Denis Healey

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For the Irish politician, see Denis Healy (Irish politician).
The Right Honourable
The Lord Healey
Denis Healey.jpg
Healey in 1974
Deputy Leader of the Labour Party
In office
4 November 1980 – 2 October 1983
Leader Michael Foot
Preceded by Michael Foot
Succeeded by Roy Hattersley
Shadow Foreign Secretary
In office
8 December 1980 – 13 July 1987
Leader Michael Foot
Neil Kinnock
Preceded by Peter Shore
Succeeded by Gerald Kaufman
In office
20 June 1970 – 19 April 1972
Leader Harold Wilson
Preceded by Sir Alec Douglas-Home
Succeeded by James Callaghan
In office
11 October 1959 – 2 November 1961
Leader Hugh Gaitskell
Preceded by Aneurin Bevan
Succeeded by Harold Wilson
Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
4 May 1979 – 8 December 1980
Leader James Callaghan
Preceded by Geoffrey Howe
Succeeded by Peter Shore
In office
19 April 1972 – 4 March 1974
Leader Harold Wilson
Preceded by Roy Jenkins
Succeeded by Robert Carr
Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
5 March 1974 – 4 May 1979
Prime Minister Harold Wilson
James Callaghan
Preceded by Anthony Barber
Succeeded by Sir Geoffrey Howe
Secretary of State for Defence
In office
16 October 1964 – 19 June 1970
Prime Minister Harold Wilson
Preceded by Peter Thorneycroft
Succeeded by The Lord Carrington
Shadow Secretary of State for Defence
In office
1 April 1964 – 16 October 1964
Leader Harold Wilson
Preceded by Office Created
Succeeded by Peter Thorneycroft
Member of Parliament
for Leeds East
In office
26 May 1955 – 9 April 1992
Preceded by Constituency Created
Succeeded by George Mudie
Member of Parliament
for Leeds South East
In office
14 February 1952 – 6 May 1955[1]
Preceded by James Milner
Succeeded by Alice Bacon
Personal details
Born Denis Winston Healey
(1917-08-30)30 August 1917
Mottingham, Kent, England
Died 3 October 2015(2015-10-03) (aged 98)
Alfriston, East Sussex, England
Political party Labour
Spouse(s) Edna Edmunds 1945–2010 (her death)
Alma mater Balliol College, Oxford
Military service
Allegiance  United Kingdom
Service/branch British Army
Years of service 1940–1945
Rank Major
Unit Royal Engineers

Second World War

Denis Winston Healey, Baron Healey,[2] CHMBEPC (30 August 1917 – 3 October 2015) was a British Labour Party politician who served as Secretary of State for Defence from 1964 to 1970 and Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1974 to 1979.

He was a Member of Parliament for 40 years (from 1952 until his retirement in 1992) and was the last surviving member of the cabinet formed by Harold Wilson after the Labour Party's victory in the 1964 general election. A major figure in the party, he was twice defeated in bids for the party leadership.

To the public at large, Healey became well known for his bushy eyebrows and his creative turns of phrase.

Early life[edit]

Healey was born in Mottingham, Kent, but moved with his family to Keighley in the West Riding of Yorkshire when he was aged five.[3] His parents were Winifred Mary (née Powell; 1889-1988) and William Healey (1886-1977). His middle name was in honour of Winston Churchill.[4]

Healey was one of two siblings. His father was an engineer who worked his way up from humble origins studying at night school. His paternal grandfather was a tailor from Enniskillen in Northern Ireland. Healey was educated at Bradford Grammar School. In 1936 he won an exhibition to Balliol College, Oxford to read Greats and where he became involved in Labour politics, although he was not active in the Oxford Union Society. At Oxford Healey joined the Communist Party in 1937 during the Great Purge but left in 1940 after the fall of France. Also at Oxford, Healey met future Conservative Prime Minister Edward Heath (then known as "Teddy"), whom he succeeded as president of Balliol College Junior Common Room, and who became a lifelong friend and political rival. Healey achieved a double first degree, awarded in 1940.

Second World War[edit]

After graduation, Healey served in the Second World War in the army initially as a gunner in the Royal Artillery but was commissioned as a second lieutenant in April 1941.[5] Serving with the Royal Engineers, he saw action in the North African campaign, the Allied invasion of Sicily and the Italian campaign, and was the military landing officer for the British assault brigade at Anzio. He was made an MBE in 1945.[6] Leaving the service with the rank of major after the war – he declined an offer to remain as a lieutenant colonel – Healey joined the Labour Party. Still in uniform, Healey gave a strongly left-wing speech to the Labour Party conference in 1945, shortly before the general election in which he narrowly failed to win the Conservative-held seat of Pudsey and Otley, doubling the Labour vote but losing by 1,651 votes.[7] Following the election, he was made secretary of the international department of the Labour Party, becoming a foreign policy adviser to Labour leaders and establishing contacts with socialists across Europe. From 1948 to 1960 he was a councillor for the Royal Institute of International Affairs and the International Institute for Strategic Studies from 1958 until 1961. He was a member of the Fabian Society executive from 1954 until 1961.

Political career[edit]

Early career[edit]

Healey was elected to the House of Commons as MP for Leeds South East at a by-election in February 1952,[8] with a majority of 7,000 votes, after the incumbent MP Major James Milner left the Commons to accept a peerage. Following constituency boundary changes, he was elected for Leeds East at the 1955 general election, holding that seat until he retired as an MP in 1992.

He was a moderate during the series of splits in the Labour Party in the 1950s. He was a supporter and friend of Hugh Gaitskell and helped persuade him not to support military action when the Suez Canal was unexpectedly seized by the Nasser regime in Egypt, resulting in the Suez Crisis.[9] When Gaitskell died in 1963, he was horrified at the idea of Gaitskell's volatile deputy, George Brown, leading Labour, saying "He was like immortal Jemima; when he was good he was very good but when he was bad he was horrid". He voted for James Callaghan in the first ballot and Harold Wilson in the second. Healey thought Wilson would unite the Labour Party and lead it to victory in the next general election. He didn't think Brown was capable of doing either. He was appointed Shadow Secretary of State for Defence after the creation of the position in 1964.

Defence Secretary[edit]

Following Labour's victory in the 1964 general election, Healey served as Secretary of State for Defence. He cut defence expenditure, scrapping the carrier HMS Centaur and the reconstructed HMS Victorious in 1967, cancelling the proposed CVA-01 fleet-carrier replacement and, just before Labour's defeat in 1970, downgrading HMS Hermes to a commando carrier. He also cancelled the production of the Hawker Siddeley P.1154 and HS 681 aircraft and, more controversially, both the production of the BAC TSR-2 and subsequent purchase of the F-111 in lieu. Of the scrapped Royal Navy carriers, Healey commented that to most ordinary seamen they were just "floating slums"[10] and "too vulnerable".[11] He continued postwar Conservative governments' reliance on strategic and tactical nuclear deterrence for the Navy, RAF and West Germany and supported the sale of advanced arms abroad, including to regimes such as those in Iran, Libya, Chile[12] and apartheid South Africa, to whom he supplied nuclear-capable Buccaneer S.2 strike bombers and approved a repeat order. This brought him into serious conflict with Wilson, who had, initially, supported the policy. Healey later said he had made the wrong decision on selling arms to South Africa.[9]

In January 1968, a few weeks after the devaluation of the pound, Wilson and Healey announced that the two large British fleet carriers HMS Ark Royal and HMS Eagle would be scrapped in 1972. They also announced that British troops would be withdrawn in 1971 from major military bases in South East Asia, "East of Aden", primarily in Malaysia and Singapore[13][14][15] as well as the Persian Gulf and the Maldives[16] (both of which are sited in the Indian Ocean), which is when the phrase "East of Suez" entered the vernacular. However Edward Heath sought to reverse this policy, and the forces were not fully withdrawn until 1976.

Healey also authorised the expulsion of Chagossians from the Chagos Archipelago and authorised the building of the United States military base at Diego Garcia. Following Labour's defeat in the 1970 general election, he became Shadow Defence Secretary.

Shadow Chancellor and Chancellor[edit]

Healey was appointed Shadow Chancellor in April 1972 after Roy Jenkins resigned in a row over the European Economic Community (Common Market). At the Labour Party conference on 1 October 1973, he said, "I warn you that there are going to be howls of anguish from those rich enough to pay over 75% on their last slice of earnings".[17] In a speech in Lincoln on 18 February 1974, reported in The Times the following day, Healey went further, promising he would "squeeze property speculators until the pips squeak" and said Lord Carrington, the Conservative Secretary of State for Energy, had made £10m profit from selling agricultural land at prices 30 to 60 times as high as it would command as farming land.[18] When accused by colleagues including Eric Heffer, left-wing MP for Liverpool Walton, of putting Labour's chances of winning the next election in jeopardy through his tax proposals, Healey said the party and the country must face the consequences of Labour's policy of the redistribution of income and wealth; "That is what our policy is, the party must face the realities of it".[19]

Healey became Chancellor of the Exchequer in March 1974 after Labour returned to power as a minority government. His tenure is sometimes divided into Healey Mark I and Healey Mark II.[20] The divide is marked by his decision, taken with Prime Minister James Callaghan, to seek an International Monetary Fund (IMF) loan and submit the British economy to IMF supervision. The loan was negotiated and agreed in November and December 1976, and announced in Parliament on 15 December 1976.[21][22] Within some parts of the Labour Party the transition from Healey Mark I (which had seen a proposal for a wealth tax) to Healey Mark II (associated with government-specified wage control) was regarded as a betrayal. Healey's policy of increasing benefits for the poor meant those earning over £4,000 per year would be taxed more heavily. His first budget was strongly progressive, with increases in food subsidies, pensions and other benefits.[23]

When Harold Wilson stood down as Leader of the Labour Party in 1976 Healey stood in the contest to elect the new leader, but only came fifth out of six candidates.

Shadow Cabinet and Deputy Leader[edit]

Labour lost the general election to the Conservatives (led by Margaret Thatcher) in May 1979, following the Winter of Discontent during which Britain had faced a large number of strikes. On 12 June 1979 Healey was appointed a Companion of Honour.[24]

When Jim Callaghan stepped down as Labour leader in November 1980, Healey was the favourite to win the Labour Party leadership election, decided by Labour MPs, but lost to Michael Foot. He seems to have taken the support of the right of the party for granted; in one notable incident, Healey was reputed to have told the right-wing Manifesto Group they must vote for him as they had "nowhere else to go". When Mike Thomas, the MP for Newcastle East defected to the Social Democratic Party (SDP), he said he had been tempted to send Healey a telegram saying he had found "somewhere else to go". Four Labour MPs who defected to the SDP in early 1981 later said they voted for Foot in order to give the Labour Party an unelectable left-wing leader, thus helping their newly established party.[25]

Healey was returned unopposed as deputy leader to Foot, but the next year was challenged by Tony Benn under the new election system, one in which individual members and trades unions voted alongside sitting member of parliament. The contest was seen as a battle for the soul of the Labour Party, and long debate over the summer of 1981 ended on 27 September with Healey winning by 50.4% to Benn's 49.6%. Healey's narrow majority can be attributed to the Transport and General Workers' Union (TGWU) delegation to the Labour Party conference. Ignoring its members, who had shown two-to-one majority support for Healey, it cast the union's block vote (the largest in the union section) for Benn. A significant factor in Benn's narrow loss, however, was the abstention of 20 MPs from the left-wing Tribune Group,[26] which split as a result. Healey attracted just enough support from other unions, constituency parties and Labour MPs to win.

Healey was Shadow Foreign Secretary during most of the 1980s, a job he coveted. He believed Foot was initially too willing to support military action after the Falkland Islands were invaded by Argentina in April 1982.[9] He accused Thatcher of "glorying in slaughter", and had to withdraw the remark (he later claimed he had meant to say "conflict").  Healey was retained in the shadow cabinet by Neil Kinnock, who succeeded Foot after the disastrous 1983 general election, when the Conservatives bolstered their majority and Labour suffered their worst general election result in decades.


His views on nuclear weapons conflicted with the unilateral nuclear disarmament policy of the Labour Party. After the 1987 general election, he retired from the Shadow Cabinet, and in 1992 stood down after 40 years as a Leeds MP. In that year he received a life peerage as Baron Healey, of Riddlesden in the County of West Yorkshire.[27] Healey was regarded by some – especially in the Labour Party – as "the best Prime Minister we never had".[28] He was a founding member of the Bilderberg Group.[29]

During an interview with Nick Clarke on BBC Radio 4, Healey was the first Labour politician to publicly declare his wish for the Labour leadership to pass to Tony Blair in 1994, following the death of John Smith. Healey later became critical of Blair. He publicly opposed Blair's decision to use military force in Kosovo, Afghanistan and Iraq.[9] In the spring of 2004, and again in 2005, he publicly called on Blair to stand down in favour of Gordon Brown. In July 2006 he argued, "Nuclear weapons are infinitely less important in our foreign policy than they were in the days of the Cold War", and, "I don't think we need nuclear weapons any longer".[30]

In March 2013 during an interview with the New Statesman, Healey said that if there was a referendum on British membership of the EU, he would vote to leave.[31] In May, he further said: "I wouldn't object strongly to leaving the EU. The advantages of being members of the union are not obvious. The disadvantages are very obvious. I can see the case for leaving – the case for leaving is stronger than for staying in".[32]

Following the death of Alan Campbell, Baron Campbell of Alloway in June 2013, Healey became the oldest sitting member of the House of Lords.[33] Following the death of John Freeman on 20 December 2014, Healey became the surviving former MP with the earliest date of first election, and the second-oldest surviving former MP, after Ronald Atkins.

Public image[edit]

Healey's notably bushy eyebrows and piercing wit earned him a favourable reputation with the public. When the media were not present, his humour was equally caustic but more risqué: "These fallacies [pronounced 'phalluses'] are rising up everywhere,"[citation needed] he retorted at a meeting of Leeds University Labour Society. The popular impressionist Mike Yarwood coined the catchphrase "Silly Billy", and incorporated it into his shows as a supposed "Healey-ism". Healey had never said it until that point, but he adopted it and used it frequently. Healey's direct speech made enemies. "At a meeting of the PLP I accused Ian Mikardo of being 'out of his tiny Chinese mind' – a phrase of the comedienne Hermione Gingold, with which I thought everyone was familiar. On the contrary, when it leaked to the press, the Chinese Embassy took it as an insult to the People's Republic."[34] The controversy led[citation needed] to a poor performance when he fought for the Labour leadership following Harold Wilson's resignation. He obtained 30 votes in the first ballot on 25 March, and 38 in the second on 30 March. He was eliminated from the election and supported James Callaghan in the final ballot on 5 April. Callaghan was elected as the new Prime Minister and leader of the Labour Party, and retained Healey as Chancellor.

His long-serving deputy at the Treasury, Joel Barnett, in response to a remark by a third party that "Denis Healey would sell his own grandmother", quipped, "No, he would get me to do it for him". On 14 June 1978, Healey likened being attacked by the mild-mannered Sir Geoffrey Howe in the House of Commons to being "savaged by a dead sheep".[35] Nevertheless, Howe appeared and paid warm tribute when Healey was featured on This Is Your Life in 1989. The two remained friends for many years, with Howe dying only a few days after Healey, in 2015.

Personal life and death[edit]

Healey married Edna May Edmunds, the daughter of a crane-driver, on 21 December 1945, the two having met at Oxford University before the war. The couple had three children, one of whom is the broadcaster, writer and record producer Tim Healey.[36][37] Edna Healey died on 21 July 2010, aged 92.[38] They were married for over 60 years and lived in Alfriston, East Sussex.[39] In 1987, Edna underwent an operation at a private hospital – this event drawing media attention as being seemingly at odds with Healey's pro-NHS beliefs. Challenged on the apparent inconsistency by the presenter Anne Diamond on TV-am, Healey became critical and ended the interview.[40] He then jabbed journalist Adam Boulton.[41][42]

Healey was an amateur photographer for many years,[43] enjoying music and painting and reading crime fiction. He sometimes played popular piano pieces at public events.[44] In a May 2012 interview for The Daily Telegraph, Healey reported that he was swimming 20 lengths a day in his outdoor pool.[45]

After a short illness Healey died in his sleep at his home in Alfriston, Sussex, on 3 October 2015 at the age of 98.[46][47]

Titles and styles[edit]

  • Denis Healey (1917–1945)
  • Denis Healey MBE (1945–1952)
  • Denis Healey MBE MP (1952–1964)
  • The Rt. Hon. Denis Healey MBE MP (1964–1979)
  • The Rt. Hon. Denis Healey CH MBE MP (1979–1992)
  • The Rt. Hon. Denis Healey CH MBE (1992)
  • The Rt. Hon. The Lord Healey CH MBE PC (1992–2015)


Ribbon Name Notes
Order of the Companions of Honour Ribbon.gif Order of the Companions of Honour 12 June 1979 CH
Order of the British Empire (Military) Ribbon.png Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire 13 December 1945 MBE


Healey is credited with popularising in the UK a proverb which became known as Healey's First law of holes.[48][49] This is a minor adaptation of a saying apparently originated by Will Rogers.

In popular culture[edit]

Film, television and theatre[edit]

Healey is the only Chancellor to have appeared on BBC One's Morecambe and Wise Show.[50] In 1986 he appeared in series one of Saturday Live. He was portrayed by David Fleeshman in the 2002 BBC production of Ian Curteis's The Falklands Play. He appeared on The Dame Edna show in the song and dance number "You either have or you haven't got style" alongside Roger Moore.

Healey was satirised in the ITV series Spitting Image, his caricature mainly focused on his famous eyebrows, and the real Healey appeared in the thirteenth and final episode of the programme's first series in 1984. The iconic eyebrows were similarly parodied in the 1977 serial The Sun Makers from the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, in which the antagonist known as the Collector is distinguished by having similarly bushy eyebrows to Healey.

The British nickname "Silly Billy" was also popularised in the 1970s by impressionist Mike Yarwood, putting it in the mouth of the Chancellor, Denis Healey, who took the catchphrase up and used it as his own.[51]

In 1994, Healey appeared in a TV advertisement for Visa Debit cards. This was banned by the Independent Television Commission as it contained a reference to a scandal, subsequently revealed to be a fabrication, involving Norman Lamont's personal life. Healey had appeared in an advert for Sainsbury's in the previous year.[52]


During Led Zeppelin's 1975 and 1977 concert tours, Robert Plant facetiously dedicated the song "In My Time of Dying" to Healey for the tax exile issues the band was facing. During Yes's recording of what was to become the album Tormato (1978), there was an outtake called "Money", on which the Yes keyboardist at the time, Rick Wakeman, provides a satirical voice-over parodying Healey.[53]

Graphic novels[edit]

The 1986 comic Watchmen, set in an alternative present, mentioned a "British Prime Minister Healey".[citation needed]


Healey's publications include: Healey's Eye (photography, 1980), The Time of My Life (his autobiography, 1989), When Shrimps Learn to Whistle (1990), My Secret Planet (an anthology, 1992), Denis Healey's Yorkshire Dales (1995) and Healey's World (2002).


  1. ^ "Prorogation: Her Majesty's Speech". 
  2. ^ "House of Lords, Official Website – Lord Healey". Retrieved 5 July 2013. 
  3. ^ Hookham, Mark (3 December 2008). "Denis Healey: 'The best Prime Minister we never had'". Yorkshire Evening Post. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  4. ^ Kaufman, Gerald (13 March 2000). "Debates for 13 Mar 2000 (pt 20)". Hansard (London: House of Commons). Retrieved 31 January 2009. 
  5. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 35163. p. 2801. 13 May 1941.
  6. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 37386. p. 6064. 13 December 1945.
  7. ^ Craig, F. W. S. (1983) [1969]. British parliamentary election results 1918–1949 (3rd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X. 
  8. ^ "1952 By Election Results". Archived from the original on 25 February 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2015. 
  9. ^ a b c d McKie, David. "Lord Healey obituary". The Guardian (London). 
  10. ^ D. Healey, Time of My Life (Penguin, 1990).
  11. ^ 1966 Defense Review.
  12. ^ Two new Yarrow-built Leander frigates, armed with Exocet missiles, were released to sail to Chile, the hour Labour returned to power in 1974. [Not a ref..?]
  13. ^ "What Now for Britain?” The State Department’s Intelligence Assessment of the “Special Relationship,” 7 February 1968 by Jonathan Colman
  14. ^ Pham P. L. Ending 'East of Suez': The British Decision to Withdraw from Malaysia and Singapore
  15. ^ Shohei Sato Britain's decision to withdraw from the Persian Gulf 1964-68
  16. ^ Withdrawal from Empire: Britain's Decolonization of Egypt, Aden, and Kenya in the Mid-Twentieth Century - A Monograph by Maj Brian S. Olson, U.S. Army
  17. ^ The Times, Tuesday, 2 October 1973; p. 1; Issue 58902; col A
  18. ^ The Times, Tuesday, 19 February 1974; p. 4; Issue 59018; col D
  19. ^ The Times, Thursday, 18 October 1973; p. 2; Issue 58916; col C
  20. ^ The Jekyll and Hyde Years: Politics and Economic Policy since 1964 by Michael Stewart.
  21. ^ [1] Archived 20 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ [2] Archived 20 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ The Labour Party since 1945 by Eric Shaw
  24. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 47868. p. 7600. 15 June 1979.
  25. ^ Crewe, Ivor and King, Anthony, SDP: The Birth, Life and Death of the Social Democratic Party (Oxford University Press, 1995), pp. 74–75.
  26. ^ Eric Heffer (1986). Labour's Future: Socialist or SDP Mark 2?. Verso. pp. 28–29. 
  27. ^ The London Gazette: no. 52979. p. 11141. 2 July 1992.
  28. ^ Sale, Jonathan (4 May 2006), "Passed/failed: An education in the life of Denis Healey, Labour peer", The Independent, retrieved 28 April 2009 
  29. ^ Ronson, Jon (10 March 2001). "Who pulls the strings? (part 3)". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 4 July 2009. 
  30. ^ "UK needs no nuclear arms – Healey". BBC News. 7 July 2006. Retrieved 13 January 2007. 
  31. ^ Rafael Behr, ‘Denis Healey: “Thatcher was good-looking and brilliant”’, New Statesman (26 March 2013).
  32. ^ Michael Crick, ‘Healey: case for leaving Europe stronger than staying’, Channel 4 (9 May 2013).
  33. ^ "House of Lords, Official Website – Who is the oldest sitting Member of the House of Lords?". Retrieved 5 July 2013. 
  34. ^ Denis Healey The Time of My Life Penguin 1990 p.444
  35. ^ "ECONOMIC SITUATION, HC Deb 14 June 1978 vol 951 cc1013-142". 
  36. ^ "Water way to splash out for charity". Oxford Mail. 17 May 1999. Retrieved 30 September 2015. 
  37. ^ "Come on Lads: Canteen songs of World War Two", Beautiful Jo Records website . Retrieved 13 September 2008.
  38. ^ "Denis Healey's wife, Edna, dies aged 92". BBC News Online (BBC). 23 July 2010. Retrieved 23 July 2010. 
  39. ^ "Denis Healey at 90", BBC News.
  40. ^ "BBC Politics 97". 
  41. ^ "Adam Boulton: Sky's political editor on the channel's relaunch". The Independent (London). 24 April 2006. 
  42. ^ Burrell, Ian (15 May 2010). "Adam Boulton: Just don't tell him what he thinks". The Independent (London). 
  43. ^ – Denis Healey & Photography Archived 5 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  44. ^ "Denis Healey playing the piano at Huddersfield Town Hall", Science and Society (National Museum of Science and Industry), May 1987, retrieved 28 April 2009 
  45. ^ Interview, Bryony Gordon, The Daily Telegraph (London), 8 May 2012, Accessed same day.
  46. ^ "Labour's Denis Healey dies at 98". BBC News. Retrieved 3 October 2015. 
  47. ^ "Denis Healey Dies Aged 98". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 4 October 2015. 
  48. ^ Apperson, George Latimer (2006) [1993]. The Wordsworth dictionary of proverbs. Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions Ltd. p. 283. ISBN 978-1-84022-311-8. 
  49. ^ "Interview: Denis Healey; Healey's First law of holes is to stop digging". New Statesman 9. 8 November 1986. 
  50. ^ "Denis Healey: The big man behind the big eyebrows". 
  51. ^ Andrew Marr (2009), A History of Modern Britain, p. 346 
  52. ^ Macintyre, Donald; Williams, Rhys (17 March 1994). "ITC bans Healey joke in advert". The Independent (London). Retrieved 2 October 2015. 
  53. ^ Dave Lewis (2004), Led Zeppelin: The 'Tight But Loose' Files; Celebration 2, Omnibus Press, ISBN 1-84449-056-4, pp. 24–5.

External links[edit]

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