Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
|Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom|
|Government of the United Kingdom|
|Style||Deputy Prime Minister|
The Right Honourable
(UK and Commonwealth)
National Security Council
|Reports to||Prime Minister|
|Residence||None, may use Grace and favour residences|
on advice of the Prime Minister
|Term length||No fixed term|
|Formation||19 February 1942|
|First holder||Clement Attlee|
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|United Kingdom politics|
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Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (DPM) is an office sometimes given to a cabinet minister in the Government of the United Kingdom. The office is not permanent, existing only at the discretion of the Prime Minister, who may use another office, such as First Secretary of State, to give seniority to a particular cabinet minister.
Because they effectively represent the Prime Minister's deputy, some journalists and others may informally refer to the First Secretary of State or other senior ministers as the Deputy Prime Minister.
Unlike analogous offices in some other nations, such as the Vice President of the United States or Tánaiste, the office of Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is absent from the UK's uncodified constitution. This includes the fact that, by virtue of the office, the Deputy Prime Minister has no executive powers, no automatic sucession to the role of Prime Minister and no automatic ministerial salary. However, the designation of someone to the role of Deputy Prime Minister may provide additional practical status within the cabinet, enabling exercise of de facto, if not de jure, power.
Absence of the office in the constitution
Theoretically the sovereign possesses the unrestricted right to choose someone to form a government[note 1] following the death, resignation or dismissal of a Prime Minister.[note 2] Thus, one argument made to justify the non-existence of a permanent deputy is that such an office-holder would be seen as possessing a presumption of succession to the premiership, thereby effectively limiting the sovereign's right to choose a prime minister.[note 3]
However, only two Deputy Prime Ministers have gone on to become Prime Minister and not because either had been Deputy Prime Minister: Clement Attlee because he led his party to victory in the 1945 general election and Anthony Eden because he became Leader of the Conservative party after Churchill in 1955.
The intermittent existence of a Deputy Prime Minister has been on occasion so informal that there have been a number of occasions on which dispute has arisen as to whether or not the office has actually been conferred.
The office of Deputy Prime Minister is not recognised in UK's uncodified constitution, so any post-holder must be given an additional office in order to have any executive powers or be paid a ministerial salary. For instance, Nick Clegg was also appointed Lord President of the Council.
On some occasions the post of First Secretary of State has been similarly used: when John Prescott lost his departmental responsibilities in 2001, he was given the office to enable him to retain a ministerial post and Michael Heseltine was similarly appointed.
The Deputy Prime Ministership, where it exists, may bring with it practical influence depending on the status of the holder, rather than the status of the position.
Labour Party leader Clement Attlee held the post in the wartime coalition government led by Winston Churchill, and had general responsibility for domestic affairs, allowing Churchill to concentrate on the war. Rab Butler held the post in 1962–63 under Harold Macmillan, but was passed over for the premiership in favour of Alec Douglas-Home.
During Edward Heath's government (1970–1974), the office of Deputy Prime Minister was not formally used. However, in his Memoirs, Home Secretary Reginald Maudling described himself as Deputy Prime Minister under Heath from 1970 to his resignation in 1972 over the Poulson affair. William Armstrong, head of the Civil Service, was also called Heath's Deputy Prime Minister. The Deputy Leader of the Labour Party, Ted Short, was Leader of the House of Commons from 1974 to 1976 under Harold Wilson and often thought of as Deputy Prime Minister; he was referred to as such in the citation for being made an Honorary Freeman of the City of Newcastle upon Tyne.
William Whitelaw was Margaret Thatcher's de facto deputy from 1979–1988, an unofficial position he combined with that of Home Secretary in 1979–1983 and Leader of the House of Lords after 1983. Sir Geoffrey Howe was bestowed the office of Deputy Prime Minister by Thatcher in 1989, on being removed from the post of Foreign Secretary. He resigned as her deputy in 1990, making a resignation speech that is widely thought to have hastened Thatcher's downfall. Thatcher's successor John Major did not appoint a Deputy Prime Minister until 1995, when Michael Heseltine was given the office.
John Prescott, who was elected Deputy Leader of the Labour Party in opposition, was appointed Deputy Prime Minister by Tony Blair in 1997, in addition to being Secretary of State for the Environment, Transport and the Regions. In 2001 this "superdepartment" was split up, with Prescott being given his own Office of the Deputy Prime Minister with fewer specific responsibilities. In May 2006, the department was removed from the control of the Deputy Prime Minister and renamed as the Department for Communities and Local Government with Ruth Kelly as the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government.
Following the 2010 general election, which returned a hung parliament, the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats agreed to form a coalition government. As leader of the smaller of the two parties in the coalition, Nick Clegg was appointed Deputy Prime Minister on the advice of the new Prime Minister, Conservative leader David Cameron. During the coalition William Hague was appointed by Cameron as First Secretary of State, the only time that both positions have existed concurrently but been held by different people. As the position of Deputy Prime Minister would not entitle Clegg to a ministerial salary he was also appointed to the sinecure position of Lord President of the Council.
Clegg was the last person to officially hold the post as, following the subsequent 2015 election, in which the Conservatives won an overall majority in the House of Commons, Cameron decided not to appoint a replacement. He chose instead to appoint the Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne as First Secretary of State— effectively his deputy. After the 2016 referendum on European Union membership, and David Cameron's subsequent resignation, his successor as Prime Minister, Theresa May, also chose not to appoint an individual to either position. Following the 2017 snap general election, May again did not appoint a Deputy Prime Minister but did appoint Damian Green as First Secretary of State.
After Green's resignation in 2017, the de facto Deputy Prime Minister function and responsibility was carried out by David Lidington in the office as Minister for the Cabinet Office, before passing to new First Secretary of State Dominic Raab in 2019.
Office and residence
The Deputy Prime Minister's Office (DPMO) is a non-statutory, and has never been a departmental, office, only being formed when a deputy prime minister is appointed. The most recent Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg maintained an office at the Cabinet Office headquarters, 70 Whitehall, which is linked to 10 Downing Street. Clegg's predecessor, John Prescott, maintained his main office at 26 Whitehall.
The person who holds the post also has no official residence. As a cabinet minister, however, they may have the use of a grace and favour London residence and country house. While in office, Nick Clegg resided at his private residence in Putney, London, and he shared Chevening House with former Foreign Secretary William Hague as a weekend residence. Clegg's predecessor, John Prescott, had the use of a flat in Admiralty House and used Dorneywood as his country residence.
List of Deputy Prime Ministers
|Name||Picture||Term of office||Party||Ministerial office(s)||PM|
|Clement Attlee||19 February 1942||23 May 1945||Labour (Leader)[note 4]||Churchill|
|Herbert Morrison||26 July 1945||26 October 1951||Labour (Deputy Leader)||Attlee|
(I & II)
|Anthony Eden||26 October 1951||6 April 1955||Conservative||Churchill|
|Office not in use||1955–1962||N/A||Eden|
|Rab Butler||13 July 1962||18 October 1963||Conservative|
|Office not in use||1963–1989[note 5]||N/A||Home|
|Geoffrey Howe||24 July 1989||1 November 1990||Conservative|
|Office not in use||1990–1995||N/A||Major|
|Michael Heseltine||20 July 1995||2 May 1997||Conservative|
|John Prescott||2 May 1997||27 June 2007||Labour (Deputy Leader)||Blair|
|Office not in use||2007–2010||N/A||Brown|
|Nick Clegg||11 May 2010||8 May 2015||Liberal Democrats (Leader)[note 4]||Cameron|
|Office not in use||2015–present||N/A||Cameron|
- Deputy Leader of the Conservative Party (UK)
- Deputy Leader of the Labour Party (UK)
- First Secretary of State
- In the British constitutional tradition, the sovereign invites someone to form a government "capable of surviving in the House of Commons". This is not the same as having a majority. In theory a minority government could survive if the opposition parties were divided on issues and so failed to all vote together against the government. In times of national emergency, sovereigns set a different, higher standard, namely that a government be formed "capable of commanding a majority in the House of Commons". In the event of no party possessing a majority, this forces the party invited to form a government to enter into a coalition with another party. This latter request was made on only a handful of cases, most notably in 1916 when King George V invited Bonar Law to form a government, who declined so the King invited David Lloyd George to form a government. Lloyd George was forced by the nature of his commission to form a coalition government.
- No Prime Minister has been dismissed by a sovereign since 1834. Except in exceptional circumstances it is thought unlikely that a prime minister would ever be dismissed.
- In practice the monarch's choice has been limited by the evolution of a clear party structure, with each party possessing a structure by which leaders are elected. Only where no party has a majority, or where a division exists between the person chosen by the party's electoral college and its MPs on who should be prime minister, can a modern sovereign expect to freely choose whom to appoint.
- Leader of the junior party in a coalition government.
- William Whitelaw, 1st Viscount Whitelaw served as deputy leader of the Conservative Party under Thatcher and Major from 1975 to 1991. Although he served in cabinet from 1979 to 1988 he never officially acquired the title of Deputy Prime Minister. The Deputy Leaders of the Labour Party when Labour was in office during this period too did not hold the title of Deputy Prime Minister.
- Ministerial and other Salaries Act 1975 Sch 1.
- Priddy, Sarah (30 April 2020). "Attendance of the Prime Minster at Prime Minister's Questions (PMQs) since 1979". House of Commons Library.
- Stanley de Smith and Rodney Brazier, Constitutional and Administrative Law (Penguin, 1989) p.116.
- Ziegler, Philip. "How the last Tory-Liberal deal fell apart" The Sunday Times, 9 May 2010.
- Hennessy, Peter (2001). "A Tigress Surrounded by Hamsters: Margaret Thatcher, 1979–90". The Prime Minister: The Office and Its Holders since 1945. Penguin Group. ISBN 978-0-14-028393-8.
- Stewart, Heather. "Theresa May appoints close ally Damian Green as first secretary of state". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- "Nick Clegg could be given use of stately home where John Prescott played croquet". Telegraph. 13 May 2010. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- "Deputy Prime Minister | Contact us". Archive.cabinetoffice.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 16 May 2010. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- "Hague and Clegg given timeshare of official residence". BBC News. 18 May 2010. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- Clegg To Be Cameron's Deputy In New Cabinet Sky News Archived 15 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- "Lib Dem leader Nick Clegg to be deputy PM". Reuters. 12 May 2010.