spent his night of the Lantern Festival in the shopping district of Nanjing Road.[2]

Deng left Shanghai for Beijing on February 23, completing his southern tour.[2] He was instrumental in the development of Shanghai's Pudong New Area, revitalizing the city as one of China's economic hubs.

Notable remarks[edit]

On his tour, Deng made various speeches which generated large local support for his reformist platform. He stressed the importance of economic reform in China, and criticized those who were against further reform and opening up. Although there was a debate on whether or not Deng actually said it,[37] his perceived catchphrase, "To get rich is glorious (致富光荣)" unleashed a wave of personal entrepreneurship that continues to drive China's economy today.[38] He also stated that the "leftist" elements of the Communist Party were much more dangerous than "rightist" ones.[2]

Some of the notable remarks from Deng Xiaoping during his southern tour included:

  • "I don't care if the cat is black or white, so long as it catches mice (不管黑猫白猫,捉到老鼠就是好猫)", which was originally published by Deng in the 1960s but became widely known after the tour.[10][39]
  • "Development is of overriding importance (发展才是硬道理)”[16]
  • "[The Shenzhen government] should be bolder in carrying out the Reforms and Opening-up, dare to make experiments and should not act as women with bound feet (改革开放胆子要大一些,敢于试验,不能像小脚女人一样)"[17][18]
  • "Those who do not promote reform should be brought down from their leadership positions (谁不改革,谁就下台)"[13][40]
  • "We should do more and engage less in empty talk (多干实事,少说空话)"[41][42]
  • "Had it not been for the achievements of the reform and the open policy, we could have not weathered June 4th...Why was it that our country could remain stable after the June 4th Incident? It was precisely because we had carried out the reform and the open policy."[43]

Effects[edit]

Shenzhen Stock Exchange

Deng's new wave of policy rhetoric gave way to a new political storm between factions in the Politburo of the Chinese Communist Party. Jiang eventually sided with Deng in April 1992, and the national media finally reported Deng's southern tour almost two months after it completed.[31] Observers suggest that Jiang's submission to Deng's policies had solidified his position as Deng's heir apparent. Behind the scenes, Deng's southern tour aided his reformist allies' such as Shanghai party committee secretary Zhu Rongji climb to the apex of national power, and permanently changed China's direction toward economic development.[44] In addition, the eventual outcome of the southern tour proved that Deng was still the most powerful man in China.[45]

Deng's southern tour saved China's capital market and protected the two stock exchanges in China: the Shanghai Stock Exchange (since November 1990) and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange (since December 1990).[12][33][34][35] Moreover, his insistence on economic openness aided in the phenomenal growth levels of the coastal areas, especially the "Golden Triangle" region surrounding Shanghai. Deng reiterated the general policy that 'some areas must get rich before others', and asserted that the wealth from coastal regions will eventually be transferred to aid economic construction inland. The theory, however, faced numerous challenges when put into practice, as provincial governments moved to protect their own interests.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Deng Xiaoping's Southern Tour" (PDF). Berkshire Publishing Group LLC. 2009.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "邓小平92南巡背景揭秘,有两句话记者不敢见报". People's Daily (in Chinese). 13 January 2012. Archived from the original on 10 July 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  3. ^ "1992年邓小平南巡珍贵历史照片(组图)". People's Daily (in Chinese). 24 January 2014. Archived from the original on 21 July 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  4. ^ "鄧南巡講話20週年 官方低調". BBC (in Chinese). Retrieved 1 May 2020.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  5. ^ "邓小平南巡讲话(全文)". Phoenix New Media (in Chinese). 31 December 2011. Archived from the original on 2 June 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  6. ^ a b Ma, Damien (23 January 2012). "After 20 Years of 'Peaceful Evolution,' China Faces Another Historic Moment". The Atlantic. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  7. ^ "The inside story of the propaganda fightback for Deng's reforms". South China Morning Post. 14 November 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  8. ^ a b Keck, Zachary. "Tiananmen: 'Deng Xiaoping Clearly Wanted to Make a Statement'". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 5 June 2014. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
  9. ^ "'How my father's speeches saved Chinese economic reform': Deng Xiaoping's daughter pays tribute". South China Morning Post. 21 August 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  10. ^ a b c "The great pragmatist: Deng Xiaoping". The Guardian. 18 December 2008. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  11. ^ Zhao, Suisheng (1993). "Deng Xiaoping's Southern Tour: Elite Politics in Post-Tiananmen China". Asian Survey. 33 (8): 739–756. doi:10.2307/2645086. ISSN 0004-4687. JSTOR 2645086.
  12. ^ a b c Walter, Carl E. (2014). "Was Deng Xiaoping Right? An Overview of China's Equity Markets". Journal of Applied Corporate Finance. 26 (3): 8–19. doi:10.1111/jacf.12075. ISSN 1745-6622. S2CID 153763863.
  13. ^ a b c Liang, Wei (24 July 2016). "邓小平92年南巡时讲话:谁反对改革就让谁睡觉去". Phoenix New Media (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 12 December 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  14. ^ a b Sun, Lena H. (28 May 1992). "FLEXIBLE 'SOCIALISM' FUELS CHINESE GROWTH". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  15. ^ a b "广东GDP总量今年将超亚洲四小龙平均水平". Sina Corp (in Chinese). 20 July 2007. Archived from the original on 25 August 2007. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  16. ^ a b "Factsheet on the Deng Xiaoping Marker" (PDF). National Archives of Singapore. 2010.
  17. ^ a b c Martinek, Madeleine (21 May 2018). Experimental Legislation in China between Efficiency and Legality: The Delegated Legislative Power of the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-77616-3.
  18. ^ a b c "改革开放胆子要大一些,敢于试验,不能像小脚女人一样". People's Daily (in Chinese). 19 August 2013. Archived from the original on 10 July 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  19. ^ "整个改革开放过程中都要反对腐败". People's Daily (in Chinese). 14 June 2016. Archived from the original on 11 July 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  20. ^ "对干部和共产党员来说,廉政建设要作为大事来抓". People's Daily (in Chinese). 19 January 2017. Archived from the original on 6 November 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  21. ^ Bao, Tong (4 June 2015). "鲍彤纪念六四,兼谈邓小平与中国的腐败". The New York Times (in Chinese). Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  22. ^ Tong, Bao (3 June 2015). "Opinion | How Deng Xiaoping Helped Create a Corrupt China". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  23. ^ Wang, Yuhua. "Analysis | How has Tiananmen changed China?". Washington Post. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  24. ^ "北京话题 - 南巡讲话助中国经济起飞但政治后遗症严重". Radio France Internationale (in Simplified Chinese). 2 April 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  25. ^ Wu, Wei (22 December 2014). "80年代的政治改革为什么会失败?". The New York Times (in Chinese). Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  26. ^ a b c Wu, Guangxiang. "邓小平南方谈话的先声:"皇甫平"的"四论改革"". People's Daily. Archived from the original on 11 November 2020. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  27. ^ "Zhao Ziyang". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  28. ^ "Profile: Jiang Zemin". BBC News. 23 October 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  29. ^ "第十三届中央委员会第五次全体会议公报". People's Daily (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  30. ^ a b "The inside story of the propaganda fightback for Deng's reforms". South China Morning Post. 14 November 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  31. ^ a b "东方风来满眼春". People's Daily (in Chinese). 27 March 2018. Archived from the original on 4 June 2020. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  32. ^ "邓小平92南巡背景揭秘 有两句话记者不敢见报". Phoenix New Media. 19 January 2012. Archived from the original on 6 November 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  33. ^ a b ""坚决地试"中国股市发轫之端". People's Daily (in Chinese). 23 August 2004. Archived from the original on 2 June 2020. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  34. ^ a b Tao, Yitao; Lu, Zhiguo (5 October 2018). Special Economic Zones and China's Development Path. Springer. ISBN 978-981-10-3220-2.
  35. ^ a b c "邓小平南巡讲话:奠定中国证券市场发展的春天". China Reform. 18 December 2013. Archived from the original on 20 July 2020. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  36. ^ "An old man's ups and downs in China's stock market". Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the Republic of Kenya. Archived from the original on 4 June 2020. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  37. ^ Iritani, Evelyn (9 September 2004). "Great Idea but Don't Quote Him; Deng Xiaoping's famous one-liner started China on the way to capitalism. The only problem is there's no proof he actually said it". Los Angeles Times. p. A1. Archived from the original on 18 November 2007. Retrieved 13 March 2010 – via Pqasb.pqarchiver.com.
  38. ^ "The Man Who Re-Invented China | Origins: Current Events in Historical Perspective". Ohio State University. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  39. ^ "邓小平同志"黑猫白猫论"背后的故事". People's Daily (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  40. ^ Shan, Shaojie (16 October 2019). "软禁中的谈话:听赵紫阳谈改革". The New York Times (in Chinese). Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  41. ^ "We should do more and engage less in empty talk - 1992". International Institute of Social History. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  42. ^ Catrina, Schlager; Dongxiao, Chen; Alexander, Rosenplanter; Haibing, Zhang (28 November 2016). China And The Group 20: The Interplay Between A Rising Power And An Emerging Institution. World Scientific. ISBN 978-1-938134-91-3.
  43. ^ Small, Andrew (15 November 2022). No Limits: The Inside Story of China's War with the West. Melville House. p. 194. ISBN 978-1-68589-015-5. OCLC 1352001415.
  44. ^ "Zhu Rongji on the Record". Brookings. 14 July 2016. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  45. ^ Zhao, Suisheng (1993). "Deng Xiaoping's Southern Tour: Elite Politics in Post-Tiananmen China". Asian Survey. 33 (8): 739–756. doi:10.2307/2645086. ISSN 0004-4687. JSTOR 2645086.

Further reading[edit]