Denis Parsons Burkitt
Denis Parsons Burkitt
|Born||28 February 1911|
Enniskillen, Northern Ireland
|Died||23 March 1993 (aged 82)|
|Known for||Burkitt's lymphoma, Cancer|
|Awards||Charles S. Mott Prize (1982)|
Buchanan Medal (1992)
Fellow of the Royal Society
Denis Parsons Burkitt, MD, FRCS(Ed), FRS (28 February 1911 – 23 March 1993) was an Irish surgeon who made significant advances in health, such as the etiology of a pediatric cancer, now called Burkitt's lymphoma, and the finding that rates of colorectal cancer are higher in those who eat limited dietary fibre.
Life and death
Burkitt was born in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, Ireland. He was the son of James Parsons Burkitt, a civil engineer. Aged eleven he lost his right eye in an accident. He attended Portora Royal School in Enniskillen and Dean Close School, England. In 1929 Burkitt entered Trinity College, Dublin to study engineering, but believing his evangelical calling was to be a doctor, he transferred to medicine and graduated in 1935. In 1938 he passed the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh fellowship examinations. On 28 July 1943 he married Olive Rogers.
During World War II, Burkitt served with the Royal Army Medical Corps in England and later in Kenya and Somaliland. After the war, Burkitt decided his future lay in medical service in the developing world and he moved to Uganda. He eventually settled in Kampala and remained there until 1964.
Burkitt was president of the Christian Medical Fellowship and wrote frequently on religious/medical themes. In 1979, he became an honorary fellow of Trinity College Dublin. He received the Bower Award and Prize in 1992. He died on 23 March 1993 in Gloucester and was buried in Bisley, Gloucestershire, England.
Burkitt made two major contributions to medical science related to his experience in Africa.
Burkitt in 1957 observed a child with swellings in the angles of the jaw. "About two weeks later ... I looked out the window and saw another child with a swollen face ... and began to investigate these jaw tumors." "Having an intensely enquiring mind, Burkitt took the details of these cases to the records department ... which showed that jaw tumours were common, [and] were often associated with other tumours at unusual sites" in children in Uganda. He kept copious notes and concluded that these apparently different childhood cancers were all manifestations of a single type of malignancy. Burkitt published A sarcoma involving the jaws of African children. The newly identified cancer became known as "Burkitt's lymphoma". He went on to map the geographical distribution of the tumour. Burkitt, together with Dr. Dennis Wright, published a book titled Burkitt's Lymphoma in April 1970.
His second major contribution came when, on his return to Britain, Burkitt compared the pattern of diseases in African hospitals with Western diseases. He concluded that many Western diseases which were rare in Africa were the result of diet and lifestyle. He wrote a book, Don't Forget Fibre in your Diet, which became an international bestseller.
Burkitt suggested that higher fibre intake can reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. This was based on observations of the difference in patterns of diseases between Western and traditional African societies. Burkitt noted the lower rates of colorectal cancer in African countries compared to the West. He also found that African diets were generally higher in dietary fibre. While a 2020 meta study found no clear connection a 2020 study confirmed the protective effect if the source of fibre is whole grains.
Publications by Burkitt
- Burkitt, D. P. (1972). "Varicose Veins, Deep Vein Thrombosis, and Haemorrhoids: Epidemiology and Suggested Aetiology". British Medical Journal. 2 (5813): 556–561. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5813.556. PMC 1788140. PMID 5032782.
- Burkitt, D. P. (1973). "Some diseases characteristic of modern Western civilization". British Medical Journal. 1 (5848): 274–278. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5848.274. PMC 1588096. PMID 4568142.
- Burkitt, D. P. (1981). "Hiatus hernia: Is it preventable?". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 34 (3): 428–431. doi:10.1093/ajcn/34.3.428. PMID 6259926.
- Burkitt, D. P.; Trowell, H. C. (1981). Western diseases, their emergence and prevention. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-95020-7.
- Kellock B, Burkitt D. P. The Fibre Man: The Life-story of Dr. Denis Burkitt: Lion Pub.; 1985.
- Epstein, A.; Eastwood, M. A. (1995). "Denis Parsons Burkitt. 28 February 1911 – 23 March 1993". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 41: 88–102. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1995.0006. PMID 11615366. S2CID 24411537.
- "Burkitt, Denis Parsons". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/57333. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Webb, D.A. (1992). J.R., Barlett (ed.). Trinity College Dublin Record Volume 1991. Dublin: Trinity College Dublin Press. ISBN 1-871408-07-5.
- McKinnell, Robert Gilmore; Parchment, Ralph E.; Perantoni, Alan O.; Damjanov, Ivan; Pierce, G. Barry (2006). The biological basis of cancer (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 257. ISBN 978-0-521-84458-1. OCLC 537382803.
- Denis P. Burkitt, "Discovering Burkitt's Lymphoma" in Paul H. Levine, Epstein-Barr Virus and Human Disease (Humana Press 1987) p. xxi
- M. Anthony Epstein, "The Origins of EBV Research" in Erle S. Robertson, Epstein-Barr Virus (2005) p. 2
- Epstein, "Origins" p. 2
- Burkitt, D. (1958). "A sarcoma involving the jaws in African children". The British Journal of Surgery. 46 (197): 218–223. doi:10.1002/bjs.18004619704. PMID 13628987. S2CID 46452308.
- Biography Dennis Wright Archived 26 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- Burkitt, D. P; Wright, Dennis H (1970). Burkitt's lymphoma. Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-443-00700-2. OCLC 125974.[page needed]
- Burkitt, Denis (1979). Don't forget fibre in your diet: to help avoid many of our commonest diseases. London: Martin Dunitz Ltd. ISBN 978-0-906348-07-9. OCLC 12583461.
- Lewin, M. R. (January 1991). "Is There a Fibre-Depleted Aetiology for Colorectal Cancer? Experimental Evidence". Reviews on Environmental Health. 9 (1): 17–30. doi:10.1515/reveh.19126.96.36.199. PMID 1659729. S2CID 25147372.
- Yang, Yunfan; Yang, Li; Zhou, Liping; Tang, Siyuan (18 January 2021). "A Critical Review of the Effect of Dietary Fiber Intake on the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer in Eastern Asian Countries". Journal of Healthcare Engineering. 2021: e6680698. doi:10.1155/2021/6680698. PMC 7834794. PMID 33532047.
- Hullings, Autumn G; Sinha, Rashmi; Liao, Linda M; Freedman, Neal D; Graubard, Barry I; Loftfield, Erikka (1 September 2020). "Whole grain and dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 112 (3): 603–612. doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqaa161. PMC 7458778. PMID 32619213.
- Park, Y.; Hunter, D. J.; Spiegelman, D.; Bergkvist, L.; Berrino, F.; Van Den Brandt, P. A.; Buring, J. E.; Colditz, G. A.; Freudenheim, J. L. (2005). "Dietary Fibre Intake and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 294 (22): 2849–57. doi:10.1001/jama.294.22.2849. PMID 16352792.
- Smith, Richard D. (4 March 1976). "Checking Out the Fiber Fad". The Sciences. 16 (2): 25–29. doi:10.1002/j.2326-1951.1976.tb01217.x.
- Cummings, John H.; Engineer, Amanda (June 2018). "Denis Burkitt and the origins of the dietary fibre hypothesis". Nutrition Research Reviews. 31 (1): 1–15. doi:10.1017/S0954422417000117. PMID 28583217. S2CID 21684191.