Adhesive dentistry is a branch of dentistry which deals with adhesion or bonding to the natural substance of teeth, enamel and dentin. It studies the nature and strength of adhesion to dental hard tissues, properties of adhesive materials, causes and mechanisms of failure of the bonds, clinical techniques for bonding and newer applications for bonding such as bonding to the soft tissue. There's also direct composite bonding which uses tooth-colored direct dental composites to repair various tooth damages such as cracks or gaps.
Dental bonding is a dental procedure in which a dentist applies a tooth-colored resin material (a durable plastic material) and cures it with visible, blue light. This ultimately "bonds" the material to the tooth and improves the overall appearance of teeth. Tooth bonding techniques have various clinical applications including operative dentistry and preventive dentistry as well as cosmetic and pediatric dentistry, prosthodontics, and orthodontics.
Adhesive dentistry began in 1955 with a paper by Dr. Michael Buonocore on the benefits of acid etching. Technologies have changed multiple times since then, with generally recognized generations established in the literature. Dental adhesives have evolved from no-etch to total-etch (4th- and 5th-generation) to self-etch (6th- and 7th-generation) systems. The evolution of products improved not only physical properties but also convenience.
Irwin Smigel founder and current president of the American Society for Dental Aesthetics and diplomat of the American Board of Aesthetic Dentistry, was one of the first to broaden the usage of bonding by using it to close gaps between teeth, lengthen teeth as well as to re-contour the entire mouth rather than using crowns. Having done more extensive work on the process than any other dentist, Dr. Smigel lectures world-wide on aesthetic dentistry. In 1979 he published a guide to aesthetic dentistry entitled “Dental Health/Dental Beauty.”
In 2012, new dental universal adhesives are commercialized. The universal adhesives bond to all dental substrates, which include enamel, dentin, metal, porcelain, ceramic and zirconia, with a single application. The term “universal” adhesive is not new. In fact, many early bonding agents were named or described as “universal” adhesives, such as XP Bond-Universal Total-etch Adhesive (Dentsply), One-Step-Universal Dental Adhesive (Bisco). However, there is still not a definition of dental “universal adhesive”. It is highly confusing what the term “universal” means. In 2012, the term “universal adhesive” has several definitions which may include: a)Can be used in total-etch, self-etch, and selective etch techniques; b)Can be used with light-cure, self-cure, and dual-cure materials (without the separate activators); c)Can be used for both direct and indirect substrates; d)Can bond to all dental substrates, such as dentin, enamel, metal, ceramic, porcelain, and zirconia. Currently (2012), only two new “universal adhesives” have been commercialized. In November 2011, 3M ESPE released a new ScotchBond Universal. ScotchBond Universal requires a separate self-cure activator or a special amine-free dual-cure cement when use with dual-cure or self-cure materials, unless used with specific cements recommended by the manufacturer, such as RelyX Ultimate. In addition, ScotchBond Universal also contains silane and MDP, enabling it to effectively bond every type of dental restorative material, such as glass ceramics, metal, composite resin, and zirconium oxide. In March 2012, Bisco scientist Dr Liang Chen and his coworkers developed a new All-Bond Universal, which can be use in total-etch, self-etch and selective etch techniques, can be used with any dual-cure, self-cure and light-cure materials without the need of a separate activator, can be used for both direct and indirect substrates, and can bond with any dental substrates (additional silane or ceramic primer is required when using to bond glass ceramics or cured composite materials as a separate, additional step). However, current Bisco publications only show adhesive data when All-Bond Universal is used with Bisco cements.
- The Journal of Adhesive Dentistry: Online Introduction
- "The History of Adhesive Bonding". CDEWorld.
- Nazarian, Ara, The Progression of Dental Adhesives (PDF)
- De Munck J, Van Landuyt KL , Peumans M, Poitevin A, Lambrechts P, Braem M, Van Meerbeek B. A critical review of the durability of adhesion to tooth tissue: methods and results. J Dent Res 2005;84:118-132.
- Smigel, Irwin (1979). Dental Health/Dental Beauty. M. Evans. ISBN 978-0-87131-284-6.
- Christensen G. New universal adhesives (part I): are they better? Clinicians Report 2012;5(3): 1-4.