Baba Baidyanath Dham
Abode of God
|• Body||Deoghar Municipal Corporation|
|• District Magistrate and Collector||Shri Manjunath Bhajantri, IAS|
|• Senior Superintendent of Police||Shri Subhash Chandra Jat IPS|
|• Sub-Divisional Magistrate||Shri Abhijeet Sinha IAS|
|• Total||119 km2 (46 sq mi)|
|Elevation||254 m (833 ft)|
|Languages (*For language details see Deoghar (community development block)#Language and religion)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Sex ratio||921 ♂/♀|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Godda|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||Deoghar|
Deoghar (pronounced Devaghar) is a major city in Jharkhand, India. It is a holy sacred place of Hinduism. It is one of the 12 Jyotirlingas sites of Hinduism (Baidyanath Temple). The sacred temples of the city make this a place for pilgrimage and tourists. The city is administrative headquarter of Deoghar District at Santhal Parganas division of Jharkhand.
Deoghar is a Hindi word and the literal meaning of ‘Deoghar’ is abode (‘ghar’) of the Gods and Goddesses (‘dev’). Deoghar is also known as “Baidyanath Dham”, “Baba Dham”, “B. Deoghar”. The origin of Baidyanathdham is lost in antiquity. It has been referred to as Haritakivan or Ketakivan in Sanskrit Texts. The name Deoghar seems to be of recent origin and probably dates from the erection of the great temple of Lord Baidyanath. Although the name of the builder of the temple is not traceable, certain parts of the front portion of the temple are said to have been built by Puran Mal, an ancestor of the Maharaja of Giddhour, in 1596. Deoghar is a place of worship for Lord Shiva, in the month of Shravan many devotees take ganga jal from Sultanganj to Deoghar for worship and they get the desired wish of their life.
Deoghar, also known as Baidyanath Dham, is an important Hindu pilgrimage site. It is one of the twelve and also one of the 51, and is famous for the mela of Shrawan, 4th month according to the Hindu calendar system. It is, along with Shrisailam, one of the few places in India where the Jyotirlinga and the Shaktipeeth are together, lying side beside each other. Each year between July and August (on the eve of the month of Shrawan) in Deoghar Yatra, about 7 to 8 million devotees come from various part of India bringing holy water from various areas of Ganges at Sultanganj, which is almost 108 km (67 mi) from Deoghar, in order to offer it to Lord Shiva. During that month, a line of people in saffron-dyed clothes stretches over the full 108 km (67 mi). It is the longest Mela of Asia.
The temple of Baidyanath or Lord Shiva is the most important of all the temples in the courtyard. The temple faces the east and is a plain stone structure with a pyramidal tower, 72 feet tall. The top contains three ascending shaped gold vessels that are compactly set, and were donated by the Maharaja of Giddhaur. Besides these pitcher shaped vessels, there is a Punchsula (five knives in a trident shape), which is rare. In the inner top, there is an eight-petaled lotus jewel called Chandrakanta Mani.
Deoghar is located at  It has an average elevation of 255 metres (833 feet). It is a part of the Indian peninsular plateau which forms a part of the oldest landmass on Earth, Gondwana land. Deoghar is situated on the bank of Ajay river (which originates from Batpar village of Jamui district in Bihar) and its tributary Dadhawa river (which originates from Purnia Lake near Karangarh village in Jamui district of Bihar). The city is surrounded with various small relict hills such as Dighriya Pahaad, Nandan Pahaad, Trikuti Pahaad, and Tapovan Pahaad. Dighriya Pahaad forms the western boundary of the city and there is a national park being constructed on these hills. Nandan Pahaad is a children's amusement place and serves as one of the principal recreational places in the city. Tapovan Pahaad has its cultural relevance found in Hindu scriptures. It is one of the amusement places in the city and serves as a habitat for monkeys..
The map shows a large area, which is a plateau with low hills, except in the eastern portion where the Rajmahal hills intrude into this area and the Ramgarh hills are there. The south-western portion is just a rolling upland. The entire area is overwhelmingly rural with only small pockets of urbanisation.
Note: The full screen map is interesting. All places marked on the map are linked in the full screen map and one can easily move on to another page of his/her choice. Enlarge the full screen map to see what else is there – one gets railway connections, many more road connections and so on.
According to the 2011 Census of India, Deoghar had a total population of 203,123, of which 107,997 (53%) were males and 95,126 (47%) were females. Population in the age range 0–6 years was 2,6893 (13%). The total number of literate persons in Deoghar was 176,230 (85.68% of the population over 6 years).
As of 2001[update] India census, Deoghar had a population of 98,372. Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. Deoghar has an average literacy rate of 76%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 82% and, female literacy is 69%. In Deoghar, 12% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Industry in Deoghar is mainly based on IT, agriculture, hospitality, petroleum, tourism, and in the service sector. Hotels like Amrapali Clarks Inn (a collab of Amrapali Groups & Clarks Inn Group of Hotels), Hotel Imperial Heights, etc. are renowned groups of hospitality industry here. Various small and middle scale industries are present in Deoghar - HIL Ltd, MR Real Food, Shree Guru Agrotech, PDRD Rice Mill, Tulsi Agro Foods. Some large industrial projects are also present:
- Jalsar Solar Park: Established by Jharkhand Renewable Energy Development Agency
- Plastic Park and Plastic Recycling unit
- Central Institute of Plastics Engineering & Technology
Indian Oil Corporation has one of its terminals in Deoghar. This is located at Badladih, Jasidih. This has a huge capacity for employment. After the opening and coming of this terminal, the unemployment rate has decreased because of many people getting jobs from this company.
Software Technology Parks of India (STPI) is a company / organization which promotes IT and technology industries. This company has set up many IT park branches in many cities such as Bangalore, Hyderabad, Patna and Ranchi. Same as the others, it has set up another IT Park branch in Deoghar. It is almost completed and opened.
Deoghar city is usually referred to as the cultural capital of Jharkhand. The official languages of the city of Deoghar are Hindi and Khortha, while other native languages like Angika and Santhali are also spoken.
The holy city of Deoghar is home to various tourist attractions such as :
- Baidyanath Dham Temple: Baidyanath Jyotirlinga temple, also commonly referred to as the Baidyanath Dham, is one of the twelve Jyotirlinga in India and is considered to be the most sacred abodes of Lord Shiva.The temple is located in Deoghar in the Santhal Parganas division of the state of Jharkhand in India. This large temple complex comprises the main temple of Baba Baidyanath, where the Jyotirlinga is installed, along with twenty-one other temples. This temple is also one of fifty one Shaktipeeth of Goddess Durga where It is believed that the heart of Sati fell at Baidyanath Dham when Lord Vishnu used the Sudarshana Chakra, to cut Sati’s corpse in order to stop Shiva’s destruction. Here the deity is worshiped in form of Jaya Durga. The temple is mentioned in several ancient scriptures and continues to be mentioned even in modern-day history books. The story of the origin of this Jyotirlinga goes back to the Treta Yuga, in the era of Lord Rama. According to popular Hindu beliefs, Ravana The King of Lanka Once felt that his capital would be incomplete and under the constant threat of enemies unless Lord Shiva decides to stay there forever. So, he went to the Himalayas to impress the Lord and started offering his heads one after another. When he was about to cut off his 10th head, Lord Shiva descended on Earth impressed by his devotee. He then cured the wounded Ravana and granted him a boon. Ravana requested Lord Shiva to allow him to take the Shivalinga back to Lanka with him to which the Lord agreed but on one condition. Lord Shiva warned Ravana that he cannot keep the Shivalinga on the ground until he reaches Lanka and if he does so it will get fixed to the ground and he will never be able to uproot it. Ravana agreed to the condition and began his journey. All the other God and Goddess were not happy with the decision because they knew, if Shiva went to Lanka with Ravana, then he would become invincible and his evil deeds would threaten the world. They met Lord Vishnu and asked him to stop Ravana, the demon king from taking the Shivalinga to Lanka. Lord Vishnu asked Lord Varun, the Ocean God to enter the stomach of Ravana at the time he performs Aachamanam during the Sandhya Vandana, the evening prayer. Aachamanam is a process of purifying by sipping drops of water while reciting the 21 names of Vishnu. When Ravana reached Deoghar, it was almost evening so he decided to perform his evening prayers. As asked, Lord Varun entered his stomach during the Aachamanam and Ravana felt an urgent need to release himself. He gave the Shivalinga to a milkman and asked him to take care of the lingam until he comes back. To utter surprise, the more Ravana released himself, the more he felt the urge. He took a long time to come back and the impatient milkman kept the shiva linga on the ground and went away. When Ravana finally returned he saw that the Shivalinga was fixed on the ground. He tried a lot to uproot it but failed miserably. Ravana damaged the Shivalinga in the process. He understood that the milkman was Lord Vishnu who pranked him and left the place in anger. Later, God and Goddess came down from heaven and established the Shivalinga. Every monsoon (in the month of Shravan) millions of devotees undertake arigorous 100 kms piligrimage on foot from Ajgaibinath, Sultanganj to offer holy water and prayers to Baba Baidyanath. The pilgrimage is deemed complete with homage paid at Basukinath which is almost 43 kms from Deoghar.
- Tapovan Caves and Hills: This series of caves and hills is located 10 km from Deoghar and has a temple of Shiva called Taponath Mahadeva. In one of the caves a Shiva lingam is installed, and it is said that Sage Valmiki came here for penance.
- Naulakha Mandir: It is a temple located 1.5 km from the 146 ft. high main temple. It is very similar to the temple of Ramakrishna Mission in Belur Math cand it is dedicated to Radha-Krishna. Since its construction cost ₹9 lakh, it is also known as Naulakha temple.
- Basukinath Temple: Basukinath is a place of worship for Hindus and is located in the Dumka district of Jharkhand on the Deoghar-Dumka state highway. Pilgrims visit the temple each year from all of India to worship the presiding deity Shiva. The crowd at the temple drastically increases in the month of Shravan. It is widely believed that the Basukinath Temple is the court of Baba Bhole Nath. The temples of Shiva and Parvati are located in front of each other in the Basukinath Temple. The gates to both of these temples open in the evening, and it is believed that Shiva and Parvati meet each other at this time. Devotees are asked to move away from the front gates of the temple. Other small temples that are dedicated to different Gods and Goddesses can also be found inside the compound.
- Satsang Ashram - It's the holy place where Sri Sri Thakur Anukuchandra had spent his life. Many devotees come everyday here to have darsan of Thakur Parivar . This is the epicenter of the Satsang Revolution and also the chief centre of this movement. In the Ashram many devotees live permanently as natives.
- Trikut Hill - Trikut Hill is a trendy picnic spot and a pilgrimage site located 21km from the main city. This Hills contains three peaks, and the highest mountain peak goes up to an elevation of 2470 feet from sea level and about 1500 feet wide ground. However, the single hill conglomeration of 3 peaks that stand together in the form of a trident and hence contributing to the name of the hill, Trikutachal. This three peaks are named after Hindu Gods, Bramha, Vishnu and Mahesh among which two peaks are only open for tourists. The foothills of the Trikut hill are encircled by the Mayurakshi River which flows majorly through the state of West Bengal, just adjacent to Jharkhand, before eventually emptying out into the Hooghly River and joining the Ganges. The origin of the Mayurakshi River, the substance of many popular literary epithets and texts in Bengali culture and tradition has its source of origin in the Trikut Pahad or Trikut Hill in English. The Trikut Pahad is also a significant location for its natural elevation for solar power projects as well as a very ambitious ropeway project that it can be accessed by which provides a panoramic view of the scenery and landscape around. The Trikut Pahad itself also provides for great view and is an ideal spot for photographic exploits. It serves as major touristic destination where people come every year to picnic and to indulge in fun activities such as Trekking, Ropeway and Wildlife Adventures It is covered by clouds in the rainy seasons and gives rise to many rivulets and streamlets that form from its slopes and continue as waterfalls before emptying into Tapovan, the spot for the famous Tapovan Mahadev temple, the revered shrine of the Hindu deity Shiva.
- Rikhiyapith - Rikhiapeeth is where Swami Satyananda lived the life of a Paramahansa Yogi, for twenty years performing long and arduous yogic sadhanas before taking Samadhi here in 2009. In keeping with the yogic and spiritual legacy he left behind, the sprawling ashram has evolved into a vibrant epicentre where serious yoga lovers and sincere spiritual seekers from all walks of life, flock to experience the peace, harmony and true joy of living a Yogic lifestyle.
- Ramakrishna Mission Vidyapith, Deoghar
The importance of Baba Baidyanath Dham increases during the month of Shrawan. During this period, many devotees crowd gathered here for worship to Baba Baidyanath. Most of the tourists and devotees first visit Sultanganj, which is 108 km from Deoghar
In Sultanganj, the Ganges flows to the north. Devotees collect water from the river in their kanwars and walk 109 km up to Baba Baidyanath temple at Babadham, reciting Bol Bam on the way. On reaching Babadham, the kanwarias first take a dip in the Shivaganga to purify themselves and then enter the Baba Baidyanath temple, where the Ganges water is offered to the Jyotirlingam. This pilgrimage continues during the whole of Shravan for 30 days, from July–August. This is the longest religious fair in the world.The sight on the way from Sultanganj to Babadham is of a 109 km long human chain of saffron-clad pilgrims. It is estimated that during Shravan around 5.0 to 5.5 million pilgrims visit Baba Baidyanath Dham.
- All India Institute of Medical Sciences - Deoghar
- Birla Institute of Technology, Deoghar (Ranchi Offcampus)
- Deoghar College - affiliated under S.K.M University
- Ramakrishna Mission Vidyapith, Deoghar
- Dev Sangha Institute of Professional Studies and Educational Research (DIPSER)
Jasidih Junction is the nearest train station serving Deoghar. It is located on the Delhi-Patna-Kolkata train route.
Deoghar Junction is the railway station located in the city. It is on the Jasidih-Dumka-Rampurhat & Jasidih-Banka-Bhagalpur line. There are trains to Ranchi, Dumka, Rampurhat, Munger, Bhagalpur, Banka, Agartala etc
- All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Deoghar is a medical school established by the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India under the Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojna (PMSSY), with the aim to provide better medical facilities and health care treatments. As of now 40-room outpatient department was inaugurated by the Minister of Health and Family Welfare, Mansukh Mandaviya, on 24 August 2021, including a night shelter facility for the patients and attendants. Online registration facilities were launched on 3 September 2021. The 750- beds inpatient department(IPD) and operation theatre will soon be opened for public. The inauguration is set to done by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
- District Hospital, Deoghar offer varies treatment and surgeries for patients. Blood bank facility is also provided for needy donor.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Deoghar.|
- Deoghar travel guide from Wikivoyage