A dependent territory, dependent area or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence or sovereignty as a sovereign state yet remains politically outside the controlling state's integral area.
A dependency is commonly distinguished from country subdivisions by not being considered to be integral territory of the governing state. Administrative subdivisions instead are understood as typically representing a division of the state proper. A dependent territory conversely often maintains a great degree of autonomy from the controlling central state. Historically, most colonies were considered dependencies. Those dependent territories currently remaining generally maintain a very high degree of political autonomy. Not all autonomous entities, though, are considered to be dependencies, and not all dependencies are autonomous. Most inhabited dependent territories have their own ISO 3166 country codes.
Some political entities inhabit a special position guaranteed by international treaty or other agreement: creating a certain level of autonomy (e.g., differences in immigration rules). These are sometimes considered or at least grouped with dependencies, but are officially considered by their controlling states to be integral parts of the state. Examples are Åland (Finland) and Hong Kong (China).
- 1 Summary
- 2 Lists of dependent territories
- 3 Lists of similar entities
- 4 Description
- 5 Overview of dependent territories and similar entities
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes and references
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 External links
The lists below indicate (or can be interpreted to indicate) the following:
- Dependent territories
- 2 states in free association, 1 territory and 1 dependency claim in the listing for New Zealand;
- 1 uninhabited territory and 2 dependency claims in the Antarctic listing for Norway;
- 12 Overseas Territories (10 autonomous, 1 restricted to military personnel and 1 uninhabited), 3 Crown dependencies, 1 group of Sovereign Base Areas and 1 dependency claim in the listing for the United Kingdom;
- 13 unincorporated territories (5 inhabited, 8 uninhabited), 2 dependency claims and 1 unorganized incorporated territory in the listing for the United States.
- Similar entities
- 6 external territories (3 inhabited, 3 uninhabited) and 1 dependency claim in the listing for Australia;
- 2 special administrative regions in the listing for China;
- 2 constituent countries with autonomy in internal affairs in the listing for Denmark;
- 1 autonomous territory governed according to an act and international treaties in the listing for Finland;
- 6 autonomous collectivities and 2 uninhabited territories (1 of which includes a dependency claim) in the listing for France;
- 3 constituent countries with autonomy in internal affairs in the listing for the Netherlands;
- 1 internal territory with limited sovereignty in the Arctic listing for Norway.
Lists of dependent territories
This list includes all territories that have not been legally incorporated into their governing state, including several territories that are not on the list of non-self-governing territories of the General Assembly of the United Nations. Dependency claims without general international recognition, including all claims in Antarctica, are listed in italics.
Summary: the United Kingdom has 12 Overseas Territories (10 autonomous, 1 restricted to military personnel and 1 uninhabited), 3 Crown dependencies (autonomous), 1 group of Sovereign Base Areas, and 1 dependency claim.
|Akrotiri and Dhekelia||Cyprus, Mediterranean Sea||255 km2 (98 sq mi)||7,700 (Cypriots; estimate)
8,000 non-permanent (UK military personnel and their families; estimate)
|Anguilla||Caribbean, North Atlantic Ocean||"Strength and Endurance"||91 km2 (35.1 sq mi)||13,500 (2006 estimate)||The Valley|
|Bermuda||North Atlantic Ocean between the Azores, the Caribbean, Cape Sable Island and Canada||"Quo fata ferunt" (Latin; "Whither the Fates carry [us]")||54 km2 (20.8 sq mi)||64,000 (2007 estimate)||Hamilton|
|British Antarctic Territory||Antarctica||"Research and discovery"||1,709,400 km2 (660,000 sq mi)||0
50 non-permanent in winter, over 400 in summer (research personnel)
|Rothera (main base)|
|British Indian Ocean Territory||Indian Ocean||"In tutela nostra Limuria" (Latin; "Limuria is in our charge")||60 km2 (23 sq mi)||0
3,000 non-permanent (UK and US military and staff personnel; estimate)
|Diego Garcia (base)|
|British Virgin Islands||Caribbean, North Atlantic Ocean||"Vigilate" (Latin; "Be watchful")||153 km2 (59 sq mi)||27,000 (2005 estimate)||Road Town|
|Cayman Islands||Caribbean||"He hath founded it upon the seas"||264 km2 (101.9 sq mi)||64,420 (2018 estimate)||George Town|
|Falkland Islands||South Atlantic Ocean||"Desire the right"||12,173 km2 (4,700 sq mi)||2,955 (2006 census)
1,350 non-permanent (UK military personnel; 2012 estimate)
|Gibraltar||Iberian Peninsula, Continental Europe||"Nulli expugnabilis hosti" (Latin; "No enemy shall expel us")||6.5 km2 (2.5 sq mi)||28,800 (2005 estimate)
1,250 non-permanent (UK military personnel; 2012 estimate)
|Montserrat||Caribbean, North Atlantic Ocean||"A people of excellence, moulded by nature, nurtured by God"||101 km2 (39 sq mi)||4,655 (2006 estimate)||Plymouth (abandoned due to volcano—de facto capital is Brades)|
|Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands||Pacific Ocean||47 km2 (18 sq mi)||49 (2014 estimate)
6 non-permanent (2014 estimate)
|Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha,
|South Atlantic Ocean||420 km2 (162 sq mi)||5,530 (total; estimate)||Jamestown|
|Saint Helena||"Loyal and Unshakeable" (Saint Helena)||4,255 (Saint Helena; 2008 census)|
|Ascension Island||880 (Ascension; estimate)
1,000 non-permanent (Ascension; UK military personnel; estimate)
|Tristan da Cunha||"Our faith is our strength" (Tristan da Cunha)||300 (Tristan da Cunha; estimate)
9 non-permanent (Tristan da Cunha; weather personnel)
|South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands||South Atlantic Ocean||"Leo terram propriam protegat" (Latin; "Let the lion protect his own land")||4,066 km2 (1,570 sq mi)||0
99 non-permanent (officials and research personnel)
|King Edward Point|
|Turks and Caicos Islands||Lucayan Archipelago, North Atlantic Ocean||430 km2 (166 sq mi)||32,000 (2006 census)||Cockburn Town|
|English Channel||78 km2 (30 sq mi)||65,849||Saint Peter Port|
(capital of the whole Bailiwick
and of Guernsey also)
|The Seigneurie (de facto;|
Sark does not have a capital city)
|118.2 km2 (46 sq mi)||100,080||Saint Helier|
|Isle of Man||Irish Sea||"Quocunque Jeceris Stabit" (Latin;
"Whithersoever you throw it, it will stand")
|572 km2 (221 sq mi)||84,997||Douglas|
|Overall||1,728,358 km2||c. 500,926|
Summary: France has overseas 6 autonomous collectivities and 2 uninhabited territories (one of which includes an Antarctic dependency claim). This does not include its “standard” overseas regions (which are also overseas departments) of Réunion, Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana, and Mayotte—although also located overseas, they have the same status as metropolitan France's regions. Nonetheless, all of France's overseas territory is considered an integral part of the French Republic.
|Flag[note 1]||Name||Capital||Population||Land area
(inh. per km2)
|83,534||3||Overseas department / region||South America|
|3,521||78||Overseas collectivity||South Pacific Ocean|
|1,628||240||Overseas department / region||Antilles|
|1,128||329||Overseas department / region||Antilles|
|374||693||Overseas department / region||Africa
|Voted on March 29, 2009 in favour of attaining overseas department / region status. That status became effective on March 31, 2011.|
Also claimed by Comoros
|18,575.5||15||Sui generis collectivity||South Pacific Ocean||Referendum for independence occurred on November 4, 2018 with 56.4% voting against and 43.6% voting in favor of independence from France.|
|2,504||346||Overseas department / region||Africa
|25||385||Overseas collectivity||Antilles||Detached from Guadeloupe on February 22, 2007.|
|53||673||Overseas collectivity||Antilles||Detached from Guadeloupe on February 22, 2007.|
|Saint Pierre and Miquelon||Saint-Pierre||6,021
|242||25||Overseas collectivity||Southeast of Canada|
|Wallis and Futuna||Mata-Utu||12,197
|142||86||Overseas collectivity||South Pacific Ocean|
|Clipperton||–||–||–||2||French state private property||West of Mexico|
|French Southern and Antarctic Lands||Crozet Islands||–||–||340||TAAF district||South Indian Ocean|
|Kerguelen Islands||–||–||7,215||TAAF district||South Indian Ocean||population: 45 researchers in winter, 110 in summer|
|Saint-Paul Island and
|–||–||66||TAAF district||Indian Ocean|
|Adélie Land||–||–||432,000||TAAF district||Antarctica||Under terms of Antarctic Treaty System|
|Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean||Banc du Geyser||–||0||TAAF district||Africa
|Claimed by Madagascar and Comoros|
|Bassas da India||–||1||Africa
|Claimed by Madagascar|
|Claimed by Madagascar|
|Glorioso Islands||–||7||Indian Ocean||Claimed by Comoros and Madagascar|
|Juan de Nova||–||5||Africa
|Claimed by Madagascar|
|Tromelin Island||–||1||Indian Ocean||Claimed by Mauritius|
- Article 2 of the French Constitution states that the French flag is the only legal flag of France. Only French Polynesia, a collectivity, and New Caledonia, a special collectivity are allowed official flags. This right was granted to French Polynesia by a 6 September 1984, law and to New Caledonia by the Nouméa Accord. The Administrator of French Antarctica is also granted his own flag through a 23 February 2007 ordinance. Historical flags are sometimes used but have no basis in law. Many territories use unofficial flags to represent the territories. The unofficial flags are shown in this table.
Summary: the United States insular areas comprise 3 freely associated sovereign states (with Compacts of Free Association), 13 dependent territories and 2 dependency claims, and 1 incorporated territory.
|States in free association||Administration||ISO 3166 country codes|
|Federated States of Micronesia||Freely associated sovereign state for which U.S. has national defense authority and Office of Insular Affairs manages funding, access to domestic U.S. social services and other programmes as per mutually negotiated Compact of Free Association.||FM-|
|Unincorporated organized territories
|Administration||ISO 3166 country codes|
|Guam||Unincorporated organized territory of the U.S.; policy relations conducted through Office of Insular Affairs, Department of the Interior. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.||US-GU or
|Northern Mariana Islands||Commonwealth in political union with the U.S.; federal funding administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, Department of the Interior.||US-MP or
|Puerto Rico||Unincorporated organized territory of the U.S. with commonwealth status; policy relations conducted through Office of the President.||US-PR or
|U.S. Virgin Islands||Unincorporated organized territory of the U.S.; policy relations conducted by the Office of Insular Affairs, Department of the Interior. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.||US-VI or
|Unincorporated unorganized territories
|Administration||ISO 3166 country codes|
|American Samoa||Unincorporated unorganized territory administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.||US-AS or
|Midway Atoll||Unincorporated unorganized territory of the U.S. administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior. No permanent population.||US-UM-71 or
|Wake Island||Unincorporated unorganized territory of the U.S. administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior. Claimed by the Marshall Islands. No permanent population.||US-UM-79 or
|Unincorporated unorganized territories
|Administration||ISO 3166 country codes|
|Baker Island||Unincorporated unorganized territories of the U.S. administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior.||US-UM-81 or
|Howland Island||US-UM-84 or
|Jarvis Island||US-UM-86 or
|Johnston Atoll||US-UM-67 or
|Kingman Reef||US-UM-89 or
|Navassa Island||Unincorporated unorganized territory of the U.S. administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior from the Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge in Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. Claimed by Haiti and privately via the Guano Islands Act.||US-UM-76 or
|Bajo Nuevo Bank||Administered by Colombia. Claimed by the U.S. (under Guano Islands Act) and Jamaica. A claim by Nicaragua was resolved in 2012 in favor of Colombia by the International Court of Justice (U.S. not a party nor recognizes Court's jurisdiction).||within CO-SAP|
|Serranilla Bank||Administered by Colombia; site of a naval garrison. Claimed by the U.S. (since 1879 under Guano Islands Act), Honduras, and Jamaica. A claim by Nicaragua was resolved in 2012 in favor of Colombia by the International Court of Justice (U.S. not a party nor recognizes Court's jurisdiction).|
|Incorporated unorganized territory
|Administration||ISO 3166 country codes|
|Palmyra Atoll||Incorporated unorganized territory of the U.S. administered by the U.S. federal government.||US-UM-95|
Summary: The Realm of New Zealand includes two self-governing states in free association with New Zealand, one territory (Tokelau), and a territorial claim in Antarctica.
|In free association||Administration||ISO 3166 country codes|
|Cook Islands||Self-governing state in free association with New Zealand since 1965. Cook Islands' status is considered to be equivalent to independence for international law purposes, and the country exercises full sovereignty over its internal and external affairs. Under the terms of the free association agreement, however, New Zealand retains some responsibility for the foreign relations and defence of the Cook Islands. These responsibilities confer no rights of control and are exercised only at the request of the Cook Islands Government. The government of New Zealand does not consider the Cook Islands to be sovereign due to its continued use of New Zealand citizenship.||CK-|
|Niue||Self-governing state in free association with New Zealand since 1974. Niue's status is considered to be equivalent to independence for international law purposes, and the country exercises full sovereignty over its internal and external affairs. Under the terms of the free association agreement, however, New Zealand retains some responsibility for the foreign relations and defence of Niue. These responsibilities confer no rights of control and are exercised only at the request of the Government of Niue. The government of New Zealand does not consider Niue to be sovereign due to its continued use of New Zealand citizenship.||NU-|
|Territory||Administration||ISO 3166 country codes|
|Tokelau||Territory of New Zealand. As it moves toward free association with New Zealand, Tokelau and New Zealand have agreed to a draft constitution. A UN-sponsored referendum on self-governance in February 2006 did not produce the two-thirds supermajority necessary for changing the current political status. Another one was in October 2007, which failed to reach the 2⁄3 margin.||TK-|
|Ross Dependency||No permanent population. New Zealand's Antarctic claim. Unlike Tokelau and the associated states (Cook Islands and Niue), it is constitutionally part of New Zealand.||within AQ|
Summary: Norway has 1 dependent territory and 2 dependency claims.
|Dependency||Administration||ISO 3166 country codes|
|Bouvet Island||No permanent population. Dependency administered from Oslo by the Polar Affairs Department of the Ministry of Justice and the Police.||BV-|
|Peter I Island||No permanent population. Dependencies (subject to the Antarctic Treaty System) administered from Oslo by the Polar Affairs Department of the Ministry of Justice and the Police.||within AQ|
|Queen Maud Land|
Lists of similar entities
The following entities are according to the law of their state, integral parts of the state, but exhibit many characteristics of dependent territories. This list is generally limited to entities which are either subject to an international treaty on their status, uninhabited, or have a unique level of autonomy and are largely self-governing in matters other than international affairs. As a result, it does not include most entities with no unique autonomy, such as the overseas regions of France, the Home Nations of the United Kingdom, or Alaska and Hawaii, or only limited unique autonomy, such as the Autonomous Regions of Portugal, autonomous communities of Spain, or Zanzibar. Dependency claims without general international recognition, including all claims in Antarctica, are listed in italics.
Summary: Australia has 6 territories in its administration and 1 dependency claim.
Although all territories of Australia are considered to be fully integrated in its federative system, and the official status of an external territory does not differ largely from that of a mainland territory (except in regards to immigration law), debate remains as to whether the external territories are integral parts of Australia, due to their not being part of Australia in 1901, when its constituent states federated (with the exception of Coral Sea Islands which was part of Queensland). They are often listed separately for statistical purposes.
|External territories (inhabited)||Administration||ISO 3166 country codes|
|Christmas Island||Administered from Canberra by the Attorney-General's Department.||CX-|
|Cocos (Keeling) Islands||CC-|
|Norfolk Island||Commonwealth responsibilities administered from Canberra through the Attorney-General's Department.||NF-|
|External territories (uninhabited)||Administration||ISO 3166 country codes|
|Ashmore and Cartier Islands||Administered from Canberra by the Attorney-General's Department.||within AU[-ACT?]|
|Coral Sea Islands|
|Australian Antarctic Territory||Administered from Canberra by the Australian Antarctic Division of the Department of the Environment.||within AQ|
|Heard Island and McDonald Islands||HM-|
Summary: China has two special administrative regions (SARs) that are governed according to international treaties. The SARs greatly differ from mainland China in administrative, economic, legislative and judicial terms, including by currency, left- versus right-hand traffic, official languages and immigration control.
|Special Administrative Regions||Administration||ISO 3166 country codes|
|Hong Kong||Former British colony. Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China since 1997 pursuant to the Sino-British Joint Declaration, an international treaty registered with the United Nations. The Hong Kong Basic Law provides for the territory to enjoy a high degree of autonomy in accordance with the “one country, two systems” model under the central government of China. Although the territory is not part of Mainland China, it is officially considered an integral part of the People's Republic of China.||CN-HK or
|Macau||Former Portuguese colony. Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China since 1999 pursuant to the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration, an international treaty registered with the United Nations. The Macau Basic Law provides for the territory to enjoy a high degree of autonomy in accordance with the “one country, two systems” model under the central government of China. Although the territory is not part of Mainland China, it is officially considered an integral part of the People's Republic of China.||CN-MO or
The Kingdom of Denmark contains 2 self-governing countries.
|Constituent country||Administration||ISO 3166 country codes|
|Faroe Islands||Self-governing overseas administrative division since 1948. Part of Denmark, but not of the European Union.||FO-|
|Greenland||Self-governing overseas administrative division since 1979. Part of Denmark. Withdrew from the European Economic Community in 1985.||GL-|
|Division||Administration||ISO 3166 country codes|
|Åland Islands||The Åland Islands are governed according to the Act on the Autonomy of Åland and international treaties. These laws guarantee the islands' autonomy in Finland, which has ultimate sovereignty over them, as well as a demilitarized status.||AX- or
Summary: The Kingdom of the Netherlands (“Kingdom”) comprises 3 Caribbean countries with autonomy in internal affairs (listed below) and one country (the Netherlands) with most of its area in Europe but for 3 Caribbean municipalities. The 3 municipalities in the Caribbean—Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius—are not listed because they are directly administered by the Government of the Netherlands. All Kingdom citizens share the same nationality and are thus citizens of the European Union.
|Country||Administration||ISO 3166 country codes|
|Aruba||Defined as a “country” (“land”) within the Kingdom by the Statute of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Aruba obtained full autonomy in internal affairs upon separation from the Netherlands Antilles in 1986. Part of the Kingdom but not in Europe, its citizenship nonetheless includes status as Citizens of the European Union. (The Kingdom government coincides almost exactly with the Government of the Netherlands, and is responsible for defence, foreign affairs and nationality law.)||NL-AW- or
|Curaçao||Defined as a “country” (“land”) within the Kingdom by the Statute of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Curaçao and Sint Maarten were part of the Netherlands Antilles until it was dissolved in October 2010. Part of the Kingdom but not in Europe, their citizenship nonetheless includes status as Citizens of the European Union. (The Kingdom government coincides almost exactly with the Government of the Netherlands, and is responsible for defence, foreign affairs and nationality law.)||NL-CW- or
|Sint Maarten||NL-SX- or
Summary: Norway has, in the Arctic, one uninhabited island (Jan Mayen) and one inhabited archipelago whose Norwegian sovereignty is limited—Svalbard. Unlike the country's Antarctic dependent territory (Bouvet Island) and dependency claims (see above), both are part of the Kingdom of Norway.
|Division||Administration||ISO 3166 country codes|
|Svalbard||This Arctic archipelago is the northernmost permanent civilian settlement in the world. Not incorporated into any county, it is administered by a governor appointed by the Norwegian government. Since 2002, main settlement Longyearbyen has elected a local government; other settlements include the Russian mining community of Barentsburg, the research station of Ny-Ålesund, and the mining outpost of Sveagruva. The Svalbard Treaty of 1920 recognizes Norwegian sovereignty (since 1925 a full part of the Kingdom of Norway) but established Svalbard as a free economic zone and a demilitarized zone.||SJ or|
|Jan Mayen||Situated southwest of Svalbard, Jan Mayen is a remote uninhabited volcanic Arctic island. An integral part of the Kingdom of Norway, Jan Mayen is administered by the County Governor (fylkesmann) of the northern Norwegian county of Nordland. However, some authority is assigned to the Norwegian Defence Logistics Organisation station commander.|
Three Crown dependencies are in a form of association with the U.K. They are independently administrated jurisdictions, although the British Government is solely responsible for defence and international representation and has ultimate responsibility for ensuring good government. They do not have diplomatic recognition as independent states, but neither are they integrated into the U.K. (nor the European Union). The U.K. Parliament retains the ability to legislate for the Crown dependencies even without agreement of their legislatures. No Crown dependency has representation in the U.K. Parliament.
Although British Overseas Territories, Bermuda and Gibraltar have similar relationships to the U.K. as the Crown dependencies. While Britain is officially responsible for defence and international representation, these jurisdictions maintain their own militaries and have been granted limited diplomatic powers, in addition to having internal self-government.
Puerto Rico (since 1952) and the Northern Mariana Islands (since 1986) are non-independent states freely associated with the United States. The mutually negotiated Covenant to Establish a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) in Political Union with the United States was approved in 1976. The Covenant was fully implemented November 3, 1986, pursuant to Presidential Proclamation no. 5564, which conferred United States citizenship on legally qualified CNMI residents. Under the Constitution of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico is described as a Commonwealth and Puerto Ricans have a degree of administrative autonomy similar to citizens of a U.S. state. Puerto Ricans "were collectively made U.S. citizens" in 1917 as a result of the Jones-Shafroth Act. The commonly used name in Spanish of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, literally "Associated Free State of Puerto Rico", which sounds similar to "free association" particularly when loosely used in Spanish, is sometimes erroneously interpreted to mean that Puerto Rico's relationship with United States is based on a Compact of Free Association and at other times erroneously held to mean that Puerto Rico's relationship with United States is based on an Interstate compact. This is a constant source of ambiguity and confusion when trying to define, understand and explain Puerto Rico's political relationship with the United States. For various reasons Puerto Rico's political status differs from that of the Pacific Islands that entered into Compacts of Free Association with the United States. As sovereign states, these islands have full right to conduct their own foreign relations, while the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico has territorial status subject to United States congressional authority under the Constitution's Territory Clause, "to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory… belonging to the United States.". Puerto Rico does not have the right to unilaterally declare independence, and at the last referendum (1998) the narrow majority voted for "none of the above", which was a formally undefined alternative used by commonwealth supporters to express their desire for an "enhanced commonwealth" option.
This kind of relationship also can be found in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which is termed a federacy. The European continental part is organized like a unitary state; however, the status of its Caribbean countries (Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten) can be considered dependencies or “associated non-independent states.”
The Kingdom of Denmark also operates in a similar manner: another federacy. The Faroes and Greenland are two self-governing territories or regions within the Kingdom. The relationship between Denmark proper and these two territories is semi-officially termed the Rigsfællesskabet (“Unity of the Realm”).
Overview of dependent territories and similar entities
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2018)
- Associated state
- List of autonomous areas by country
- List of current dependent territory leaders
- List of sovereign states
- List of former sovereign states – Section: Former colonies, possessions, protectorates and territories
- List of administrative divisions by country
- Territorial claims in Antarctica
- United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories
- Minister of the Colonies
- Ministry of the Colonies
Notes and references
This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.
- United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1514
- "United Nations Trusteeship Council".
- United Nations General Assembly 15th Session – The Trusteeship System and Non-Self-Governing Territories (pages:509–510) Archived March 20, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- Listaba.com[permanent dead link]
- The World Factbook. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
- For the list, see Special Committee on Decolonization (2002). "Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories". United Nations, Special Committee on Decolonization. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
- "SBA Cyprus". Jncc.gov.uk. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
- "British Antarctic Territory". Jncc.gov.uk. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
- "Commonwealth Secretariat – Anguilla". Thecommonwealth.org. Archived from the original on 17 December 2010. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
- "UNdata | record view | Surface area in km2". United Nations. 4 November 2009. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
- "Bermuda". Jncc.gov.uk. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
- "Commonwealth Secretariat – British Antarctic Territory". Thecommonwealth.org. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
- "British Indian Ocean Territory". Jncc.gov.uk. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
- "Commonwealth Secretariat – British Indian Ocean Territory". Thecommonwealth.org. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
- "British Virgin Islands (BVI)". Jncc.gov.uk. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
- "Economics and Statistics Office - Labour Force Survey Report Spring 2018" (PDF). www.eso.ky. Cayman Islands Economics and Statistics Office. August 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
- "Commonwealth Secretariat – Falkland Islands". Thecommonwealth.org. 14 June 1982. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
- "Gibraltar". Jncc.gov.uk. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
- "Commonwealth Secretariat – Gibraltar". Thecommonwealth.org. 7 November 2002. Archived from the original on 6 March 2010. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
- "Montserrat". Jncc.gov.uk. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
- "Pitcairn Island". Jncc.gov.uk. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
- Rob Solomon and Kirsty Burnett (January 2014) Pitcairn Island Economic Review. government.pn. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
- "Pitcairn Residents". puc.edu. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
- "UN Statistics – St Helena census 2008" (PDF). United Nations. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 June 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
- "St Helena, Ascension, Tristan da Cunha profiles". BBC. 16 March 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
- Vital Statistics – SOUTH GEORGIA AND THE SOUTH SANDWICH ISLANDS. 22 January 1993. CIA WORLD FACTBOOK 1992 via the Libraries of the Univ. of Missouri-St. Louis.
- "Population of Grytviken, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands". Population.mongabay.com. 31 March 2009. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
- "Turks and Caicos Islands". Jncc.gov.uk. 1 November 2009. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
- INSEE. "Estimation de population par région, sexe et grande classe d'âge - Années 1975 à 2018" (in French). Retrieved 2018-02-16.
- INSEE. "Base chiffres clés : évolution et structure de la population 2010" (in French). Retrieved January 31, 2014.
- "La population légale au 17 août 2017 : 275 918 habitants". ISPF. Retrieved 2018-02-16.
- INSEE. "Tableau Économique de Mayotte 2010" (PDF) (in French). p. 21. Retrieved January 31, 2014.
- ISEE. "Bilan démographique 2016" (in French). Retrieved 2018-02-16.
- ISEE. "Tableaux de l'Economie Calédonienne : Population, superficie et densité par commune et province en 2009" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved January 31, 2014.
- INSEE, Government of France. "Populations légales 2015 des départements et collectivités d'outre-mer" (in French). Retrieved 2018-02-16.
- INSEE. "Actualités : 2008, An 1 de la collectivité de Saint-Barthélemy" (in French). Retrieved January 31, 2014.
- INSEE. "Actualités : 2008, An 1 de la collectivité de Saint-Martin" (in French). Retrieved January 31, 2014.
- STSEE. "Populations légales au recensement de la population 2013 de Wallis et Futuna" (in French). Retrieved January 31, 2014.
- Ministry of Overseas France. "L'île de Clipperton" (in French). Retrieved January 31, 2014.
- Délégation générale à l'outre-mer. "Terres Australes et Antarctiques Françaises : Données géographiques et humaines" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved January 31, 2014.
- Conan, Neal. "Pacific News Minute: Cook Islands Bid for UN Membership On Hold".
- New Zealand and Antarctica. NZ Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2010
- Carney, Gerard (2006). The constitutional systems of the Australian states and territories. Canberra: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-86305-6.
- First Assistant Secretary, Territories Division (2008-01-30). "Territories of Australia". Attorney-General's Department. Archived from the original on 2007-12-16. Retrieved 2008-02-07.
The Federal Government, through the Attorney-General's Department administers Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, the Coral Sea Islands, Jervis Bay, and Norfolk Island as Territories.
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- Willis Island is permanently manned by a small team of meteorologists.
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- 2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报（第1号） Archived 2012-06-18 at the Wayback Machine. Stats.gov.cn. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
- 項懷誠：香港是社保基金境外投資的首選地之一. Big5.huaxia.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
- Dependencies and Areas of Special Sovereignty, US Department of State. "Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius now fall under the direct administration of the Netherlands". Retrieved 17 June 2016.
- CIA (2010-07-15). "Northern Mariana Islands at the CIA's page". CIA. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
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