United States military deployments

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US Troops presence oversea map as of 30 Sep 2021

The military of the United States is deployed in most countries around the world, with between 150,000 to 200,000 of its active-duty personnel stationed outside the United States and its territories.[1] This list consists of deployments excepting active combat deployments, which consist of troops in Iraq[2] and Syria.[3] The exact number of these troops is currently in flux due to troop withdrawals.[4][5]

Outside of active combat, US personnel are typically deployed as part of several peacekeeping missions, military attachés, or are part of embassy and consulate security. Nearly 40,000 are assigned to classified missions in locations that the US government refuses to disclose.[6]

Current deployments[edit]

The following regional tables provide detail of where personnel from the five major branches of the US military are currently deployed. These numbers do not include any military or civilian contractors or dependents. Additionally, countries in which US military are engaged in active combat operations are not included. The numbers are based on the most recent United States Department of Defense statistics as of December 31, 2021.[1]

Americas[edit]

Jurisdiction Total Army Navy USMC USAF USCG
 United States
(excl. Alaska & Hawaii)
1,120,097 392,532 288,878 143,312 259,818 35,557
 Alaska 20,593 10,052 35 22 8,681 1,803
Guantanamo Bay 650 149 460 35 6
 Honduras 373 206 2 20 144 1
 Puerto Rico 168 86 36 24 22
 Canada 150 16 39 13 77 5
 Greenland 147 147
other 656 121 149 289 68 29
Total 1,142,834 403,162 289,599 143,715 268,957 37,401

East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Pacific Ocean[edit]

Jurisdiction Total Army Navy USMC USAF USCG
 Japan 56,862 2,517 20,934 20,479 12,912 20
 Hawaii 42,974 15,530 12,780 7,954 5,438 1,272
South Korea 25,373 16,777 355 233 8,007 1
 Guam 6,281 215 3,801 86 2,179
 Australia 382 31 56 205 89 1
 Singapore 203 9 161 10 19 4
 Philippines 179 9 9 151 9 1
 Thailand 100 32 10 34 24
other 306 62 31 183 26 4
Total 132,660 35,182 38,137 29,335 28,703 1,303

Europe[edit]

US military bases in Germany in 2014
Jurisdiction Total Army Navy USMC USAF USCG
 Germany 35,689 21,863 422 433 12,960 11
 Italy 12,715 4,190 3,480 299 4,744 2
United Kingdom 9,683 168 216 55 9,231 13
 Spain 3,106 26 2,621 95 363 1
 Belgium 1,132 616 91 36 389
 Netherlands 424 134 32 15 214 29
 Greece 397 9 355 10 23
 Portugal 242 3 46 19 174
 Poland 176 45 91 11 29
 Romania 134 19 94 9 12
other 655 121 68 299 161 6
Total 64,353 27,194 7,516 1,281 28,300 62

West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, Africa, and Indian Ocean[edit]

Jurisdiction Total Army Navy USMC USAF USCG
 Bahrain 4,009 19 3,149 337 19 485
 Turkey 1,754 154 5 35 1,560
 Kuwait 862 603 3 215 41
 Qatar 464 203 4 48 209
 Djibouti 364 3 2 357 2
 Saudi Arabia 326 187 20 47 62 10
 Egypt 294 241 8 25 20
Diego Garcia 231 231
United Arab Emirates 187 26 18 65 78
 Iraq 158 5 1 151 1
 Kenya 124 16 5 96 7
 Jordan 110 58 3 36 13
 Israel 105 56 5 32 12
other 935 147 61 633 94
Total 9,923 1,718 3,515 2,077 2,118 495

Unspecified[edit]

Jurisdiction Total Army Navy USMC USAF USCG
Overseas
(incl. unincorporated US territories)
8,109 190 3,699 2,122 1,154 944
Domestic
(50 states and District of Columbia)
5,974 5,974
Total 14,083 6,164 3,699 2,122 1,154 944

Analysis[edit]

Effects of Military Deployments on Host Economy and Community[edit]

The stated benefits of hosting a US military base, especially for underdeveloped countries, include learning new marketing strategies, development of modern technology found in the US, and increased security from the presence of a large-scale military. Moreover, the initial creation of the base creates brief economic growth as materials are purchased from the local markets, and construction jobs are out-sourced to the local residents.[7] One year, 2005, upwards of 80,000 locals were employed by US bases in foreign countries.[8] As long as it is not central to the US global defense, and thus the US does not have a strong incentive to stay under the presence of human rights violations, the host state may also show increased respect for human rights.[9]

The negative effects include relocation of and violence against native residents, which may also lead to destruction of local government; negative environmental impacts including the destruction of native landscape; and economic dependence created by the newly implemented marketing strategies and technology.[10] The presence of US military can also have direct effects on increase in prostitution and sex-trafficking, because of the greater demand for adult entertainment created through the surge of mainly male residents in these areas.[11] Moreover, the significant physical space taken up by the base could instead be used for schools, businesses or housing amenities which can support the local economy and increase skilled workers.[12]

Effects of Military Deployments on the United States[edit]

In addition to impacts on the host country, there are also many impacts of military deployments on military families. In the United States, about 1.4 million children have a parent in the military.[13] In many studies of military deployments, it is proven that there are negative impacts on not only the soldier, but also the military spouse and children. Military deployments are associated with higher suicide rates, behavioral problems in children, and a higher risk of divorce.[14] In a study of 1,507 children aged 11–17 with a deployed parent, it was found that these children had more emotional difficulties than children in national samples.[15]

Veteran families may experience conflict from actions or feelings of withdrawal, numbing, and irritability that are caused by post-traumatic stress disorder. Generally, these families also struggle with role ambiguity from the parent or partner that was deployed, due to anxiety and/or post-traumatic stress disorder.[16]

Impact on Childhood Development[edit]

Notably, the number of spouses/partners and children of deployed military personnel far outnumber the actual number of service members. These families must navigate long or extended deployment separations, relocations, destruction of familial routines or role changes, and the threat posed against their loved one. This combined with contextual factors, such as living arrangements during deployment, stress levels of the parent who remains home, and frequency of contact with the deployed parent can positively or adversely impact the family members, and lead to increased rate of mental health issues, work/academic issues, internal familial conflict, or maltreatment. These stressors pose a significant threat to the development of the children, depending on how old they are when they occur. For instance, young children may not fully understand the implications and threats posed on their loved one during deployment, but their definite absence in an indefinite amount of time can be highly stressful.

Children under five experience the most significant physical, emotional, and cognitive advancements because this occurs during this first five years of life, and they also make up the largest group of children with deployed service members (i.e., parents). Children above three with a deployed parent, are more likely to display behavior problems, such as need for attention, clinginess, temper tantrums, questions regarding deployed parents, defiance, appetite changes, and sleep problems or nightmares.

Elementary school-aged children may also be hindered by their limited coping/problem-solving skills regarding their parent's absence. Middle school-aged children may be more heavily impacted due to pubertal transitions and elicited questions or increased responsibilities to help out at home. Within this age group, significant levels of anxiety, both separation anxiety and physical symptoms, were found, and a study of five- to twelve-year-olds showed that one-third was in high-risk range for “psychosocial morbidity”, according to the Pediatric Symptom Checklist. Acute stress reaction/adjustments, mood, and behavioral disorders are also common.[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Number of Military and DoD Appropriated Fund (APF) Civilian Personnel Permanently Assigned By Duty Location and Service/Component (as of December 31, 2021)". Defense Manpower Data Center. March 22, 2022.
  2. ^ "US cites 'great sacrifice' as it pulls 2,200 troops out of Iraq". Al Jazeera. September 9, 2020.
  3. ^ Bo Williams, Katie (November 2, 2020). "Outgoing Syria Envoy Admits Hiding US Troop Numbers; Praises Trump's Mideast Record". Defense One.
  4. ^ Brannen, Kate; Goodman, Ryan (October 7, 2020). "We're suing the Pentagon to find out where U.S. troops are deployed". Washington Post.
  5. ^ "'Endless Wars,' Here's Where About 200,000 Troops Remain". New York Times. October 21, 2019.
  6. ^ "America's Forever wars". New York Times. 23 October 2017.
  7. ^ "U.S. Military Deployment and Host-Nation Economic Growth". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  8. ^ Johnson, Chalmers A.; Chalmers, Johnson (2007). Nemesis: The Last Days of the American Republic. Scribe Publications. ISBN 978-1-921215-76-6.
  9. ^ Bell, Sam R.; Clay, K. Chad; Martinez Machain, Carla (2017). "The Effect of US Troop Deployments on Human Rights". Journal of Conflict Resolution. 61 (10): 2020–2042. doi:10.1177/0022002716632300. S2CID 156333176. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  10. ^ MacLeish, Kenneth T. (2010). "The Bases of Empire: The Global Struggle against U.S. Military Posts edited by Catherine Lutz". American Ethnologist. 37 (2): 385–386. doi:10.1111/j.1548-1425.2010.01262_5.x. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  11. ^ Allen, Michael A; Flynn, Michael E (2013). "Putting our best boots forward: US military deployments and host-country crime". Conflict Management and Peace Science. 30 (3): 263–285. doi:10.1177/0738894213484055. ISSN 0738-8942. JSTOR 26275359. S2CID 41077614.
  12. ^ Vines, David; Yen, Jonathan. Base nation : how U.S. military bases abroad harm America and the world. ISBN 978-1-4945-6541-1. OCLC 956554400. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  13. ^ a b Alfano, Candice A.; Lau, Simon; Balderas, Jessica; Bunnell, Brian E.; Beidel, Deborah C. (February 2016). "The impact of military deployment on children: Placing developmental risk in context". Clinical Psychology Review. 43: 17–29. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2015.11.003. ISSN 0272-7358. PMID 26655960.
  14. ^ Schell, Terry L.; Griffin, Beth Ann; Jaycox, Lisa H.; Friedman, Esther M.; Trail, Thomas E.; Beckman, Robin L.; Ramchand, Rajeev; Hengstebeck, Natalie; Troxel, Wendy M.; Ayer, Lynsay; Vaughan, Christine Anne (2016-04-15). "How Military Families Respond Before, During and After Deployment: Findings from the RAND Deployment Life Study". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  15. ^ Creech, Suzannah K.; Hadley, Wendy; Borsari, Brian (December 2014). "The Impact of Military Deployment and Reintegration on Children and Parenting: A Systematic Review". Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 45 (6): 452–464. doi:10.1037/a0035055. ISSN 0735-7028. PMC 4383395. PMID 25844014.
  16. ^ McFarlane, Alexander (July 2009). "Military deployment: the impact on children and family adjustment and the need for care". Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 22 (4): 369–73. doi:10.1097/YCO.0b013e32832c9064. PMID 19424067. S2CID 33825488 – via Lippincott Research.

Further reading[edit]