Holodomor denial

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Holodomor denial (Ukrainian: заперечення Голодомору, romanizedzaperechennia Holodomoru) is the claim that the Holodomor, a large-scale, man-made famine in Soviet Ukraine from 1932–1933,[1] did not occur,[2][3][4][5] or (especially since evidence of its existence became public in the 1980s) the diminishment of its scale and significance,[6] including the claim that it was not a genocide.[7]

Officially, the Soviet Union denied the famine and suppressed information about it from its very beginning until the 1980s. This was also circulated by some Western journalists and intellectuals.[3][8][9] It was echoed at the time of the famine by some prominent Western journalists, including The New York Times' Walter Duranty.

Holodomor denial is a form of historical negationism, and as such, it is subject to legal punishment in many countries.[10]

Soviet Union[edit]

Cover-up of the famine[edit]

Soviet head-of-state Mikhail Kalinin responded to Western offers of food by telling of "political cheats who offer to help the starving Ukraine," and commented, "Only the most decadent classes are capable of producing such cynical elements."[5][11] In an interview with Gareth Jones in March 1933, Soviet Foreign Minister Maxim Litvinov stated, "Well, there is no famine", and went on to say: "You must take a longer view. The present hunger is temporary. In writing books you must have a longer view. It would be difficult to describe it as hunger."

On instructions from Litvinov, Boris Skvirsky, embassy counselor of the recently opened Soviet Embassy in the United States, published a letter on 3 January 1934, in response to a pamphlet about the famine.[12] In his letter, Skvirsky stated that the idea that the Soviet government was "deliberately killing the population of the Ukraine" "wholly grotesque." He claimed that the Ukrainian population had been increasing at an annual rate of 2 percent during the preceding five years and asserted that the death rate in Ukraine "was the lowest of that of any of the constituent republics composing the Soviet Union", concluding that it "was about 35 percent lower than the pre-war death rate of tsarist days."[13]

Mention of the famine was criminalized, punishable with a five-year term in the Gulag labor camps. Blaming the authorities was punishable by death.[5] William Henry Chamberlin was a Moscow correspondent of The Christian Science Monitor for 10 years; in 1934 he was reassigned to the Far East. After he left the Soviet Union he wrote his account of the situation in Ukraine and North Caucasus (Poltava, Bila Tserkva, and Kropotkin). Chamberlin later published a couple of books: Russia's Iron Age and The Ukraine: A Submerged Nation.[14][15] He wrote in the Christian Science Monitor in 1934 that "the evidence of a large-scale famine was so overwhelming, was so unanimously confirmed by the peasants that the most 'hard-boiled' local officials could say nothing in denial."[16]

Falsification and suppression of evidence[edit]

The true number of dead was concealed. At the Kyiv Medical Inspectorate, for example, the actual number of corpses, 9,472, was recorded as only 3,997.[17] The GPU was directly involved in the destruction of actual birth and death records, as well as the fabrication of false information to cover up information regarding the causes and scale of death in Ukraine.[18]

The January 1937 census, the first in 11 years, was intended to reflect the achievements of Stalin's rule. Those collecting the data, senior statisticians with decades of experience, were arrested and executed, including three successive heads of the Soviet Central Statistical Administration. The census data itself was locked away for half a century in the Russian State Archive of the Economy.[19]

Soviet campaign in the 1980s[edit]

The Soviet Union denied the existence of the famine until its 50th anniversary, in 1983, when the worldwide Ukrainian community coordinated famine remembrance. The Ukrainian diaspora exerted significant pressure on the media and various governments, including the United States and Canada, to raise the issue of the famine with the government of the Soviet Union.

In February 1983, Alexander Yakovlev, the Soviet Ambassador to Canada, in a secret analysis "Some thoughts regarding the advertising of the Ukrainian SSR Pavilion held at the International Exposition "Man and the world" held in Canada" put forward a prognosis for a campaign being prepared to bring international attention to the Ukrainian Holodomor which was spearheaded by the Ukrainian nationalist community. Yakovlev proposed a list of concrete proposals to "neutralise the enemy ideological actions of the Ukrainian bourgeoise nationalists".[20]

By April 1983, the bureau of the Soviet Novosti Press Agency had prepared and sent out a special press release denying the occurrence of the 1933 famine in Ukraine. This press release was sent to every major newspaper, radio and television station as well as University in Canada. It was also sent out to all members of the Canadian parliament.[21]

A Holodomor monument in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

On 5 July 1983 the Soviet Embassy issued an official note of protest regarding the planned opening of a monument in memory of the victims of the Holodomor in Edmonton[22] attempting to smear the opening of the monument.

In October 1983, the World Congress of Ukrainians led by V-Yu Danyliv attempted to launch an international tribunal to judge the facts regarding the Holodomor. At the 4th World Congress of Ukrainians held in December 1983, a resolution was passed to form such an international tribunal.[22]

Former Ukrainian president Leonid Kravchuk recalled that he was responsible for countering the Ukrainian Diaspora's public education campaign of the 1980s, marking 50 years of the Soviet terror famine in 1983: " In the early 1980s many publications began appearing in the Western press on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of one of the most horrific tragedies in the history of our people. A counter-propaganda machine was put into motion, and I was one of its wheels." The first book on the famine was published in Ukraine only in 1989, after a major shake-up that occurred in the Communist Party of Ukraine when Volodymyr Ivashko replaced Volodymyr Shcherbytsky and the Political Bureau decided that such book could be published. However, even in this book, "the most terrifying photographs were not approved for print, and their number was reduced from 1,500 to around 350."[23]

Ultimately, as President of Ukraine, Kravchuk exposed the official cover-up attempts and came out in support of recognizing the famine, named the "Holodomor", as genocide.

Denial outside the Soviet Union[edit]

Walter Duranty and The New York Times[edit]

According to Patrick Wright,[24] Robert C. Tucker,[25] and Eugene Lyons,[26] one of the first Western Holodomor deniers was Walter Duranty, who won the 1932 Pulitzer prize in journalism, in the category of correspondence, for his dispatches on Soviet Union and the working out of the Five Year Plan.[27] In 1932, he wrote in the pages of The New York Times that "any report of a famine in Russia is today an exaggeration or malignant propaganda".[28] He said that while there was a bad harvest, and consequent food shortages, it did not rise to the level of a famine and that "there is no actual starvation or deaths from starvation, but there is widespread mortality from diseases due to malnutrition."[26][29] Some have disputed the validity of his distinction between death from starvation and death from disease that is exacerbated by malnutrition.[26]

In his reports, Duranty downplayed the impact of food shortages in Ukraine. As Duranty wrote in a dispatch from Moscow in March 1933, "These conditions are bad, but there is no famine" and "But—to put it brutally—you can't make an omelette without breaking eggs."[30][29]

Duranty also wrote denunciations of those who wrote about the famine, accusing them of being reactionaries and anti-Bolshevik propagandists. In August 1933, Cardinal Theodor Innitzer of Vienna called for relief efforts, stating that the famine in Ukraine was claiming lives "likely... numbered... by the millions" and driving those still alive to infanticide and cannibalism. The New York Times, 20 August 1933, reported Innitzer's charge and published an official Soviet denial: "in the Soviet Union we have neither cannibals nor cardinals". The next day, the Times added Duranty's own denial.

British journalist and spy Malcolm Muggeridge, who went to live in the Soviet Union in 1932 as a reporter for the Manchester Guardian and became a fierce anti-communist, said of Duranty that he "always enjoyed his company; there was something vigorous, vivacious, preposterous, about his unscrupulousness which made his persistent lying somehow absorbing."[31] Muggeridge characterised Duranty as "the greatest liar of any journalist I have met in 50 years of journalism."[32]

An international campaign for the retraction of Duranty's Pulitzer Prize was launched in 2003 by the Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Association and its supporters. The newspaper, however, declined to relinquish it, arguing that Duranty received the prize for a series of reports about the Soviet Union, eleven of which were published in June 1931. In 1990, the Times published an editorial calling his work "some of the worst reporting to appear in this newspaper."[33]

By prominent visitors to the Soviet Union[edit]

Prominent writers from Ireland and Britain who visited the Soviet Union in 1934, such as George Bernard Shaw and H. G. Wells, are also on record as denying the existence of the famine in Ukraine.[4][34]

Another famine denier was Sir John Maynard.[35] In 1934 the British Foreign Office in the House of Lords stated that there was no evidence to support the allegations against the Soviet government regarding the famine in Ukraine, based on the testimony of Maynard, who had visited Ukraine in the summer of 1933 and rejected "tales of famine-genocide propagated by the Ukrainian Nationalists".[citation needed]

During a visit to Ukraine carried out between 26 August – 9 September 1933, former French Prime Minister Édouard Herriot, said that Soviet Ukraine was "like a garden in full bloom".[2] Herriot declared to the press that there was no famine in Ukraine, that he did not see any trace of it, and that this showed adversaries of the Soviet Union were spreading the rumour. "When one believes that Ukraine is devastated by famine, allow me to shrug my shoulders", he declared. The 13 September 1933 issue of Pravda was able to write that Herriot "categorically contradicted the lies of the bourgeoisie press in connection with a famine in the USSR."[36] It was alleged by anti-communist activist Harry Lang, who claimed to have visited Ukraine at the same time, that Herriot was shown a carefully stage-managed version of Ukraine that hid effects of famine and poverty.[37][36]

Douglas Tottle[edit]

In the 1980s, the union organizer and journalist Douglas Tottle with the help of Soviet authorities[38] wrote a book alleging that the famine in Ukraine was not genocide,[7] under the title "Fraud, Famine and Ukrainian Fascism", to be published in Soviet Ukraine. However, before final publication, reviewers of the book in Kyiv insisted that the name of the book be changed, claiming "Ukrainian fascism never existed".[39][40] Tottle refused this name change, and as a result the book publication was delayed by several years.[citation needed]

In 1987, Tottle published the book in Toronto, Canada as Fraud, Famine, and Fascism: the Ukrainian Genocide Myth from Hitler to Harvard[41] through Progress Publishers. In a review of Tottle's book in the Ukrainian Canadian Magazine, published by the Association of United Ukrainian Canadians, Wilfred Szczesny wrote: "Members of the general public who want to know about the famine, its extent and causes, and about the motives and techniques of those who would make this tragedy into something other than what it was will find Tottle's work invaluable" (The Ukrainian Canadian, April 1988, p. 24), on which historian Roman Serbyn commented that "in the era of glasnost, Szczesny could have rendered his readers no greater disservice".[7] Some of Tottle's material appeared in a 1988 article in the Village Voice, "In Search of a Soviet Holocaust: A 55-Year-Old Famine Feeds the Right".[42]

In 1988, the nonprofit World Congress of Free Ukrainians held an International Commission of Inquiry Into the 1932–33 Famine in Ukraine to establish whether the famine existed and its cause. Tottle's book was examined during the Brussels sitting of the commission,[43] held between 23–27 May 1988, with testimony from various expert witnesses. The commission president Professor Jacob Sundberg claimed that Tottle received assistance from the Soviet government, based on information in the book that he felt would not be easily publicly available.[44]

Modern politics and law[edit]

Background[edit]

The issue of the Holodomor has been a point of contention between Russia and Ukraine, as well as within Ukrainian politics. According to opinion polls, Russia has experienced an increase in pro-Stalin sentiments since the year 2000,[45] with over half viewing Stalin favourably in 2015.[46] Since independence, Ukrainian governments have passed a number of laws dealing with the Holodomor and the Soviet past.

By 2009, Holodomor denial was a matter of Russian government policy, and the subject of its disinformation operations.[47]: 162  The Russian government does not recognize the famine as an act of genocide against Ukrainians, viewing it rather as a "tragedy" that affected the Soviet Union as a whole, while current Russian President Vladimir Putin denies the genocide ever happened.[48] A 2008 letter from Russian president Dmitry Medvedev to Ukrainian president Viktor Yushchenko asserted that "the tragic events of the 1930s are being used in Ukraine in order to achieve instantaneous and conformist political goals."[49]

Denial literature[edit]

English-language publications are catalogued according to Library of Congress Subject Headings distinguishing Holodomor denial ("works that discuss the diminution of the scale and significance of the Ukrainian Famine of 1932-1933 or the assertion that it did not occur."),[50] and Holodomor denial literature ("Works that make such assertions").[51]

In 2006, the All-Ukrainian Public Association Intelligentsia of Ukraine for Socialism published a pamphlet titled Mif o golodomore (The Myth of the Holodomor) by G. S. Tkachenko. The pamphlet claimed that Ukrainian nationalists and the US government were responsible for creating the "myth". Russian publicist Yuri Mukhin has published a book titled Klikushi Golodomora (Hysterical Women of the Holodomor), dismissing Holodomor as "Russophobia" and "a trump card of the Ukrainian Nazis." Sigizmund Mironin's "Golodomor" na Rusi (The "Holodomor" in Rus') argued that the cause of the famine was not Stalin's policies, but rather the chaos engendered by the New Economic Policy.[52]

Sputnik News, a Russian state media outlet, ran an article denying the severity and causes of the famine in Ukraine.[53]

Laws against denial[edit]

Ukraine's 2006 Law On the Holodomor of 1932-1933 in Ukraine [uk] makes it illegal to publicly deny the Holodomor, recognizing it as an insult to the memory of victims and a humiliation of the dignity of the Ukrainian people.[54]

In November 2022, Germany recognized the Holodomor as a genocide,[55] at the same time as it amended a law to criminalize the approval, denial, and "gross trivialization" of war crimes and instances of genocide in a new paragraph 5 of the German Criminal Code, the Strafgesetzbuch, section 130.[56][57]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Execution by Hunger: The Hidden Holocaust pp xv By Miron Dolot Published by W. W. Norton & Company, 1985 ISBN 0-393-30416-7, ISBN 978-0-393-30416-9
  2. ^ a b Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Panné, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stéphane Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-674-07608-7, pages 159-160
  3. ^ a b Richard Pipes, Russia Under the Bolshevik Regime, Vintage books, Random House Inc., New York, 1995, ISBN 0-394-50242-6, pages 235-236.
  4. ^ a b Edvard Radzinsky Stalin: The First In-depth Biography Based on Explosive New Documents from Russia's Secret Archives, Anchor, (1997) ISBN 0-385-47954-9, pages 256-259. According to Radzinsky, Stalin "had achieved the impossible: he had silenced all the talk of hunger... Millions were dying, but the nation hymned the praises of collectivization".
  5. ^ a b c Robert Conquest (2000). Reflections on a Ravaged Century (1st ed.). New York City, London: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 96. ISBN 0-393-04818-7. OL 24766940M. Wikidata Q108386870.
  6. ^ The Library of Congress. "Holodomor denial, LC Linked Data Service: Authorities and Vocabularies". Library of Congress. Retrieved 16 January 2023.
  7. ^ a b c Roman Serbyn (1989). "The Last Stand of the Ukrainian Famine-Genocide Deniers". infoukes.com. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
  8. ^ "Famine denial". The Ukrainian Weekly. 14 July 2002. Archived from the original on 24 February 2021. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
  9. ^ Dinah Shelton (2005). Encyclopedia of genocide and crimes against humanity. Macmillan Reference. p. 1055. ISBN 978-0-02-865850-6. Retrieved 5 November 2015. The Soviet Union dismissed all references to the famine as anti-Soviet propaganda. Denial of the famine declined after the Communist Party lost power and the Soviet empire disintegrated.
  10. ^ Wierczyńska, Karolina (2020). "The Punishment of Negationism in the Experience of Central, Eastern, and Southern European States. Summary of the Second Day of the Conference". In Grzebyk, Patrycja (ed.). Responsibility for negation of international crimes. Translated by Matuszczak, Mateusz. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Instytutu Wymiaru Sprawiedliwości. pp. 305–306. ISBN 978-83-66344-43-3. OCLC 1318993956.
  11. ^ Conquest, Robert (30 July 1999). "How Liberals Funked It". Hoover Digest (3). Retrieved 4 November 2015.
  12. ^ Carynnyk, Marco (25 September 1983). "The New York Times and the Great Famine, Part III". The Ukrainian Weekly. LI (39). Archived from the original on 29 August 2005.
  13. ^ New York Times, as quoted in James E. Mace, "Collaboration in the suppression of the Ukrainian famine" (paper delivered at a conference on "Recognition and Denial of Genocide and Mass Killing in the 20th Century", held in New York City on 13 November 1987), The Ukrainian Weekly, 10 January 1988, No. 2, Vol. LVI
  14. ^ William Henry Chamberlin (1944). The Ukraine: A Submerged Nation. Macmillan. OL 6478239M.
  15. ^ "What Is the Ukraine Famine Disaster of 1932–1933?". semp.us. 2 January 2005. Archived from the original on 9 November 2007.
  16. ^ Chamberlin, William Henry (20 March 1983) [1934]. "Famine proves potent weapon in Soviet policy" (PDF). The Ukrainian Weekly. 51 (12): 6. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012: Reprint of original article dated 29 May 1934{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  17. ^ Robert Conquest The Dragons of Expectation. Reality and Delusion in the Course of History, W.W. Norton and Company (2004), ISBN 0-393-05933-2, page 102.
  18. ^ Boriak, Hennadii (Fall 2001). "The publication of sources on the history of the 1932-1933 famine-genocide: history, current state, and prospects". Harvard Ukrainian Studies 25 (3-4): 167–186.
  19. ^ Catherine Merridale, "The 1937 Census and the Limits of Stalinist Rule" Historical Journal 39, 1996
  20. ^ Serhiychuk, Volodymyr Ivanovych (2006). Як нас морили голодом 1932-1933 [How we were exhausted by Starvation 1932-1933] (in Ukrainian) (3rd ed.). Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Centre for Ukrainian Studies. p. 322. ISBN 978-966-2911-07-7.
  21. ^ Сергійчук В. Як нас морили Голодом 1932-1933 - Київський Національний Університет, Київ, 2006 с.323 (In Ukrainian) Serhiychuk, V. How we were tired by Famine 1932-33 - Kyiv University, Kyiv, 2006 page 323
  22. ^ a b Serhiĭchuk, Volodymyr (2006). Як нас морили Голодом 1932—1933 [How they murdered us by Famine 1932–1933]. Kyiv: Kyiv National University. pp. 323–325. ISBN 966-2911-07-3.
  23. ^ Kravchuk, Leonid Mayemo te, shcho mayemo: spohady i rozdumy, Kyiv, 2002, Stolittya (392 p.) ISBN 966-95952-8-2, pp. 44-46,
  24. ^ Wright, Patrick (2007). Iron Curtain. Oxford University Press. pp. 306, 307. ISBN 978-0-19-923150-8. He (Duranty) had become creatures of the Soviet censors
  25. ^ Tucker, Robert (1992). Stalin in Power. Norton & Company. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-393-30869-3.
  26. ^ a b c Lyons, Eugene (1991). "The Press Corps Conceals a Famine". Assignment in Utopia. Transaction Publishers. pp. 572, 573. ISBN 978-0-88738-856-9.
  27. ^ "Correspondence between Markian Pelech and the Board of the Pulitzer Prizes regarding Walter Duranty's 1932 Pulitzer Prize" Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine (30 December 2002 – 28 April 2003)
  28. ^ Duranty, Walter (24 August 1933). "FAMINE TOLL HEAVY IN SOUTHERN RUSSIA: Death Rate During Last Year Has Trebled—Food Supply Now Held Assured. BREAD PRICE EXPLAINED Increase in Moscow Reported as Part of Move to End the Ration System There. FAMINE TOLL HIGH IN SOUTH RUSSIA". New York Times. Vol. 82, no. 27606 (Late City ed.). p. 1, 9.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  29. ^ a b Duranty, Walter (31 March 1933). "RUSSIANS HUNGRY, BUT NOT STARVING: Deaths From Diseases Due to Malnutrition High, Yet the Soviet Is Entrenched. LARGER CITIES HAVE FOOD Ukraine, North Caucasus and Lower Volga Regions Suffer From Shortages. KREMLIN'S 'DOOM' DENIED Russians and Foreign Observers In Country See No Ground for Predictions of Disaster". New York Times. Vol. 82, no. 27460 (Late City ed.). p. 13.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  30. ^ "New York Times Statement About 1932 Pulitzer Prize Awarded to Walter Duranty". The New York Times Company. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
  31. ^ Muggeridge, Malcolm: The Green Stick: Chronicles of Wasted Time Volume I Chapter 5 (1972).
  32. ^ Robert Conquest. The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine Oxford University Press (1987), ISBN 0-19-505180-7, page 320. [1]
  33. ^ Meyer, Karl E. (24 June 1990). "The Editorial Notebook; Trenchcoats, Then and Now". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  34. ^ "Stalin-Wells talk / the verbatim record and a discussion by G.B. Shaw, H.G. Wells, J.M. Keynes, E. Toller and others". Monash University. 2007. Archived from the original on 2 September 2007.
  35. ^ Shkandrij, Myroslav (2019). Revolutionary Ukraine, 1917-2017 : history's flashpoints and today's memory wars (1st ed.). New York. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-429-31948-8. OCLC 1111577641.
  36. ^ a b Thevenin, Etienne (29 June 2005). France, Germany and Austria: Facing the famine of 1932-1933 in Ukraine (PDF). James Mace Memorial Panel, IAUS Congress, Donetsk, Ukraine. p. 8. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
  37. ^ Robert Conquest (2000). Reflections on a Ravaged Century (1st ed.). New York City, London: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 122. ISBN 0-393-04818-7. OL 24766940M. Wikidata Q108386870.
  38. ^ Applebaum, Anne (2017). Red Famine: Stalin's War on Ukraine (1 ed.). New York: Doubleday. p. 338. ISBN 9780385538855.
  39. ^ Сергійчук В. Як нас морили Голодом 1932-1933 - Київський Національний Університет, Київ, 2006 с.324 (In Ukrainian) Serhiychuk, V. How we were tired by Famine 1932-33 - Kyiv University, Kyiv, 2006 page 324
  40. ^ In his book, Searching for place, Lubomyr Luciuk commented: "For a particularly base example of famine-denial literature, see Tottle, Fraud, famine, and fascism...", see Lubomyr Luciuk, Searching for place: Ukrainian displaced persons, Canada, and the migration of memory, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2000, p. 413. ISBN 0-8020-4245-7
  41. ^ Douglas Tottle (1987). Fraud, famine, and fascism: the Ukrainian genocide myth from Hitler to Harvard. Toronto: Progress Books. ISBN 978-0-919396-51-7. Archived from the original on 11 April 2005. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  42. ^ Serbyn, Roman. "Competing Memories of Communist and Nazi Crimes in Ukraine" (PDF). Chair of Ukrainian Studies, University of Ottawa. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
  43. ^ Sundberg, Jacob W.F. (10 May 1990). "International Commission of Inquiry Into the 1932–33 Famine in Ukraine. The Final Report (1990)". ioir.se. Archived from the original on 4 December 2004. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
  44. ^ A.J.Hobbins, Daniel Boyer, Seeking Historical Truth: the International Commission of Inquiry into the 1932-33 Famine in the Ukraine, Dalhousie Law Journal, 2001, Vol 24, page 166
  45. ^ Monaghan, Jennifer (31 March 2015). "Was Stalin's Terror Justified? Poll Shows More Russians Think It Was". Moscow Times. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  46. ^ "More Than Half of Russians See Stalin in a Positive Light". Moscow Times. 20 January 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  47. ^ Dobczansky, Jurij (2009). "Affirmation and Denial: Holodomor-related Resources Recently Acquired by the Library of Congress". Holodomor Studies. 1 (2): 155–164.
  48. ^ "Russia still denies the Holodomor was 'genocide'". 19 June 2022.
  49. ^ Kucera, Joshua (23 February 2009). "Is Ukraine Next?". Slate. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  50. ^ Congress, The Library of. "Holodomor denial - LC Linked Data Service: Authorities and Vocabularies | Library of Congress, from LC Linked Data Service: Authorities and Vocabularies (Library of Congress)". id.loc.gov. Retrieved 13 December 2022.
  51. ^ Congress, The Library of. "Holodomor denial literature - LC Linked Data Service: Authorities and Vocabularies | Library of Congress, from LC Linked Data Service: Authorities and Vocabularies (Library of Congress)". id.loc.gov. Retrieved 13 December 2022.
  52. ^ Dobczansky, Jurij (2009). "Affirmation and Denial: Holodomor-related Resources Recently Acquired by the Library of Congress". Holodomor Studies. 1 (2 [Summer-Autumn 2009]): 155–164.
  53. ^ Young, Cathy (31 October 2015). "Russia Denies Stalin's Killer Famine". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  54. ^ Про Голодомор 1932-1933 років в Україні [On the Holodomor of 1932–1933 in Ukraine]. Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 13 December 2022.
  55. ^ Sitnikova, Iryna (30 November 2022). Німеччина визнала Голодомор геноцидом українського народу [Germany recognized the Holodomor with the genocide of the Ukrainian people]. Hromadske. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  56. ^ "Germany seeks to declare Ukraine's Holodomor a genocide". DW. 25 November 2022. Retrieved 13 December 2022.
  57. ^ "Germany criminalizes denying war crimes, genocide". DW. 25 November 2022. Retrieved 13 December 2022.

Further reading[edit]

Video resources[edit]

  • Harvest of Despair (1983), produced by the Ukrainian Canadian Research and Documentation Centre.

External links[edit]