Denmark–Germany border

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Border marking stone
The duchies Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg before 1864
Border proposals in 1864
Results of the vote in 1920
Schleswig/Slesvig with former and present-day administrative borders

The Denmark–Germany border is 68 kilometres (42 mi) long and separates Denmark and Germany.

History[edit]

In the treaty of Heiligen year 811 the Eider was recognized as a border between Denmark and the Frankish Empire.[1] As a swampy river, it formed a natural border. On the highest area near the watershed, it was dryer. The very old travel route Hærvejen went there, and a defense wall, Danevirke, was built there. Later the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein arose. Before 1864 Schleswig was a fiefdom of Denmark, while Holstein was a fief of the Holy Roman Empire (until 1806) and a member of the German Confederation (after 1815). Both territories were ruled by the Danish king in his additional role as Duke of Schleswig and Duke of Holstein (occasionally together with other Dukes, like the Gottorp Dukes). The border between the Danish fief of Schleswig and the German fief of Holstein still ran along the Eider, the boundary between the duchies and the Kingdom of Denmark ran along the Kongeåen and the southern boundary of the Danish monarchy (≈Helstaten) ran along the Elbe.

In 1864, Schleswig-Holstein was conquered by Prussia, and so an international border was created between Denmark and Germany/Schleswig-Holstein. It went from a place at the coast 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) south of Ribe, rounded Ribe on 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) distance, then went eastbound just south of Vamdrup, and just north of Christiansfeld to the Baltic Sea.

In 1920, the border was moved about 50 kilometres (31 mi) southwards to the present position, as determined by the Schleswig referendum in 1920. This approximately followed the not clearly defined language border.

Border Controls[edit]

In 2001, all border controls were removed based on the Schengen Agreement.

In response to the Swedish border control due to the European migrant crisis, border checks were temporarily introduced starting January 4, 2016. Prime minister Lars Løkke Rasmussen cited fear of accumulation of illegal migrants in Copenhagen as one of the reasons for this decision.[2]

Wild boar fence (Vildsvinehegn)[edit]

In January 2019, the Danish government began constructing a fence along the border in an attempt to keep wild boar, which can carry African swine fever virus, from crossing into Denmark. The 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) high, nearly 70 kilometres (43 mi) long fence—spanning the entire land border—is estimated to be completed by the fall of 2019 at a cost of 30.4 million Danish kroner.[3][4][5] The fence has created some protests. In May 2019 a volleyball tournament was held over the fence as a publicity event which was given some media attention.[6]

Border crossings[edit]

Image Danish Road/Track Name[7] German Road/Track Name [7] Type of crossing [7] Characteristics[8] Border checkpoint [8] Coordinates [7]
Slusevej - Road - - 54°54′40″N 8°38′19″E / 54.91115°N 8.63868°E / 54.91115; 8.63868
Siltoftvej - Road Old border checkpoint building - 54°54′41″N 8°40′11″E / 54.91131°N 8.6696°E / 54.91131; 8.6696
Rudboel.jpg Rudbølvej Rosenkranzer-Straße Road National speed limits sign Yes 54°53′48″N 8°45′01″E / 54.89669°N 8.75033°E / 54.89669; 8.75033
Møllehusvej (L6) Landesstraße 6 Road National speed limits sign - 54°54′22″N 8°49′56″E / 54.90608°N 8.83231°E / 54.90608; 8.83231
- Marschbahn Track - - 54°53′58″N 8°52′22″E / 54.89938°N 8.87289°E / 54.89938; 8.87289
Primærrute 11 Sønder Løgum Landevej B 5 Bundesstraße 5 Road National speed limits sign Yes 54°54′14″N 8°54′37″E / 54.90385°N 8.91034°E / 54.90385; 8.91034
Vindtvedvej - Road Small sign showing municipality - 54°54′00″N 8°57′46″E / 54.89996°N 8.96273°E / 54.89996; 8.96273
Beierskrovej Beyersweg Road Small sign showing municipality - 54°53′23″N 8°59′49″E / 54.88975°N 8.99681°E / 54.88975; 8.99681
Pebersmarkvej (L313) Pepersmarker Weg Road National speed limits sign Yes 54°52′18″N 9°04′44″E / 54.87165°N 9.07882°E / 54.87165; 9.07882
Grænsevejen Bögelhuus Road National speed limits sign - 54°52′23″N 9°08′31″E / 54.87303°N 9.14207°E / 54.87303; 9.14207
Sofiedalvej Zur Fehle Road National speed limits sign - 54°50′59″N 9°14′25″E / 54.84984°N 9.24032°E / 54.84984; 9.24032
Kristiansmindevej Wilmkjerweg Road Small sign showing municipality - 54°48′11″N 9°17′25″E / 54.80309°N 9.29032°E / 54.80309; 9.29032
E45 Sønderjyske Motorvej A 7 Bundesautobahn 7 (Ellund Autobahn GZG) Road National speed limits sign Yes 54°48′21″N 9°19′41″E / 54.80574°N 9.32817°E / 54.80574; 9.32817
Industrivej (Padborg) (L17) Landesstraße 17 Road National speed limits sign Yes 54°48′58″N 9°21′40″E / 54.81615°N 9.36112°E / 54.81615; 9.36112
Vamdrup-Padborg-banen Bahnstrecke Fredericia–Flensburg Track - - 54°48′55″N 9°21′47″E / 54.81525°N 9.36301°E / 54.81525; 9.36301
Haraldsvej - Walking path - - 54°49′02″N 9°21′49″E / 54.8172°N 9.36373°E / 54.8172; 9.36373
Rønsdamvej - Walking path Red-white boom barrier - 54°50′02″N 9°22′33″E / 54.8338°N 9.37583°E / 54.8338; 9.37583
- - Walking path - - 54°50′20″N 9°23′07″E / 54.83876°N 9.38521°E / 54.83876; 9.38521
German-Danish border at Krusaa DSC 6922.JPG Sekundærrute 170 Flensborgsvej (Kruså) B 200 Bundesstraße 200 Road National speed limits sign Yes 54°50′22″N 9°24′16″E / 54.83956°N 9.40443°E / 54.83956; 9.40443
Madeskovvej Teichweg Walking path - - 54°50′32″N 9°24′26″E / 54.8422°N 9.40712°E / 54.8422; 9.40712
Skomagerhusvej Dammweg Walking path - - 54°49′55″N 9°25′13″E / 54.83198°N 9.42032°E / 54.83198; 9.42032

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Thursten, Tina L. (2001). Landscapes of Power, Landscapes of Conflict: State Formation in the South Scandinavian Iron Age. New York: Kluwer Academic. p. 340. ISBN 0-306-44979-X.
  2. ^ http://www.politiko.dk/nyheder/regeringen-indfoerer-midlertidig-graensekontrol-til-tyskland
  3. ^ "Construction begins on wild boar fence" (Press release). Copenhagen: Ministry of Environment and Food of Denmark. 28 January 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  4. ^ Topp, Anders (28 January 2019). "Danmark begynder at bygge hegn mod vildsvin". dr.dk. Danmarks Radio. Retrieved 29 January 2019. (In Danish)
  5. ^ Walsh, Alistair (28 January 2019). "Denmark starts building anti-swine border fence". dw.com. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  6. ^ "Unge spillede volleyball hen over vildsvinehegn". Danmarks Radio (in Danish). 19 May 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
  7. ^ a b c d See Google Maps for respectively coordinate.
  8. ^ a b See Google Street View for respectively coordinate.