Deno (software)

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Deno
Original author(s)Ryan Dahl
Developer(s)Deno Land Inc[1] and contributors
Initial releaseMay 13, 2018; 5 years ago (2018-05-13)[2]
Stable release
1.40.5[3] Edit this on Wikidata / 15 February 2024; 8 days ago (15 February 2024)
Repositorygithub.com/denoland/deno
Written inTypeScript, JavaScript, Rust, C++ (V8 bindings)
Operating systemLinux, macOS, Microsoft Windows
TypeRuntime environment
LicenseMIT License[4]
Websitedeno.land Edit this on Wikidata

Deno /dn/[5] is a runtime for JavaScript, TypeScript, and WebAssembly that is based on the V8 JavaScript engine and the Rust programming language. Deno was co-created by Ryan Dahl, who also created Node.js.[6]

Deno explicitly takes on the role of both runtime and package manager within a single executable, rather than requiring a separate package-management program.[5][7]

History[edit]

Deno was announced at JSConf EU 2018 by Ryan Dahl in his talk "10 Things I Regret About Node.js".[8] In his talk, Dahl mentioned his regrets about the initial design decisions with Node.js, focusing on his choices of not using promises in API design, usage of the legacy build system GYP, node_modules and package.json, leaving out file extensions, magical module resolution with index.js and breaking the sandboxed environment of V8.[9] He eventually presented the prototype of Deno, aiming to achieve system call bindings through message passing with serialization tools such as Protocol Buffers, and to provide command line flags for access control.

Deno was initially written in Go and used Protocol Buffers for serialization between privileged (Go, with system call access) and unprivileged (V8) sides.[10] However, Go was soon replaced with Rust due to concerns of double runtime and garbage collection pressure.[11] Tokio was introduced in place of libuv as the asynchronous event-driven platform,[12] and FlatBuffers was adopted for faster, "zero-copy" serialization and deserialization[13] but later in August 2019, FlatBuffers was removed[14] after publishing benchmarks that measured a significant overhead of serialization in April 2019.[15]

A standard library, modeled after Go's standard library, was created in November 2018 to provide extensive tools and utilities, partially solving Node.js' dependency tree explosion problem.[16]

The official Deno 1.0 was released on May 13, 2020.[17]

Deno Deploy, inspired by Cloudflare Workers,[18] was released on June 23, 2021.[19] Announced May 4, 2022 Beta 4 improves the dashboard and adds billing functionality. General availability of Deno Deploy is eyed for the third quarter of 2022.[20]

Deno Fresh 1.0 was announced June 28, 2022.[21] It features a new full stack web framework for Deno that sends zero JavaScript to the client. The framework has no build step which allows for an order of magnitude improvements in deployment times. Version 1.1 was released September 8, 2022.[22]

Deno SaaSKit beta was announced April 4, 2023.[23] It is an open-source, modern SaaS template built with Fresh and Deno.

Overview[edit]

Deno aims to be a productive and secure scripting environment for the modern programmer.[5] Similar to Node.js, Deno emphasizes event-driven architecture, providing a set of non-blocking core I/O utilities, along with their blocking versions. Deno could be used to create web servers, perform scientific computations, etc. Deno is open source software under the MIT License.[24]

Comparison with Node.js[edit]

Deno and Node.js are both runtimes built on the V8 JavaScript engine developed by the Chromium Project, the engine used for Chromium and Google Chrome web browsers. They both have internal event loops and provide command-line interfaces for running scripts and a wide range of system utilities.

Deno mainly deviates from Node.js in the following aspects:[5]

  1. Supports only ES Modules like browsers where Node.js supports both ES Modules and CommonJS. CommonJS support in Deno is possible by using a compatibility layer.[25][26]
  2. Supports URLs for loading local or remote dependencies, similar to browsers, and uses module specifiers like npm: and node: to import NPM or polyfill Node.JS modules. Node.js supports both URLs [27] and modules.
  3. Does not require a package manager for resource fetching, thus no need for a registry like npm.[28]
  4. Supports TypeScript out of the box,[29] using a snapshotted TypeScript compiler or the swc compiler [30] with caching mechanisms.
  5. Aims for better compatibility with browsers with a wide range of Web APIs.
  6. Restricts file system and network access by default in order to run sandboxed code.
  7. Supports a single API to utilize promises, ES6 and TypeScript features whereas Node.js supports both promise and callback APIs.
  8. Minimizes core API size, while providing a large standard library with no external dependencies.
  9. Uses message passing channels for invoking privileged system APIs and using bindings.

Funding[edit]

On March 29, 2021, Deno Land Inc was announced, with backing in millions of dollars from Shasta Ventures, Mozilla Corporation and a few others. It was established to further the development of Deno and provide a commercial offering to users.[1]

A year on, Deno announced a further $21 million in Series A funding led by Sequoia Capital.[31]

Release history[edit]

The tables below were created using the official Releases page.[32]

Deno[edit]

Version Latest patch release Release date Date of last patch release Description
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.1.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 0.1.12 2018-08-23 2018-11-12 Rust rewrite and V8 snapshot
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.2.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 0.2.11 2018-11-27 2019-02-08 Mildly usable
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.3.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 0.3.10 2019-02-18 2019-04-25 Instead of importing a "deno" module, there is now a global variable called "Deno"
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.0.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.0.5 2020-05-13 2020-06-03 Initial production release with CLI, first-class TypeScript Support, Rust APIs and improvements in HTTP server performance
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.1.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.1.3 2020-06-12 2020-07-03 Various additions and fixes to the CLI, Rust 1.44.0
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.2.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.2.3 2020-07-13 2020-08-08 Various additions and fixes to the CLI
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.3.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.3.3 2020-08-13 2020-09-04 Various additions and fixes to the CLI, various improvements to the Deno language, TypeScript 3.9.7
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.4.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.4.6 2020-09-13 2020-10-10 New web standard WebSocket API, automatic restarts on file change, integrated test coverage
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.5.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.5.4 2020-10-27 2020-11-23 Faster tree-shaking and bundling, refactored REPL
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.6.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.6.3 2020-12-08 2020-12-30 Compile standalone binaries via "deno compile", support TypeScript 4.1, experimental support for Mac ARM64
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.7.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.7.5 2021-02-05 2021-02-19 Cross compilation and 60% smaller binaries for deno compile, a DNS resolver API, support for data URLs in import statements and web workers
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.8.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.8.3 2021-03-02 2021-04-02 Experimental support for WebGPU API, built-in internationalization APIs enabled, support for fetching private modules, revamped coverage tooling, support for TypeScript 4.2
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.9.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.9.2 2021-04-13 2021-04-23 Native HTTP/2 web server, Faster calls into Rust with serde_v8, Blob URL support & improvements to fetch api, Import completions in the LSP, Interactive permission prompt
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.10.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.10.2 2021-05-11 2021-05-17 Improvements to the built in test runner, structured clone support in Web Workers, Web Storage API, support for remote import maps
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.11.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.11.3 2021-06-08 2021-06-29 Official docker images, more web crypto APIs added, BroadcastChannel, abortable fetch, deno lint stabilized
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.12.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.12.2 2021-07-13 2021-07-26 Support for generateKey, sign and verify web crypto APIs, native WebSocket server support, TypeScript support in REPL, support for MessagePort and MessageChannel
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.13.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.13.2 2021-08-10 2021-08-23 Native HTTP web server stabilization, support for self.structuredClone(), AbortSignal support, support for navigator.hardwareConcurrency API, experimental WebSocketStream API, FFI replaces native plugin system
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.14.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.14.3 2021-09-14 2021-10-04 URLPattern, file locking APIs, mutual TLS support in fetch, TypeScript 4.4, URL parsing and std/http performance improvements
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.15.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.15.3 2021-10-12 2021-10-25 New crypto APIs, deno uninstall subcommand, nested testing API, FFI improvements, new—compat flag for improved Node compatibility
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.16.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.16.4 2021-11-09 2021-12-03 Fetch support for file URLs, new unstable signal listener API, support for specifying a reason when aborting an AbortSignal, improvements to Web Streams API, findLast and findLastIndex array methods, Deno to npm package build tool
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.17.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.17.3 2021-12-16 2022-01-12 Import assertions and JSON modules, improvements to the Web Cryptography API, unref timers, unstable support for negotiating ALPN, TypeScript 4.5
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.18.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.18.0 2022-01-20 2022-01-20 Config file auto-discovery, completion of Web Cryptography API, stabilization of test steps API, FFI improvements, LSP improvements
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.19.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.19.3 2022-02-17 2022-03-10 New Deno vendor dependency, default permission prompt, new web streams for files, network sockets and stdio, CompressionStream and DecompressionStream supported, better errors for ops and resource sanistizers, improved console log
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.20.1 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.20.6 2022-04-14 2022-03-16 Faster calls into Rust, auto-compression for HTTP response bodies, new subcommands (deno bench, deno task), security improvements, stricter defaults in programmatic permission, TypeScript 4.6, V8 10.0
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.21.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.21.3 2022-04-20 2022-05-12 Various improvements to the Deno language, VSCode extension, and REPL. Improvements in Deno Test
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.22.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.22.3 2022-05-18 2022-06-09 Updated default type checking behavior, various improvements to the Deno language, updates to the test runner
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.23.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.23.4 2022-06-15 2022-07-12 No type-checking by default, various improvements to the Deno language, force a new line in REPL, TypeScript 4.7
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.24.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.24.3 2022-07-20 2022-08-11 Type checking and emitting performance improvements, various improvements to the Deno language, Deno Test improvements, Updates to the new subprocess API, LSP improvements, addition of semver module
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.25.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.25.4 2022-08-24 2022-09-22 deno init subcommand, experimental npm support, new HTTP server API, improvements to startup time, FFI API improvements
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.26.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.26.2 2022-09-29 2022-10-17 Cache Web API, WebCrypto Secure Curves, --allow-sys permission flag, improvements to npm and Node.JS support, improvements to Deno.serve() API, improved module download UI, developer experience improvement, TypeScript 4.8
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.27.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.27.2 2022-10-27 2022-11-08 Major IDE improvements, Improvements to npm compatibility, navigator.language Web API, Improvements to deno task, Upgrade checker, Changes to Deno APIs, Updates to deno lint, V8 10.8, Node.js compatibility improvements, Changes to standard library APIs
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.28.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.28.3 2022-11-13 2022-12-01 Various fixes and feature stabilisations, NPM package importer, auto discovery of the lock file, V8 10.9
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.29.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.29.4 2022-12-14 2023-01-16 npm compatibility improvements, REPL changes, Quality of life improvements, Changes to Deno APIs, TypeScript 4.9, Changes to the standard modules
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.30.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.30.3 2023-01-26 2023-02-07 Support for built-in Node.js modules (import "node:fs"), deno.json becomes an import map, deno fmt supports configuring semicolons
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.31.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.31.1 2023-02-24 2023-02-25 Support for package.json, Stabilization of Node-API, Node compatibility layer for NodeJS moved to the Deno runtime itself, Stabilizations in Deno API, Change to pointer type in FFI API
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.32.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.32.5 2023-03-23 2023-04-18 Enhanced Node.js compatibility, deno compile support for web workers and dynamic import, changes to Deno APIs, changes to Web APIs, changes to the standard library, TypeScript 5.0, V8 11.2
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.33.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.33.4 2023-04-28 2023-05-18 Built in Key-value database, flatter configuration, no permission check for dynamic imports, further enhanced Node.js/npm compatibility, performance improvements, CLI improvements, changes to Deno APIs, V8 11.4
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.34.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.34.3 2023-05-23 2023-6-15 Deno compile support for npm packages, glob support in Deno.json and CLI flags, support for IP addresses in TLS certificates, configuration file improvements, API Changes, Node.js compatibility improvements, TypeScript 5.0.4, V8 11.5
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.35.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.35.3 2023-07-05 2023-07-26 New stable web server API, Node.js compatibility improvements, Deno API changes, Web API changes, LSP improvements, updates to standard library, TypeScript 5.1.6, V8 11.6
Current stable version: 1.36.0 Current stable version: 1.36.2 2023-08-03 2023-08-21 More flexible security and expanded testing APIs
Legend:
Old version
Older version, still maintained
Latest version
Latest preview version
Future release


Deno Fresh[edit]

Version Latest patch release Release date Date of last patch release Description
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.0.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.0.0 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 Initial release
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.1.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.1.6 2022-08-09 2023-05-23 Automatic JSX, new twind plug-in, Preact Signals support, Preact DevTools support, explicit rendering of 404 pages, stacked middleware, experimental Deno.serve support, showcase & "Made with Fresh" badges
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.2.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.2.0 2023-06-15 2023-06-15 More datatypes supported in island props, support for passing JSX to islands and nesting islands, support for importing packages from npm, custom HEAD request handlers, overrides for headers and status from ctx.render, asynchronous plugin rendering, simplified testing
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.3.0 Old version, no longer maintained: 1.3.1 2023-07-18 2023-07-21 Async Route Components. adding routes and/or middlewares from plugin. 500 error template fallback, error Boundaries, export multiple islands in the same file, Fresh linting rules, support for Deno.serve
Current stable version: 1.4.0 Current stable version: 1.4.3 2023-08-16 2023-09-06 Faster page loads with ahead-of-time compilation, custom html, head and body tags, layouts (async layouts and async app wrapper, quicker typing with define functions
Legend:
Old version
Older version, still maintained
Latest version
Latest preview version
Future release

Deno SaasKit[edit]

Version Latest patch release Release date Date of last patch release Description
Current stable version: beta Current stable version: beta 2023-04-04 2022-04-04 Initial release
Legend:
Old version
Older version, still maintained
Latest version
Latest preview version
Future release

Examples[edit]

A basic Hello, World! program in Deno:

console.log("Hello, World!");

Global Deno namespaces expose APIs that are not available in the browser. An implementation of the Unix cat program: [1]

/**
 * cat.ts
 */
for (const filename of Deno.args) {
  const file = await Deno.open(filename);
  await file.readable.pipeTo(Deno.stdout.writable, { preventClose: true });
}

A simple Web server: [2]

Deno.serve((req) => new Response("hello world"));

Deno automatically downloads and caches the remote standard library files when the script is run, and then compiles the code.

Similarly, it can run a standard library script (such as a file server) directly without explicitly downloading, by providing the URL as the input filename (-A turns on all permissions):

$ deno run -A https://deno.land/std/http/file_server.ts
Download https://deno.land/std/http/file_server.ts
Compile https://deno.land/std/http/file_server.ts
...
HTTP server listening on http://0.0.0.0:4500/

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Ryan Dahl, Bert Belder (2021-03-29). "Announcing the Deno Company".
  2. ^ "Contributors, denoland/deno, Github". GitHub. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  3. ^ "Release 1.40.5". 15 February 2024. Retrieved 19 February 2024.
  4. ^ "deno/LICENSE at main". GitHub. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d "Deno Manual". deno.land. Retrieved 2019-05-17.
  6. ^ Schiemann, Dylan (December 26, 2018). "Deno: Secure V8 TypeScript Runtime from Original Node.js Creator". InfoQ. Archived from the original on May 17, 2019. Retrieved May 17, 2019.
  7. ^ Paul Krill (2018-06-21). "Ryan Dahl's Node.js regrets lead to Deno". InfoWorld.
  8. ^ JSConf (2018-06-06), 10 Things I Regret About Node.js - Ryan Dahl - JSConf EU 2018, retrieved 2019-05-17
  9. ^ Dahl, Ryan (2018-06-06). "Design mistakes in Node" (PDF). Github.
  10. ^ "denoland/deno, branch "golang"". Github.
  11. ^ "Suggestion: Look into porting to Rust and using Tokio". GitHub.
  12. ^ "Tokio - The asynchronous run-time for the Rust programming language". Tokio.rs.
  13. ^ "Protobuf seems like a lot of overhead for this use case?". Github.
  14. ^ "Remove flatbuffers". GitHub.
  15. ^ "Replace flatbuffers". GitHub. April 15, 2019. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
  16. ^ "denoland/deno_std: deno standard modules". Github. 3 March 2022.
  17. ^ "Deno 1.0". deno.land. Retrieved 2020-05-14.
  18. ^ Dahl, Ryan (4 May 2022). "JavaScript Containers". tinyclouds.org. Archived from the original on 4 May 2022.
  19. ^ Krill, Paul (2021-06-24). "Deno Company unveils server-side JavaScript hosting service". InfoWorld. Archived from the original on 27 Jun 2022. Retrieved 2022-04-14.
  20. ^ Krill, Paul (2022-06-03). "Deno Deploy moves toward GA, adds paid plan". InfoWorld. Retrieved 2022-07-24.
  21. ^ Luca, Casonato (2022-07-22). "Introduction Fresh 1.0 as new full stack web framework for Deno". Deno Blog. Retrieved 2022-07-24.
  22. ^ Casonato, Luca (2022-09-08). "Fresh 1.1 - automatic JSX, plugins, DevTools, and more". Deno Blog. Retrieved 2022-09-10.
  23. ^ Jiang, Andy (2023-04-04). "Announcing Deno SaaSKit: an open-source SaaS template built with Fresh". Deno Blog. Retrieved 2022-04-04.
  24. ^ "Deno Is Ready for Production". InfoQ. Retrieved 2020-07-01.
  25. ^ "Modules: ECMAScript modules | Node.js v17.6.0 Documentation".
  26. ^ "Deno - A modern runtime for JavaScript and TypeScript".
  27. ^ "Modules: ECMAScript modules | Node.js v17.6.0 Documentation".
  28. ^ "Deno - A modern runtime for JavaScript and TypeScript".
  29. ^ "Deno.js in Production. Key Takeaways". Medium.com. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
  30. ^ "Documentation". GitHub. 3 March 2022.
  31. ^ "Deno raises $21M". deno.com. Archived from the original on 22 June 2022.
  32. ^ "Releases". GitHub. 2020-12-30. Retrieved 2021-01-14.

External links[edit]