Denominal verb

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

In grammar, denominal verbs are verbs derived from nouns. Many languages have regular morphological indicators to create denominal verbs.


English examples are to school, from school, meaning to instruct; to shelve, from shelf, meaning to put on shelves; and to symbolize, from symbol, meaning to be a symbol for.

Some common denominalizing affixes in English are -ize/-ise summarize, -ify classify, -ate granulate, en- enslave, be- behead, and zero school.[1]

A variety of semantic relations are expressed between the base noun X and the derived verb; there is no simple relationship between the affix and the semantic relation:[1]

  • resultative: to make something into an X, e.g., victimize, cash
  • locative: to put something in X, e.g., box, hospitalize
  • instrumental: to use X, e.g., sponge, hammer
  • ablative, privative: to remove X from something, e.g., shell (peas), behead, bone
  • ornative: to add X to something or to cover something with X, e.g., rubberize, salt
  • similative: to act like or resemble X, e.g., tyrannize, guard
  • performative: to do or perform X, e.g., botanize, tango


In Rgyalrong languages, denominal derivation are extremely developed and have given rise to incorporating and antipassive constructions (Jacques 2012, 2014).


Many Latin verbs are denominal.[2] For example, the first declension verb coronare (to crown) is derived from corona (a crown),[2] and the fourth declension verbs mollire (to soften) and servire (to serve) are derived from mollis (soft) and servus (a slave) respectively.[3]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Carolyn A. Gottfurcht, Denominal Verb Formation in English, Ph.D. dissertation, Northwestern University, 2008 full text
  2. ^ a b Moreland, Floyd L.; Fleischer, Rita M. (1990). Latin: An Intensive Course. London, England: University of California Press. p. 29. ISBN 0520031830. 
  3. ^ Fortson, Benjamin W. IV (2004). "13.13". Indo-European Languages and Culture. Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-0315-2.