Department of Education building
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|Department of Education building|
Location in Greater Metropolitan Sydney
|Architectural style||Edwardian Baroque|
|Address||35-39 Bridge Street, Sydney, New South Wales|
|Current tenants||NSW Department of Education and Communities|
|Owner||Government of New South Wales|
|Structural system||Reinforced concrete slabs|
|Design and construction|
|Architecture firm||Colonial Architect of New South Wales|
|Developer||Government of New South Wales|
The Department of Education building is a heritage-listed state government administrative building of the Edwardian Baroque architectural style located in Bridge Street in the Sydney central business district of New South Wales, Australia. The large public building was designed by Colonial Architect George McRae and built in two stages, the first completed in 1912, with John Reid and Son completing the second stage in 1938.
The building has been occupied by the Department of Education since its establishment, previously known as the Department of Public Instruction, and has a long association with the public life of New South Wales. Various portions of the building, previously occupied by Department of Agriculture, were subsumed by the Education Department in 1978 when the Department of Agriculture relocated to another city location.
The building occupies an entire city block, bounded by Bridge, Loftus, Bent and Young Streets and Farrer Place in the Sydney central business district. Its four detailed sandstone façades were designed to dominate the precinct. The site is the longest official seat of the head office of the New South Wales government education administration. It has been occupied since September 1912, even though the department vacated the Bridge Street building late 1989 and returned in April 1996.
History and architecture
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Under this surrounding of Government buildings, the construction of the Education building was initiated in two stages: Firstly, George McRae started the construction of the northern half of the Department of Public Instruction, now the Department of Education building using the Edwardian Baroque design. In 1901 when the Royal Australian Historical Society was founded met in a number of different venues and was eventually provided with rooms in the Department of Education building in Bridge Street.
McRae, who was named a City Architect in 1887 and later became government architect, had already worked finalising the Sydney Town Hall. McRae also added to his curriculum two Sydney monumental buildings: the Romanesque style of the QBV façade (c.1898) and the Edwardian Baroque style (also known as Federation Freestyle or Neo Baroque) of Central railway station (c.1924).
McRae latter style is characterised by sandstone structures that looked back to the 17th- and early 18th-century which developed the classical architecture of the Renaissance towards greater extravagance and drama. Its innovations included greater freedom from the conventions of the orders, much interplay of concave and convex forms, and a preference for the single visual sweep. This style was highly in vogue in Britain for government buildings at the time.
The second stage happened between 1928 and 1930. This time the southern half was designed to match the previous construction. Although, at first it was built to house the Department of Agriculture (the engraved marble over the Farrer Place entrance still reads the words “Department of Agriculture”).
Later on, it was partly occupied by the Department of Technical Education but a continued growth in the Education Department squeezed in the early 1970s both these occupants: Department of Technical Education and Department of Agriculture out.
The Department of Education building clearly demonstrates Edwardian architectural style and planning concepts; its historic features reveal Edwardian taste and customs - for example, the grand sequence from entry porch to ministerial board room. the building, especially where it remains in original condition, a particularly fine example of an early 20th-century government office building, featuring an innovative internal steel frame that allowed for future re-use. Also, some people find an influence of the Federation Warehouse style.
It is a significant example of the Edwardian architecture of the period 1915—1930. While the original design determined the overall external effect, it is interesting to see purer Beaux Arts neo-classical details occurring in the 1929 Farrer Place porch and foyer, and simplified stonework details in this portion of the building. How much they reflect taste rather than economy is unclear. Although, The scale and composition of the building was based on the need to accommodate the Department in a government building, and the size and design of the building was acceptable to the Department of Public Instruction (DPI) at the time and funding had been made available by the Treasury.
The importance of education to NSW in 1915 is evident in the number of schools the Department was able to build. Department of Public Instruction was the original name of the NSW Department of Education and Training organisation. Its name was changed to "Department of Education" by an Act of the NSW Parliament in 1957.
The Bridge Street building was the seat of various important figures such as:
Peter Board (1905–1922) who was an Inspector of Schools before he was appointed “Director of Education” (equivalent to the Director-General). Peter Board drafted the new syllabus modelled on a child centered approach with two other inspectors and was appointed Director of Education to implement the recommendations of the Commission of Inquiry into Education (1902-1905.
Sir Harold Wyndham (1952–1968) that, in the 1950s, carried out the last wide-ranging independent inquiry into public education in NSW. His findings were presented to the then education minister, and resulted in a major redirection of public education including the establishment of comprehensive high schools and changes to the Higher School Certificate (HSC). His educational scheme was introduced in NSW in 1962.
The building as conceived and built has a considerable degree of unity in its use of materials, form and scale. The external design is highly disciplined and uses a limited palette of materials such as the yellow block sandstone which originally came from quarries in Pyrmont, Ultimo, the Sydney CBD, Paddington, Bondi and Maroubra, metal framed windows, copper-clad skylights. The Education building made a major contribution to this part of Sydney, visually linking with other imposing sandstone government buildings and enhancing a number of important city vistas.
The Education Department building was occupied in September 1915. The importance of the Department had been recognized in stone if not in architectural excellence. The historic premises have been the "flagship" for the state's education system since the last century (1915–2010). The building has been long associated with key policy makers and bureaucrats.
The building was refurbished in April 1996 and to provide a high standard of modern office accommodation for its occupants while retaining the features of the early 1900s. Barclay Mowlem was engaged to provide the restoration on behalf of the NSW Public Works. Included in the scope of works was:
- Foyers and stair lobbies were preserved and enhanced, with Australian marbles in wall panelling, columns, pilasters and stair surfaces
- Installation of a fully computerised systems to control lighting, security, fire, air-conditioning and lifts, and a satellite communications centre for electronic linkage with every government school and departmental office in NSW
- construction of open-plan office areas for 700 staff.
The building is widely recognised and of State Heritage significance and there is a permanent conservation order over the building, land and curtilage of the site. It is listed in the Central Sydney Local Environmental Plan, 2000, the Register of the National Estate, the National Trust of Australia and the Royal Australian Institute of Architects (RAIA) Register of Twentieth Century Buildings of Significance, Sydney Local Environment Plan 1992.
Building Management and tenants should be aware of the building's heritage significance in that no alterations are permitted which will compromise that status. Nowadays, some repairs and maintenance are allowed by the State Heritage Regulations, 2005.
The Education building is owned by the NSW Treasury and managed by State Property, Department of Commerce and any alterations to the building have to be approved by the Heritage Council of NSW. Many of the accepted conservation policies have already been addressed. The last refurbishment of the building was done in mid-1990’s although still retaining a number of features of heritage significance. However, there is a need for ongoing conservation work to be carried out, particularly relating to the sandstone facades and to certain designated interiors.
The building has a number of elements of major heritage significance, including:
- all sandstone elevations (i.e. street frontages to top of sandstone parapet, excluding level 8); and in particular the existing fenestration and detailing
- Several foyers and related stair lobbies preserved and enhanced, with Australian marbles in wall panelling, columns, pilasters and stair surfaces, specifically:
- Bridge Street entry porch, bronze grilles and timber doors, columned lobby including corridor access doors and hardware, stair hall excluding information booth, upper stair hall including columns and memorials and corridor access doors.
- Loftus Street entry porch stair lobby and staircases serving levels 1-7, including access doors from a sub lobby into the northern offices on each level.
- Farrer Place entry porch, bronze doors, foyer including brass edged Directory Board, but excluding contemporary lift doors and surrounds.
- Minister's private entry stair linking Young Street with level 2.
- Department of Education Ministerial Board Room including panelling, and panelled doors and relate architraves, skirting and carved over-doors, plasterwork and a purpose built bookcase that dates back to 1915. The material currently in this bookcase spans the period 1883 to 1978. The greater part of the collection is dated between 1883 and 1919 and would have been acquired by the early Directors-General of Education.
William Wilkins Art Gallery
The William Wilkins Art Gallery on Level 7, 35 Bridge Street has been a venue for exhibitions of works in Painting, Drawing, Printmaking, Photo media and Sculpture.
William Wilkins implemented the plans for a government school system in New South Wales and as New South Wales was the first state in Australia to adopt a public school system, the other states originally copied his model. The government of the day brought Wilkins out from England specifically to assist with the development of the public school system as he was well known in England for his expertise and innovation in the education of young people. A few years ago,[when?] DET in collaboration with the family of William Wilkins, arranged for a headstone to be made by Miller TAFE College who provided the only stonemasonry course to students which was placed on the grave of Wilkins in Rookwood Necropolis and Justice Michael Kirby and a former student of Fort Street High School, gave the celebratory speech for the ceremony at the Wilkins gravesite during the sesquicentenary of public education in New South Wales.
- "Department of Education Building". NSW State Heritage Register. Office of Environment & Heritage, Government of New South Wales. 9 February 2015. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
- Australian Heritage Commission (1981), The Heritage of Australia: the illustrated register of the National Estate, South Melbourne: The Macmillan Company of Australia in association with the Australian Heritage Commission, p. 94, ISBN 978-0-333-33750-9
- Property Services Group (1995). The significance of the Department of Education building (Briefing). Department of Education, Government of New South Wales.
- Apperly, R.; Irving, R.; Reynolds, P. (1994). A Pictorial Guide to Identifying Australian Architecture. Angus & Robinson.
- Freeland, J. M. (1974). Architecture in Australia, A History. Penguin Books.
- Franklin, Brenda (13–14 April 2000). Material Evidence – Concerning Historic Building Fabric (Seminar).
- Education Building (Leaflet). Department of Education, Government of New South Wales.
- Government Schools of New South Wales 1848-2003. ISBN 0-7310-7976-0.
- 2004 Annual Report. Department of Education, Government of New South Wales. 2004. p. 173.
- Malone, Richard (2006). Handout written by Leader, Office Accommodation (Pamphlet). Department of Education, Government of New South Wales.
- Some information provided by courtesy of Media:The Buildings Books Trust