Derry/Londonderry name dispute

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A defaced road-sign at nearby Strabane, County Tyrone, in which the "London" in "Londonderry" has been daubed over with black paint.
A sign near the N13 in County Donegal, Republic of Ireland, reads Derry in English (and Doire in Irish)

The names of the city and county of Derry or Londonderry in Northern Ireland are the subject of a naming dispute between Irish nationalists and unionists. Generally, although not always, nationalists favour using the name Derry, and unionists Londonderry. Legally, the city and county are called "Londonderry",[1] while the local government district containing the city is called "Derry City and Strabane".[2][3] The naming debate became particularly politicised at the outset of the Troubles, with the mention of either name acting as a shibboleth used to associate the speaker with one of Northern Ireland's two main communities. The district of Derry and Strabane was created in 2015, subsuming a district created in 1973 with the name "Londonderry", which changed to "Derry" in 1984.[4]

History[edit]

Origins of the name[edit]

The earliest Irish name for the site of the modern city was Daire Calgaich, Old Irish for "oak wood of Calgach", after an unknown pagan.[5][6][7] John Keys O'Doherty, the Roman Catholic Bishop of Derry from 1889 to 1907, sought to identify Calgach with Agricola's opponent Calgacus,[5] whereas Patrick Weston Joyce says Calgach, meaning "fierce warrior", was a common given name.[8] A Celtic Christian monastery was founded at Daire Calgaich in the sixth century;[9] Adomnán names Saint Columba as founder.[7][9] The name was changed to Daire Coluimb Chille, "oak wood of Columba",[6][7] first mentioned in the Annals of Ulster for 1121.[10] As the monastic site grew in prominence, the name was reduced to just Doire (now pronounced [ˈd̪ˠɛɾʲə]).[6] This was later anglicised to Derry. In 1604, "Derrie" was granted its first royal charter as a city and county corporate by James I of England.[11] The settlement was destroyed in 1608 by Cahir O'Doherty, Irish chieftain of Inishowen.[12]

The London connection[edit]

During the Plantation of Ulster by English and Scottish settlers, a new walled city was built across the River Foyle from the old site by the Irish Society, a consortium of the livery companies of the City of London.[13] In recognition of the London investors, the 1613 charter stated "that the said city or town of Derry, for ever hereafter be and shall be named and called the city of Londonderry".[14][15] The county was created by the same charter, largely based on the previous county of Coleraine, and named "Londonderry" after the new county town.[16][15] A new city charter in 1662 confirmed the name "Londonderry" for the city.[17][18] The Municipal Corporations (Ireland) Act 1840 reformed the municipal corporation and renamed it from "The Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of Londonderry" to "The Mayor, Commonalty, and Citizens of Londonderry".[15][19] Under the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898, the city of Londonderry became the county borough of Londonderry,[20] and the rest of the "judicial county" of Londonderry became the "administrative county" of Londonderry.[21]

Pronunciation of Londonderry[edit]

Historically, Londonderry was pronounced in Ireland as /ˌlʌndənˈdɛri/, with primary stress on the third syllable and secondary stress on the first syllable.[22] In England, it was pronounced /ˈlʌndəndəri/, with primary stress on the first syllable and the third syllable reduced or elided.[22] This latter is still used for the Marquess of Londonderry's title;[23] otherwise, the usual pronunciation now is /ˈlʌndəndɛri/ with primary stress on the first syllable and secondary stress on the third syllable.[23] In 1972, Lord Shackleton commented, 'I very much hope that Ministers will stop talking about "Londond'ry". If they do not call it "Derry" they might at least call it "Londonderry".'[24]

Historical usage[edit]

Before the outbreak of the Troubles in the late 1960s, the name was less contentious.[25] While "Londonderry" was the official and formal name, most people in Northern Ireland called it "Derry" in informal speech.[25] The name became a shibboleth when sectarian tensions increased.[25] Samuel Lewis' 1837 Topographical Dictionary of Ireland said "It was originally and is still popularly called Derry [...] the English prefix London was imposed in 1613 [...] and was for a long time retained by the colonists, but has [...] fallen into popular disuse".[26] The 1837 Ordnance Survey Memoir of the area concurs, and remarks "this mode of abbreviation is usual in Ireland, whenever the name of a place is compounded of two distinct and easily separable words; thus [...] Carrickfergus is shortened into Carrick, Downpatrick into Down, [...] etc."[6] Occasionally, acts of the Irish (pre-1801) or UK (post-1801) parliaments referred to the city[27] or county[28] as "Derry".

Administrative subdivisions of various types were named after the city, including the barony of North West Liberties of Londonderry, townland and poor law union [PLU; later superintendent registrar's district] of Londonderry, county districts of Londonderry Nos. 1 and 2,[n 1] dispensary [later registrar's] districts of Londonderry Urban Nos. 1 and 2, and poor law [later district] electoral divisions of Londonderry Nos. 1 to 5 Urban.[29] All these were obsolete by 1972. In the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, the two-seat Westminster county constituency of Londonderry was split into two single-seat county divisions. The use of "Derry" rather than "Londonderry" in their names was proposed by Frank Hugh O'Donnell, who said he thought that "at the time when the London Companies were despairing of retaining their hold upon Derry this Amendment would be accepted by the House. The Amendment would be welcomed in the North of Ireland, where the county in question was always spoken of as Derry, and not as Londonderry." This amendment was defeated, on the basis that a county constituency name ought to match the official county name; but T.M. Healy then proposed keeping the county name but changing the division names, thus: Londonderry (North Derry division) and Londonderry (South Derry division). Only David Plunket opposed this, noting "the City of Londonderry was spoken of both as Derry and Londonderry. The name of Derry was given when it was spoken of as a separate division of the county."[30] The Stormont constituencies of North, South, Mid and City of Londonderry were so named by statute in 1929,[31] although a 1935 Ordnance Survey of Northern Ireland map uses "Derry" instead of "Londonderry" for these.[32] In the Stormont debate on the Electoral Law Act 1962, Harry Diamond proposed changing the constituency names to use "Derry".[33]

In 1952, the Irish and Northern Ireland governments agreed to establish the Foyle Fisheries Commission via parallel acts of their respective legislatures with largely identical texts;[34] one difference was a reference to "the county of Londonderry" in the Stormont act as opposed to "the county of Derry" in the Oireachtas act.[35] The "Foyle Area" under jurisdiction of the commission combined the "Londonderry District" in Northern Ireland with the "Moville District" formed in 1926 from the part of the original Londonderry District which was now in the Irish Free State.[34][36]

In 1958, when the newly launched HMS Londonderry made a courtesy visit to its namesake port, nationalist councillor James Doherty protested that it was "a foreign warship which had been called after a version of the name of the city".[37]

In 1963 the BBC commissioned from Terry McDonald A City Solitary, a documentary about the city scripted by John Hume and narrated by Brian Hannon.[38] It ends by suggesting that Protestant [unionist] and Catholic [nationalist] citizens can together "build the bridge for Derry's future. A first symbol of that bridge could be the future full acceptance of the term Londonderry, for in it is summed up the two great traditions of the city: London, the fort of the ships,[n 2] the siege tradition; Derry, the oak grove of the native Irish."[38][39] This implicit acceptance by Hume of Londonderry was recalled in later decades when he was a leading nationalist politician.[38][40]

In 1965, Eddie McAteer of the University for Derry Committee expressed the hope that the rare common cause between local unionists and nationalists would force the Stormont government to reverse its decision not to base the New University of Ulster there: "The Government might be able to slap down the men of Derry. They might even be able to slap down the men of Londonderry. But they cannot slap down the united men of Derry and Londonderry".[41]

In 1984, Peter Robinson of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) commented in the UK House of Commons:[42]

Until the 1960s there was a happy use of both Londonderry and Derry. I am a member of an organisation known as the Apprentice Boys of Derry, and it is proud to have that name. The Protestants, Unionists and Loyalists who come from that area are happy to call themselves Derrymen. It was a matter that did not provoke excitement and it certainly was not taken as being an offensive remark to say that one was from Derry. Then, in the 1960s, as part of a deliberate campaign by Republicans to loosen the London connection, they emphasised that they had dropped the name London from the name of the city. As a result, the Unionist community emphasised the London part of the name.

District council[edit]

The Local Government (Boundaries) Act (Northern Ireland) 1971 and the Local Government Act (Northern Ireland) 1972 abolished the councils of the counties and county boroughs, and the lower-level county [urban and rural] districts.[43] These were replaced by 26 new districts based around towns and cities. The geographical areas of the county and city no longer correspond to local government areas, but retain a legal existence as lieutenancy areas for ceremonial purposes.[n 3] One of the 26 new districts comprised the areas previously in the county borough of Londonderry and the adjacent county district of the same name. This new district was initially also named Londonderry, and, being based on a city, its council was named "Londonderry City Council".[47] Nationalists accounted for the majority of the population, and nationalist political parties were elected to a majority of the council seats.[n 4] In 1974 Fergus McAteer of the Nationalist Party first raised the question of the name at the city council.[49][50] In 1978, now in the Irish Independence Party (IIP), McAteer tabled a motion "that this council wishes that the official name of the city be restored to the original and more common name of Derry". It was passed with Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) support, on the understanding that no immediate action would be taken.[51] When McAteer raised the issue for a fourth time in 1983, the council passed a resolution to officially change the name of the district from "Londonderry" to "Derry", consequently changing the name of the council from "Londonderry City Council" to "Derry City Council".[49] Andy Pollak said that the vote symbolised the SDLP's shift from co-operation with the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) in the 1970s to confrontation after the 1981 republican hunger strike, and that the SDLP was worried about Sinn Féin taking seats in the 1985 local elections.[49] Pursuant to its resolution, the council applied under section 51 of the 1972 act to the Northern Ireland Department of the Environment, which was under direct rule from the Northern Ireland Office in London, with Chris Patten as Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State in charge of the department. On 24 January 1984, Patten decided to accede to the name change, which was effected by a statutory order commencing on 7 May 1984.[52][53][54][55]

Unionists criticised the decision. The UUP and DUP boycotted city council meetings until the 1989 local elections, their councillors merely signing the roll once every three months to avoid forfeiting their seats.[56][57][58] The DUP considered advocating a separate council for the unionist Waterside area.[57] The Northern Ireland Assembly, which nationalist parties boycotted,[59] discussed the matter at its plenary sessions.[50][60] Patten gave evidence to the Assembly's Environment Committee, where Gregory Campbell hurled an Irish tricolour at him from the gallery; the committee's report favoured retaining the name Londonderry, with dissent from the Alliance Party (APNI).[61] Martin Smyth said, "We are told that the two communities have to live together. We had a classic illustration of a name that brought the two communities together – Londonderry. 'London' indicates the British tradition and 'Derry' the Irish tradition. But the Government decided to do away with 'London' in the name of the Council."[62] William Ross said, "Derry has never been used as the name of the city or of the island of Londonderry except as a shortened version of a longer name. The name was Derry Columbkille for centuries. It was Londonderry for centuries. Before that it was Derry Calgach [...] Those who sought the change sought it for no good reason. Their aim was to open a door. [...] It is beyond me how the name Derry city council will be separated from the concept of Londonderry city in the public mind. Everyone in Northern Ireland knows that the Republican elements in Londonderry city will ignore the name as they have always done. They now have a lever to put up Derry city right across the board. [...] People in Northern Ireland see it as an anti-British move by the most extreme Republican movements in Londonderry and the rest of Northern Ireland."[63]

Debate on renaming the city[edit]

At the time of the 1984 name change, members of the majority SDLP group on the city council declared that it was not seeking to change the name of the city as it had no intention of "petitioning an English queen to change the name of our Irish city".[49][53] The party preferred to leave the renaming of the city "for another day". The IIP obtained legal advice that the change of the district's name also affected the city and no petition was necessary.[56]

The same process used by Derry City Council in 1984 was used less contentiously in 1999, when Dungannon district became Dungannon and South Tyrone Borough, reflecting that it extended to parts of County Tyrone distant from Dungannon town.[64]

Judicial review[edit]

In April 2006 Derry City Council applied to the High Court of Northern Ireland to obtain a ruling that the true name of the city was indeed Derry, or alternatively an order that the British Government must change the name.[65][66] It applied to the Information Commissioner's Office to require the Northern Ireland Office to make public the legal advice it had received at the time of the 1984 name change.[67] The case opened in Belfast High Court on 6 December 2006 before Mr Justice Weatherup.[68][69] The council's case was that the 1662 charter naming the city "Londonderry" was subject to subsequent local government legislation, and that the renaming of the city council in 1984 amended the charter by altering the name.[70]

A ruling was handed down in 2007 that the city officially remained Londonderry, according to the Royal Charter of 10 April 1662:[71]

The local government district and the city and the county are three separate entities. Only the name of the local government district (and the consequential changes to the names of the borough and the council) were affected by the Order in 1984. ... Further I reject the applicant's argument that the Department is obliged to exercise powers under section 134(1) of the Local Government (Northern Ireland) Act 1972 to modify the 1662 Charter to change the name of the city from Londonderry to Derry or that the Department is otherwise obliged to effect that name change. To achieve the name change desired by the applicant it is necessary to alter the 1662 Charter by the further exercise of the Prerogative or by legislation.

— Mr Justice Weatherup, ruling on 25 January 2007

Equality impact assessment[edit]

During the High Court case, it was clarified that the correct procedure to rename the city was via a petition to the Privy Council.[72] On 27 November 2007, the council passed a motion by Gerry MacLochlainn[73] to make such a petition.[74] It was argued that this would provide a single clear identity to reduce confusion and facilitate marketing the city for tourism and investment.[75] Three alternative proposals were rejected: to make no change to the name; to change to "Derry/Londonderry"; or to change the name of the city to "Derry" but retain the name of "Londonderry" for the historic core within the city walls.[76]

An equality impact assessment (EQIA) was instigated to advise how the resolution could best be implemented. An opinion poll of district residents was commissioned in 2009, which reported that 75% of Catholics and 77% of nationalists found the proposed change acceptable, compared to 6% of Protestants and 8% of unionists.[77] It found 76% of Protestants and 79% of unionists preferred the name "Londonderry" while 94% of Catholics and nationalists preferred "Derry".[78] Overall, 26% found the proposal "very acceptable", 27% "acceptable", 6% "unacceptable", and 8% "totally unacceptable", while 32% had "no strong views".[79]

The EQIA held two consultative forums,[80] and solicited comments from the public at large.[81] It received 12,136, of which 3,108 were broadly in favour of the proposal, and 9,028 opposed.[81] Over 7,500 submissions collected by opponents of the change were submitted on the deadline of 11 September 2009.[82] Most submissions did not elaborate on reasons for support or opposition;[81] 14 specific responses in favour and 513 against did so.[83] Many responses came from outside the city council district area.[81]

The Northern Ireland Community Relations Council's submission to the EQIA said "the refusal to resort to majority-minority mechanisms to resolve cultural disputes is critical if we are to find a way forward in Northern Ireland."[84] It suggested "the city might petition to be known as the 'City of Derry known equally as Londonderry and Doire' and commit to the use of the terms Derry-Londonderry-Doire on all official signage and public imagery"[85] It encouraged alternative suggestions.[86]

The Equality Commission for Northern Ireland's submission stated, "In the light of the serious adverse impacts on people of different religion/political belief within the Council area, and possibly for the region as a whole, the Equality Commission strongly advise Derry City Council not to proceed with the policy as it is currently proposed since a range of possible options has not been adequately considered and a significant amount of good relations work remains to be done before any official name change is considered."[87] Alternative courses it offered were joint use of "Derry" and "Londonderry"; petitioning the Privy Council for multiple official names; changing the spelling of the name to "LondonDerry"; and renaming the city to "DoireLondonDerry".[88]

The Town Clerk submitted the EQIA report to the council in time for its meeting on 8 March 2010, at which Sinn Féin councillors brought a motion to proceed with the petition. This was voted down by SDLP and unionist councillors. The SDLP then tabled motions to establish a steering group on the issue and to convene the political party heads; both motions were also rejected.[89] In the aftermath of the meeting, Gregory Campbell, the DUP MP for East Londonderry, said the issue was 'dead', citing the result of the EQIA as the basis of his opinion.[90]

Derry and Strabane council[edit]

Plans to alter the number and area of districts in Northern Ireland began in 2005. In 2008, Environment Minister Arlene Foster proposed replacing the 26 district councils with 11 larger area councils, with the areas of Derry City Council and Strabane District Council to be merged. In 2009, Mark Orr, a Queen's Counsel and Assistant Commissioner proposing names and boundaries for the scheme, recommended the name "Derry City and Strabane Regional Council" for the merged body, even though unionist representatives had favoured a name which used "Londonderry" or avoided either word.[91][92] Political deadlock delayed the reorganisation until 1 April 2015, when the new Derry and Strabane District Council took office. The district name was officially changed from "Derry and Strabane" to "Derry City and Strabane" on 24 February 2016.[2]

On 23 July 2015, the new council voted in favour of a motion to change the official name of the city to Derry and to write to Mark H. Durkan, Northern Ireland Minister of the Environment, to ask how the change could be effected.[93] Unionist councillors called the decision "sectarian" and "disgusting",[94] and in August submitted an official challenge to the request.[95] Rival change.org petitions for and against the proposal were started.[96] In October and November in the House of Lords, minister Lord Dunlop gave two answers on the matter to unionist Lord Laird, who claimed any name change would require cross-community consensus under the Good Friday Agreement.[97][98] The first stated "The Government, on occasion receives requests to change names of towns and cities. At this time the Government does not intend to change the name of the City of Londonderry."[99][98] The second said it would "only do so with consensus".[100] Unionists interpreted this as a definitive rejection.[97]

Other official names[edit]

In 1994, the city council voted, again on nationalist–unionist lines, to rename "Londonderry Eglinton Airport" to "City of Derry Airport", coinciding with the opening of a new terminal building.[101]

Some commentators have suggested that "Derry" is less justifiable as a name for the county than for the city, since the county has never officially been called "Derry".[102][103] William Houston of Londonderry Unionist Association said in 1995:[104]

Now the nationalists can perhaps have some argument that the name [of the city] was Derry before it was Londonderry, but they certainly cannot say the same of the county. There never ever was a "County Derry", — it was "County Coleraine", and bodies such as the Derry County Board of the Ancient Order of Hibernians and of the Gaelic Athletic Board are a total misnomer.

Incidents[edit]

A visible sign of the dispute to the visitor is in the road signs;[105] those pointing to the city from the Republic refer to it as Derry (and in Irish, Doire), whilst signs in Northern Ireland use Londonderry. It is not uncommon to see vandalised road signs—the "London" part of the name spray painted over on "Londonderry" road signs by nationalists,[105] or occasionally "London" added to "Derry" signs by unionists.[105] Some sign-posts are even occasionally vandalised in such a way that "London" is replaced with the word "Free" (see Free Derry).[105]

In 2001, the Londonderry Provident Building Society, founded in 1876, changed its name to City of Derry Building Society, in part due to ongoing vandalism of its branch signs.[106] Mark Durkan alleged that there was no press release after a meeting in the city of the 1998–2002 Northern Ireland Executive because David Trimble insisted any release must use only Londonderry.[107]

In 2003, Lord Laird asked in the House of Lords why a recent press release by the Arts Council of Northern Ireland had listed grants for "Derry City" rather than "Londonderry City"; he was told the heading should have been "Derry City Council area".[108]

In 2005, a judge in the Republic complained when a defendant's address was written as "Londonderry", stating "It's just Derry with a capital D."[109] Arlene Foster said she would complain to the Irish Minister for Justice.[109]

In 2007, a Canadian tourist in Belfast asking for a Translink bus ticket to "Derry" was confused when told that Derry "didn't exist". The incident was reported in the media and the bus company apologised and disciplined the employee responsible.[110]

In the Republic's state Leaving Certificate examination in geography in 2009, a map of Ireland's counties included the label "Londonderry" rather than "Derry".[111] The State Examinations Commission explained the map was sourced from the European Society for Geography.[112] Cecilia Keaveney criticised the incident in the Seanad, saying 'If we must have "Londonderry", we should also have "Derry". ... it is offensive and insensitive to the majority of people to use "Londonderry" at the total exclusion of "Derry".'[113] Brian Ó Domhnaill and Trevor Ó Clochartaigh objected in 2017 when maps in a report by the republic's Constituency Commission named the county "Londonderry".[114]

In a 2012 debate in Dáil Éireann, minister Alan Shatter referred to "two pipe bombs set off in Londonderry on the 19th of January 2012".[115] His use of "Londonderry" rather than "Derry" attracted comment on social media.[116] He later told the BBC "I would use either the term Derry or Londonderry interchangeably ... It's a place that I want to see live in peace and I don't have hang-ups about which name you attach to it."[116]

Sinn Féin leader Mary Lou McDonald described April 2018 meetings with unionists in the city as "an engagement with young people with interests across Derry, or Londonderry".[117][118][119] She responded to republican criticism of her use of "Londonderry" by saying "I used the term to reflect the fact that we had a dialogue – a really good one – with people who see things differently to us."

Response to the dispute[edit]

Organisations dealing with the city and county generally take regard of the controversy in deciding how to refer to them.

A suggested compromise dual naming of "Derry/Londonderry" (read "Derry stroke Londonderry") has given rise to the jocular nickname "Stroke City". Gerry Anderson, a local radio presenter who espoused this term, became known briefly as "Gerry/Londongerry". The city was made UK City of Culture for 2013; the organising committee's official logo reads "Derry~Londonderry" (read "Derry Londonderry"),[120] Radio 1's Big Weekend, an annual BBC festival held in the city in 2013, adopted this name in print and for its presenters.[121] The City of Culture was name sponsor of the boat Derry~Londonderry in the 2011–12 Clipper Round the World Yacht Race,[122] and Derry and Strabane Council sponsored Derry~Londonderry~Doire in the 2013–14 and 2015–16 races.[123] Northern Ireland Secretary, Theresa Villiers, used "Derry-Londonderry" in a 2012 speech in the city.[124]

Another attempt to mitigate the controversy is via such abbreviations a "L'derry" or "L-Derry".[125] (On the other hand, the abbreviation "Londond'y" is seen as unionist.[126]) Another suggested compromise is to call the city "Derry" and the county "Londonderry"; this is common among historians of early modern Ireland.[127]

NI Railways use "Derry/Londonderry" on the destination boards and automated announcements of any trains bound for the city, and use the truncated version of "L/Derry" on all railway tickets to Waterside station. Additionally, the timetables for the Belfast–Derry railway line are printed with both "Derry Line" and "Londonderry Line" covers. The electronic online timetables use "Londonderry" in the route name and "Derry" on the timetable detail lines.[128] The online PDF version uses "Derry~Londonderry Line" on the cover and "Londonderry" on the timetable detail lines.[129]

Correspondence[edit]

Common practice in the Northern Ireland Civil Service, Derry City Council,[130] and in communication throughout business and other organisations within Northern Ireland, when responding to a letter from a correspondent from the city or county, is to reply using the same nomenclature as the initial communication. Therefore, a letter addressed Derry will be replied to an address in Derry, while a letter addressed from Londonderry will be returned to an address in Londonderry. When the UK directory enquiries service was demonopolised in 2003, Oftel guidelines specifically required addresses using either name to be accessible.[131]

The Police Ombudsman uses "Londonderry/Derry" or "Derry/Londonderry" on first use, and follows the correspondent's usage thereafter. It also says "The 'City of Derry' is an actual title and can be used in full."[132]

People born in the city applying for British passports may use either name for the "place of birth" field.[133][134] In April 2009, the Irish government announced a similar policy for Irish passports, where previously "Derry" had been required.[133]

Avoidance strategies[edit]

Businesses, sports clubs and other organisations in the area will frequently avoid using Derry or Londonderry in their names. This is partly so that they can avoid alienating potential customers or users from either side of the community.

Many name themselves after the River Foyle, which flows through the city. The BBC's regional radio station for the area is BBC Radio Foyle. The Westminster constituency of Foyle (and coterminous Northern Ireland Assembly constituency of the same name) encompassing the city and environs was so named partly to avoid the naming controversy and also because until 1997 it contained parts of County Tyrone. The constituency was created in 1979, when the previous "Londonderry" constituency was split in two; the other part, "East Londonderry", is strongly unionist. The APNI suggested Foyle as a name for the district council area during the 1984 renaming controversy.[135]

Other entities based in the area call themselves "North-West". This may refer to the northwest of Northern Ireland or the northwest of Ulster including County Donegal in the Republic. Ulster University encouraged this use in its 2010–2015 style guide.[136][137] A 1985 SDLP discussion paper suggested "North West" would be a "good compromise" rename for the county court and petty sessional divisions then named Londonderry.[138] They had not been renamed by the time of their abolitions in 2013 and 2016 respectively,[139] when new "administrative court divisions" were all given directional names.[n 5][140]

The nickname "Maiden City" is sometimes utilised; for example, the Ulsterbus service from Belfast to Derry is called The Maiden City Flyer.[141] This alludes to the city's having resisted capture in the siege of 1689.[142] However, since the siege is an event celebrated by unionism, the nickname is itself politically charged.[141] The Northern Ireland Tourist Board has used "the Walled City" and "Legenderry" [also "LegenDerry"] in marketing the area and naming visitor events and attractions.[142][143]

The Derry Theatre Trust consulted the public for the name of the theatre it opened at East Wall in 2001.[144] "Derry Civic Theatre" and "Londonderry Civic Theatre" were rejected in favour of "Millennium Forum".

Style guides[edit]

The style guides for different media organisations address the issue variously:

Australian Broadcasting Corporation
Londonderry, Derry: In news stories, first reference for city and county: Londonderry. Second and subsequent, if you like: Derry.[145]
BBC News
"The city and county are Londonderry. The city should be given the full name at first reference, but Derry can be used later."[146] Account may be taken for the context.[147]
The Economist
Derry/Londonderry (use in this full dual form at least on first mention; afterwards, plain Derry will do)[148]
Londonderry (Derry also permissible)[149]
The Guardian and The Observer
Londonderry: use Derry and County Derry[150]
The Times
Londonderry, but Derry City Council;[n 6] and Derry when in direct quotes or in a specifically republican context (this latter rarely)[151]
Ulster University
The style guide, updated in 2015, states:[152]

Derry~Londonderry is the official name of the city and is the preferred form of use for the University in all written materials. Where it is not practical to use the Derry~Londonderry form, e.g. on social media posts or in media interviews, a limited number of variations may be used.

"County Londonderry" is used in giving the address of the campuses in Coleraine and in Derry city.[n 7][153]
The university's 2012–2015 guide specified "Derry~Londonderry" for both city and county, except "Londonderry" for each in the addresses of its campuses.[137] The 2010–2012 guide cited the BBC guidelines.[136] The nicknames "Maiden City" and "Stroke City" were specifically prohibited.[136][137]

In popular culture[edit]

The Divine Comedy song "Sunrise" begins "I was born in Londonderry / I was born in Derry City too" and later asks "Who cares what name you call a town? / Who'll care when you're six feet beneath the ground?"[154]

Irish comedian Neil Delamere once remarked on the RTÉ television show The Panel that the RTÉ pronunciation guide is effectively the same as its BBC counterpart, except the word "Londonderry", in which the first six letters are silent.

When performing in the city, fellow comedian Dara Ó Briain, has opened with the joke, "Hello my name is Dara or, if you prefer, you can call me Londondara."

Different mnemonic acronyms are used to remember the names of the six counties of Northern Ireland: "FAT LAD" for Londonderry, "FAT DAD" for Derry.[155]

Derived names[edit]

Among places and other entities named after the city or county, some have Derry (such as Derry City F.C.) while others have Londonderry (such as the Marquess of Londonderry). These names are often not subject to the same politically charged alternation as the names of city and county. The BBC apologised to Derry GAA in 2018 after a sports results broadcast called the county team Londonderry.[156]

The Apprentice Boys of Derry is thus named despite being a Protestant, unionist organisation; the event it commemorates is generally called the "Siege of Derry". The city's Church of Ireland diocese is Derry and Raphoe; like the Roman Catholic Diocese of Derry, it traces its origin to 1154.[157]

The New Hampshire town of Derry seceded in 1827 from its western neighbour, Londonderry, incorporated in 1722 for Scotch-Irish immigrants.[158] The town boundary followed the 1740 church split between east and west parishes, which supported opposite sides in the Old Side–New Side Controversy.[158]

Geocodes[edit]

Some geocoding systems use an abbreviation of a placename as its codename.

Code Code type Location designated Notes
LDY[159] IATA airport code City of Derry Airport The ICAO code is EGAE, from its former name of Londonderry Eglinton[160]
GB LDY[161] UN/LOCODE Londonderry Port and City of Derry Airport
GB-DRS[162] ISO 3166-2:GB Derry and Strabane council area Also BS 6879. The pre-2015 Derry City Council area had code GB-DRY
LDY[163] Chapman code County Londonderry

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Londonderry No. 2 Rural District" in County Donegal was abolished by the Local Government Board for Ireland (LGBI) in 1921,[164] and its area transferred from Londonderry PLU to Letterkenny PLU and Letterkenny Rural District. Londonderry No. 2 RDC unsuccessfully asked the LGBI to retain it, renamed "Burt Rural District" consequent on no longer being linked to Londonderry county or city.[165] "Londonderry No.1 Rural District" in County Londonderry was renamed "Londonderry Rural District" in 1924[166] and became an urban district in 1969.[167]
  2. ^ "Fort of the ships" is a proposed etymology of the name London from Brittonic.
  3. ^ For example, there is are Lords Lieutenant both "of County Londonderry"[44] and "of the County Borough of Londonderry";[45] while notices in the London Gazette for the Queen's Award for Voluntary Service are, since 2013, broken down by lieutenancy areas, including "County Londonderry" and "the City of Londonderry".[46]
  4. ^ Elections to the city's pre-1969 corporation produced unionist majorities, except in 1920, due latterly to gerrymandering.[48]
  5. ^ The administrative court divisions are named "North Eastern Division", "South Eastern Division", and "Western Division", the last including Derry city.[140]
  6. ^ The guide predates the 2015 change in council structure.
  7. ^ Thus the prescribed address for the latter is:[153]

    Ulster University
    Northland Road
    Derry~Londonderry
    County Londonderry
    BT48 7JL

Sources[edit]

  • EQIA: two versions of the Equality Impact Assessment of the Resolution to make application to the Privy Council to have the name of the City changed from Londonderry to Derry are on the Derry City Council website:
  • Lacey, Brian (1990). Siege city : the story of Derry and Londonderry. Belfast: Blackstaff Press. ISBN 0-85640-443-8.
  • Moore, Ruth, ed. (1996). "First Public Discussion: The Name Of this City? Central Library, February 19, 1995". A Report on a Series of Public Discussions on Aspects of Sectarian Division in Derry Londonderry. Derry: Templegrove Action Research. ISBN 1900071002. OCLC 59639819 – via Conflict Archive on the Internet.
  • O'Leary, Cornelius; Elliott, Sydney; Wilford, R. A. (1988). The Northern Ireland Assembly, 1982–1986: A Constitutional Experiment. London ; New York: C. Hurst ; St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-02714-8 – via Internet Archive.
  • "Editorial Style Guide" (PDF). Ulster University. May 2015. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  • Weatherup, Ronald Eccles (25 January 2007). "Application by Derry City Council for judicial review" (PDF). Judgments. Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland. [2007] NIQB 5 Ref WEAF5707. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
  • Wroe, Ann (2018). "Useful reference". The Economist Style Guide (12th ed.). Profile. ISBN 978-1-78283-348-2.

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Weatherup 2007, §§ 33, 41
  2. ^ a b "Change of Council Name (Derry and Strabane City Council) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2016". www.legislation.gov.uk. 24 February 2019. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  3. ^ "Local Government Reform". Department of the Environment Northern Ireland. Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  4. ^ Weatherup 2007, § 17
  5. ^ a b Lacey 1990, p.10
  6. ^ a b c d Larcom, Thomas Aiskew, ed. (1837). City and Northwest Liberties of Londonderry; Parish of Templemore. Ordnance Survey Memoirs of Ireland. Dublin: Hodges and Smith for HMSO. p. 17.
  7. ^ a b c Adomnán (1995). Life of St. Columba. translated and annotated by Richard Sharpe. Penguin Classics. p. 255. ISBN 0-14-044462-9.
  8. ^ Joyce, Patrick Weston (1869). The Origin and History of Irish Names of Places. Dublin: McGlashan & Gill. p. 445. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  9. ^ a b Lacey 1990, pp.15,19
  10. ^ Lacey 1990, p.34
  11. ^ Lacey 1990, pp.76–7
  12. ^ Lacey 1990, pp.78–9
  13. ^ Montgomery, Edward (November–December 2009). "The Honourable The Irish Society: still in business". History Ireland. 17 (6).
  14. ^ Weatherup 2007, § 1; Lacey 1990, pp.91, 93
  15. ^ a b c Reed, Charles, ed. (1898). "Appendix III: Translation of the Charter of King James the First to the Irish Society, dated the 29th March, 1613". An Historical Narrative of the origin and Constitution of the Society ... commonly called The Honourable the Irish Society; together with memoranda of principal occurrences. London: The Honourable the Irish Society. pp. 9–10.
  16. ^ Lacey 1990, pp.81–3
  17. ^ Weatherup 2007, § 5
  18. ^ "Appendix: Translation of the Charter of King Charles II. to the Honourable the Irish Society, and the Citizens of Londonderry". A Concise View of the Origin, Constitution and Proceedings of the Honorable Society of the Governor and Assistants of London of the New Plantation in Ulster, Within the Realms of Ireland, Commonly Called the Irish Society. London: Arthur Taylor for the Irish Society. 1832. p. 41.
  19. ^ Commissioners appointed to inquire into the municipal corporations in Ireland (1836). "City of Londonderry". Appendix: Part  III: Conclusion of the North-Western Circuit. Command papers. HC 1836 XXIV 1. p. 1119 §19.; Municipal Corporations (Ireland) Act 1840 [3 & 4 Vict c. 108] Schedule A.
  20. ^ Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898 s.21 and Schedule Two
  21. ^ Local Government Board for Ireland (1900). "Appendix A; I; (v.): Orders declaring Boundaries of Administrative Counties and defining County Electoral Divisions for the purposes of the Local Government (Ireland) Act, 1898; Londonderry". Twenty-seventh Report. Command papers. C.9480. Dublin: HMSO. p. 287.
  22. ^ a b Ross, Alan S. C. (1970). How to pronounce it. London: Hamilton. ISBN 0-241-01967-2.
  23. ^ a b Wells, John C. (2000). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (2nd ed.). Harlow: Longman. p. 445. ISBN 978-0-582-36467-7.
  24. ^ "Northern Ireland (Temporary Provisions) (No. 2) Bill [H.L.]". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Lords. 29 March 1972. col. 1144.
  25. ^ a b c Quinn, Vincent (2000). "On the borders of allegiance: identity politics in Ulster". In David Shuttleton; Diane Watt; Richard Phillips (eds.). De-centring sexualities: politics and representations beyond the metropolis. Routledge. pp. 262–3. ISBN 0-415-19466-0.
  26. ^ Lewis, Samuel (1849). "City of Derry". Topographical Dictionary of Ireland. Archived from the original on 12 March 2008.
  27. ^ 19 & 20 Geo.3 c.23 s.5, Irish Universities Act 1908 s.13(1)(b)
  28. ^ 13 & 14 Geo.3 c.18 s.12, 21 & 22 Geo.3 c.35 s.12, 23 & 24 Geo.3 c.53 s.15, Grand Jury (Ireland) Act 1836 Schedule (S.)
  29. ^ Government of Northern Ireland (1929). Census of Population of Northern Ireland 1926; Topographical Index (PDF). Belfast: HMSO. pp. v–vii, 1, 2, 5, 12, 120.; Census of Ireland 1871; Alphabetical index to Townlands and Towns of Ireland. Command papers. C.1711. Dublin: HMSO. 1877. p. 521.; Census returns for Ireland, 1911; County and City of Londonderry. Command papers. Cd 6051-VII. Dublin: HMSO. 1912. p. 25.
  30. ^ "Parliamentary Elections (Redistribution) Bill.— [BILL 134.] Seventh Schedule". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Common. 8 May 1885. col. 54–87.
  31. ^ Quekett, Arthur S., ed. (1933). "House of Commons (Method of Voting and Redistribution of Seats) Act (Northern Ireland) 1929; First Schedule, Parts I and II". The Constitution Of Northern Ireland. Part II: The Government of Ireland Act, 1920 and Subsequent Enactments. Belfast: His Majesty's Stationery Office for the Government of Northern Ireland. pp. 362, 372–374. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
  32. ^ Ordnance Survey of Northern Ireland (1935). "Administrative map of Northern Ireland showing the boundaries of administrative counties, county & municipal boroughs, urban, union & rural districts, district electoral divisions & townships". American Geographical Society Library Digital Map Collection. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  33. ^ "Electoral Law Bill — Report (2nd Day)". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). 50. Parliament of Northern Ireland: Commons. 11 January 1962. col. 983–988.
  34. ^ a b "Recent Legislation in Northern Ireland". Northern Ireland Legal Quarterly. 10 (1): 23–29. November 1952.
  35. ^ Compare
  36. ^ "Fishery District Order: Moville". electronic Irish Statute Book (eISB). 17 February 1926. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  37. ^ "Frigate launched by premier's wife". The Irish Times. 21 May 1958. p. 7. Retrieved 13 April 2009.
  38. ^ a b c Routledge, Paul (1997). John Hume. London: HarperCollins. pp. 40–42. ISBN 978-0-00-255670-5.
  39. ^ McDonald, Terence (1964). "A City Solitary". Northern Ireland Screen. Digital Film Archive. 21m30s–21m50s. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  40. ^ McLoughlin, P. J. (June 2006). "'…it's a United Ireland or Nothing'? John Hume and the Idea of Irish Unity, 1964–72". Irish Political Studies. 21 (2): 157–180. doi:10.1080/07907180600707532. S2CID 144563082.; McCartney, Robert (21 January 1985). "A Smart Salesman for Old-Time Nationalism?". Fortnight (212): 19–25. ISSN 0141-7762. JSTOR 25547659.
  41. ^ Mulholland, Mark (2000). Northern Ireland at the Crossroads: Ulster Unionism in the O'Neill Years, 1960–69. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 53. doi:10.1057/9780333977866_3. ISBN 978-0-333-97786-6.
  42. ^ "Northern Ireland (Appropriation)". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Commons. 1 March 1984. col. 466.
  43. ^ Weatherup 2007, § 11
  44. ^ "Lord Lieutenants". The Belfast Gazette (8066): 53. 6 July 2018. Notice ID 3061520. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
  45. ^ "Deputy Lieutenant Commissions". The Belfast Gazette (7812): 99. 12 February 2016. Notice ID 2478988. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
  46. ^ London Gazette Nos. 60522 p.J4; 61244 p.J5; 61599 p.J5; 61945 p.J5; 62303 p.J5; 62658 p.J6; 63013 p.J6
  47. ^ Weatherup 2007, § 14
  48. ^ O'Leary, Cornelius (July 1969). "Northern Ireland: The Politics of Illusion". The Political Quarterly. 40 (3): 307–314. doi:10.1111/j.1467-923X.1969.tb00026.x.; Whyte, John (1983). "How much discrimination was there under the unionist regime, 1921-68?". In Gallagher, Tom; O'Connell, James (eds.). Contemporary Irish Studies. Manchester University Press. pp. 6–7, §1(c). ISBN 978-0-7190-0919-8.
  49. ^ a b c d Pollak, Andrew (3 October 1983). "Derry polarised by name change pressure". The Irish Times. p. 8. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  50. ^ a b Northern Ireland Assembly (24 January 1984). "Approval of Londonderry City Council's Application for Change of Name of District". Official Report. HMSO. 8 (6): 224, 244.
  51. ^ "Derry decides to drop 'London' but not yet". The Irish Times. 30 March 1978. p. 23. Retrieved 13 April 2009.
  52. ^ Weatherup 2007, § 16
  53. ^ a b "Protest at Derry name switch". The Times. 25 January 1984.
  54. ^ Hamilton, N. (11 April 1984). "Change of District Name (Londonderry) Order (Northern Ireland) 1984 (SR 1984 No. 121)". legislation.gov.uk.; "No. 4404". The Belfast Gazette. 27 April 1984. p. 298. This Order comes into operation on 7th May 1984 and provides that the name of the district of Londonderry shall be changed to Derry.
  55. ^ Centre for European Policy Studies, accessed 6 October 2007 Archived 27 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  56. ^ a b High Court may decide on Derry name change, The Times, 8 May 1984
  57. ^ a b Kiely, Niall (26 April 1984). "Unionists resume council boycott". The Irish Times. p. 14. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
  58. ^ "RUC remove DUP members". The Irish Times. 24 October 1984. p. 8. Retrieved 23 October 2020.; Cowley, Martin (10 June 1987). "Praise and abuse for Mayor of Derry". The Irish Times. p. 7. Retrieved 23 October 2020.; Cowley, Martin (5 June 1989). "Council in North to select leaders". The Irish Times. p. 5. Retrieved 23 October 2020. with the DUP and Ulster Unionist council boycotts now at an end
  59. ^ O'Leary et al. 1988 pp.206–207
  60. ^ Northern Ireland Assembly (22 February 1984). "Local Government: Change of District Name (Londonderry) Order 1984". Official Report. HMSO. 8 (18): 719.; Northern Ireland Assembly (13 November 1984). "Londonderry City: Name". Official Report. HMSO. 12 (1): 39.
  61. ^ O'Leary et al. 1988 pp.123–124: Environment Committee (1984). Consideration of Statutory Rule: Local Government Change of District Name (Londonderry) Order (Northern Ireland) 1984. Northern Ireland Assembly Reports. 133. Belfast: HMSO. ISBN 978-0-337-20190-5.
  62. ^ "Northern Ireland". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Commons. 4 July 1985. col. 539.
  63. ^ "Northern Ireland (Appropriation)". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Commons. 1 March 1984. col. 438–439.
  64. ^ "Change of District Name (Dungannon) Order (Northern Ireland) 1999 No. 426". legislation.data.gov.uk. 14 October 1999. Retrieved 2 August 2013.; "Dungannon to get first mayor". The Irish Times. 12 November 1999. p. 11. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  65. ^ Weatherup 2007, § 18
  66. ^ BBC News: Court to Rule on City Name 7 April 2006
  67. ^ Smith, Graham (30 May 2006). "Decision Notice: Department of the Environment (Northern Ireland)" (PDF). Wilmslow: Information Commissioner's Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2010.
  68. ^ City name row lands in High Court BBC News
  69. ^ Court begins Derry name change hearing BreakingNews.ie
  70. ^ Weatherup 2007, § 19; "Judge to decide Derry name issue". RTÉ News. 6 December 2006.
  71. ^ Weatherup 2007, § 35
  72. ^ Weatherup 2007, § 40; "High Court Provides Clarification On City's Name" (Press release). Derry City Council. 25 January 2007. Archived from the original on 2 June 2008.
  73. ^ McGurk, Anthony (23 November 2007). "6. Notices of Motion: (c)". Agenda for 27 November 2007. Derry City Council. Retrieved 1 May 2010.[dead link]
  74. ^ Draft EQIA, §3.1
  75. ^ Draft EQIA, §§3.1 e,f,g,h,k; §3.4
  76. ^ Draft EQIA, §6.0
  77. ^ Draft EQIA, Appendix pp.91–2
  78. ^ Draft EQIA, Appendix pp.94–5
  79. ^ Draft EQIA, §4.1.3 p.24
  80. ^ EQIA, Appendix 1
  81. ^ a b c d McMahon, Damien (26 February 2010). "Report of Town Clerk and Chief Executive to Special Council Meeting". Archived from the original on 10 July 2007. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
  82. ^ "Londonderry has its say on name change debacle: Campaign is commended". Londonderry Sentinel. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
  83. ^ EQIA, §5.0
  84. ^ CRC 2009, §5.9
  85. ^ CRC 2009, §5.6
  86. ^ CRC 2009, §§5.6–8
  87. ^ ECNI 2009, §5.2
  88. ^ ECNI 2009, §3.2.5
  89. ^ Belfast Newsletter (9 March 2010), Attempt to change city name thrown into chaos, retrieved 10 March 2010
  90. ^ "City name change issue is 'dead'". BBC News. 9 March 2010. Retrieved 10 March 2010.
  91. ^ Orr, Mark (26 February 2009). "Report of Assistant Commissioner Mark Orr QC, on the provisional recommenations (sic) for Derry City and Strabane District Council" (PDF). Review of Northern Ireland local government boundaries. Local Government Boundaries Commissioner for Northern Ireland. §§3(1), 4(1)(b), 4(1)(f). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 10 April 2009.
  92. ^ Orr, Mark (21 November 2008). "Transcript: Derry Guildhall" (PDF). Consultation Details. Local Government Boundaries Commissioner for Northern Ireland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 10 April 2009.
  93. ^ McDaid, Brendan (24 July 2015). "New 'Derry' name bid 'disgusting', claim DUP". Derry Journal. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  94. ^ "Council votes in favour of Derry name change". RTÉ.ie. 24 July 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  95. ^ "Unionists challenge Londonderry to Derry name change call". BBC Online. 5 August 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  96. ^ O'Shea, James (9 November 2015). "British government refuses to change Londonderry name". IrishCentral. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  97. ^ a b "Unionist Peer told name of city 'will not change' despite council vote". Derry Journal. 8 November 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  98. ^ a b "Londonderry: 19 Oct 2015: Hansard Written Answers - TheyWorkForYou". MySociety. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  99. ^ "Government rules out Londonderry name change". UTV. 8 November 2015. Archived from the original on 10 January 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  100. ^ "Northern Ireland Government: 30 Nov 2015: Hansard Written Answers - TheyWorkForYou". MySociety. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  101. ^ Breen, Suzanne (27 January 1994). "Airport name divides Derry Council". The Irish Times. p. 2. Retrieved 13 April 2009.
  102. ^ Curl, James Stevens (6 October 2000). "Introduction". The Honourable the Irish Society and the Plantation of Ulster, 1608–2000: the City of London and the colonisation of County Londonderry in the Province of Ulster in Ireland : a history and critique. Phillimore. p. xix. ISBN 9781860771361. Retrieved 14 June 2012. to call the county of Londonderry (a shire specially created for the City's Plantation from the county of Coleraine and parts of Counties Antrim, Donegal, and Tyrone) 'County Derry' is absurd, and has no historical justification whatsoever.
  103. ^ Levine, Richard (1993). "Book Reviews/Boekbesprekings". South African Historical Journal. 29 (1): 331. doi:10.1080/02582479308671775. ISSN 0258-2473. there is not and never was a county Derry – the area, unlike the town, was not called Derry before it became Londonderry
  104. ^ Moore 1996, Submission from the floor: William Houston, Londonderry Unionist Association
  105. ^ a b c d McLaughlin, Eithne (2007). "Cultural memory and regional identity in Northern Ireland and Southern Catrinthia: a cross-cultural comparison". In Werner Delanoy; Jörg Helbig; Allan James (eds.). Towards a dialogic anglistics. Austria : Forschung und Wissenschaft. 9. Münster: LIT Verlag. p. 41, fn.36. ISBN 978-3-8258-0549-4. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  106. ^ "City in new name row". The News Letter. Belfast. 13 April 2000. p. 13. Retrieved 17 July 2008 – via ProQuest. Londonderry DUP leader Gregory Campbell urged members to vote against the suggestion at the society's annual meeting on April 27.
  107. ^ Jackson, George (1 February 2003). "Trimble views plan for Derry name-change as 'triumphalist'". The Irish Times. p. 8. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  108. ^ "Northern Ireland Arts Council Funding". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Lords. 5 March 2003. col. 120WA.
  109. ^ a b "Judge starts Derry storm". The People. London. 25 September 2005. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  110. ^ White, Kyle (20 August 2007). "Canadian student told Derry 'didn't exist'". Derry Journal. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 13 April 2009.
  111. ^ "Question 12A: Population Density" (PDF). Leaving Certificate 2009; Geography – Ordinary Level. Dublin: State Examinations Commission. 5 June 2009. p. 26. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  112. ^ Cooper, Tom (16 June 2009). "The leaving of Londonderry". The Irish Times. Dublin. p. 13. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  113. ^ Order of Business. Seanad Éireann debates. 196. Dublin: Oireachtas. 18 June 2009. c.169. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  114. ^ "Order of Business". Seanad debates. KildareStreet.com. 5 July 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2019.; "Report on Dáil and European Parliament Constituencies 2017" (PDF). Constituency Commission. pp. 9, 52.
  115. ^ "Offences Against the State (Amendment) Act 1998: Motion". Dáil debates. Oireachtas. 13 June 2012. pp. Vol.678 No.2 p.6. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
  116. ^ a b "Alan Shatter explains Dail Londonderry reference". BBC Online. 13 June 2012. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
  117. ^ Breen, Suzanne (25 April 2018). "Sinn Fein's McDonald uses term 'Londonderry' and backs unionist election candidate". Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  118. ^ Finn, Christina (25 April 2018). "Mary Lou defends using the word Londonderry: 'I'm well aware of the history of Derry'". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  119. ^ "Video: Sinn Féin leader Mary Lou McDonald criticised for use of term 'Londonderry' - The Irish News". Irish News. 25 April 2018. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  120. ^ "City of Culture 2013". Culture Company 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
  121. ^ "About Radio 1's Big Weekend". BBC.
  122. ^ "First sighting of Clipper yacht". Inishowen News. 20 May 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
  123. ^ "Clipper Race member to be evacuated". BBC. 7 November 2013. Retrieved 21 January 2019.; "Derry-Londonderry-Derry in tense battle with LMAX Exchange to reach Stroove first". londonderrysentinel.co.uk. 6 July 2016. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  124. ^ "Secretary of State the Rt Hon Theresa Villiers: speech to the Londonderry Chamber of Commerce". gov.uk. 29 November 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
  125. ^ Thompson, Joseph E. (2001). American Policy and Northern Ireland: A Saga of Peacebuilding. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. xi. ISBN 9780275965174. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  126. ^ Myers, Kevin (2009). Watching the door. Atlantic. p. 9. ISBN 978-1843547280.
  127. ^ Kerrigan, John (2008). Archipelagic English: Literature, History, and Politics 1603–1707. Oxford University Press. p. 515. ISBN 978-0-19-818384-6.
  128. ^ "Northern Ireland Railways Timetable 3". Translink. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
  129. ^ "Derry ~Londonderry Line" (PDF). Translink. 20 March 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
  130. ^ Draft EQIA, §§ 3.1.n, 3.5
  131. ^ McKinney, Seamus (28 August 2003). "'Stroke city' sensitive area for 118 operators". Irish News. p. 8.
  132. ^ "12. Use of Language" (PDF). Corporate Guidelines (PDF). Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland. May 2007. p. 22. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 February 2010. Retrieved 13 April 2009.
  133. ^ a b Carroll, Steven (9 April 2009). "Derry-born can choose city's name on passport". The Irish Times. Retrieved 9 April 2009.
  134. ^ "Passport Agency (Northern Ireland)". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Commons. 1 July 1997. col. 77W.
  135. ^ O'Leary et al. 1988 p.124
  136. ^ a b c "Editorial Style Guide" (PDF). Ulster University. November 2010. p. 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 August 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
  137. ^ a b c "Editorial Style Guide" (PDF). Ulster University. June 2012. p. 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
  138. ^ SDLP (January 1985). ""Justice" in Northern Ireland; Section Three: Legislation — Alienation Through Legislation and Practice". Treaty Doc. 99-8, Supplementary Extradition Treaty Between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, with Annex; August 1, September 18, and October 22, 1985. Hearings Before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Ninety-ninth Congress, First Session. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 676. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  139. ^
  140. ^ a b NISR 2016 No.317 Sch.
  141. ^ a b Meredith, Fionola (9 December 2006). "A tale of two city names". The Irish Times. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  142. ^ a b "The Walled City Experience". Northern Ireland Tourist Board. Archived from the original on 20 April 2008. Retrieved 4 September 2008.
  143. ^ McDermott, Philip; Nic Craith, Máiréad; Strani, Katerina (2 September 2016). "Public space, collective memory and intercultural dialogue in a (UK) city of culture". Identities. 23 (5): 610–627. doi:10.1080/1070289X.2015.1054828. ISSN 1070-289X. S2CID 143244151.; Roner-Reiter, Catharine (2018). "Managing Naming Conflicts: Lessons from the Conflict behind the Name Derry-Londonderry in Northern Ireland". Oregon Review of International Law. 19: 341–342. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
  144. ^ "Theatre to end name mystery". Belfast News Letter. 22 February 2001. p. 4.
  145. ^ "The ABC Style Guide". About the ABC. Australia: ABC. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
  146. ^ "D". BBC News style guide. BBC. 14 August 2020. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
  147. ^ Kennedy, Tony (May 2008). "Style and Protocol Guide" (PDF). Co-operation Ireland. p. 11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
  148. ^ Wroe 2018 sv "Derry/Londonderry"
  149. ^ Wroe 2018 sv "Londonderry"
  150. ^ "L". Guardian and Observer style guide. London: The Guardian. 1 January 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
  151. ^ Austin, Tim (1999). The Times guide to English style and usage. London: Times Books. p. 73. ISBN 9780723010456.; O'Neill, Sean; Hamilton, Fiona (16 December 2005). "Online Style Guide – I". Times Online. London. Ireland (f.). Archived from the original on 24 July 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2009.
  152. ^ Ulster University 2015, p.8
  153. ^ a b Ulster University 2015, p.6
  154. ^ "Lyrics". Divine Comedy official website. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
  155. ^ "Programme 3: Professional Sportsperson" (PDF). Today and Yesterday: Employability. BBC Northern Ireland. 14 January 2003. pp. 1, 7. Retrieved 9 April 2009.; Walsh, Patrick (2006). "'Something important had changed': modernisation and Irish fiction since 1960". In Elmer Kennedy-Andrews (ed.). Irish fiction since the 1960s: a collection of critical essays. Colin Smythe. p. 44. ISBN 0-86140-427-0.; Patterson, Glenn; D'Hoker, Elke; Schwall, Hedwig (2000). "Interview with Glenn Patterson (September 1998)". Études irlandaises. 25 (1): 96. doi:10.3406/irlan.2000.1536. Fat Lad received a lot of criticism for not being «Fat Dad». But that was just what we were taught at school, it is a mnemotechnic device to remember the counties of Northern Ireland which says something about the character's (Protestant) education.
  156. ^ Barry, Stephen (30 January 2018). "'It will not happen again': BBC apologise for Londonderry GAA reference". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  157. ^ Millett, Benignus (1986). "Dioceses in Ireland up to the 15th Century". Seanchas Ardmhacha. Armagh Diocesan Historical Society. 12 (1): 13–14, fn.50. doi:10.2307/29745223. ISSN 0488-0196. JSTOR 29745223.; Moody, T. W.; Martin, F. X.; Byrne, F. J., eds. (2011) [1984]. "III. Succession Lists". Maps, Genealogies, Lists: A Companion to Irish History, Part II. A New History of Ireland. IX. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 9780199593064.
  158. ^ a b Holmes, Richard (2009). "10: The Churches". The Road to Derry: A Brief History. Arcadia. ISBN 978-1-62584-262-6.; Hazlett, Charles A. "Derry". History of Rockingham County, New Hampshire and representative citizens. Chicago: Richmond-Arnold. p. 283.
  159. ^ "Airline and Airport Codes Search". IATA. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
  160. ^ "IAIP Aerodrome Index : Londonderry/Eglinton - EGAE". Integrated Aeronautical Information Package. UK Aeronautical Information Service. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
  161. ^ "(GB) United Kingdom". United Nations Code for Trade and Transport Locations. UNECE. 2007. Retrieved 13 April 2009.
  162. ^ "3166:GB: the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland". ISO 3166. ISO. 27 November 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  163. ^ Chapman, Colin R (June 1979). "The Chapman County Code for British Isles Counties". Archived from the original on 3 December 2015. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
  164. ^ Director of Statistics, Department of Industry and Commerce (May 1928). "Table 9. Population, Area and Valuation of urban and rural districts and of all towns with a population of 1,500 inhabitants or over, showing particulars of town and village population and of the number of persons per 100 acres" (PDF). Census 1926. 1–Population, Area and Valuation of each DED and each larger Unit of Area. Dublin: Stationery Office. p. 29 [Inishowen fn ‡]. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  165. ^ "Londonderry No. 2 RDC Minutes, 1908–1920: Part 9" (PDF). Local Authority Archives Digitised. Donegal County Council. pp. 15–24 [last volume: 15 January–19 March 1921]. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
  166. ^ Adams, Thomas B. (30 May 1924). "Administrative County of Londonderry". The Belfast Gazette (153): 822. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  167. ^ A Commentary by the Government of Northern Ireland to Accompany the Cameron Report. Command papers. Cmd. 534. Belfast: HMSO. September 1969. ¶35. Retrieved 6 August 2020 – via CAIN.

Further reading[edit]

  • Hawes-Bilger, Cordula (2007). "4.1.1. Derry or Londonderry". War Zone Language: Linguistic Aspects of the Conflict in Northern Ireland. Swiss studies in English. 132. Tübingen: Francke. ISBN 978-3-7720-8200-9.

External links[edit]

  • Londonderry, County Derry Chronology (years 535–2003) of historical name forms, from the Northern Ireland Place-Name Project