|Languages||English, Native American languages (Hopi language)|
|Creator||George D. Watt, under the direction of the Board of Regents led by Brigham Young|
|Mainly 1854–1869; some use in modern era|
The Deseret alphabet (i//) (Deseret: 𐐔𐐯𐑅𐐨𐑉𐐯𐐻 or 𐐔𐐯𐑆𐐲𐑉𐐯𐐻) is a phonemic English-language spelling reform developed between 1847 and 1854 by the board of regents of the University of Deseret under the leadership of Brigham Young, the second president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. George D. Watt is reported to have been the most actively involved in the development of the script, as well as being its first serious user.:12
In public statements, Young claimed the alphabet was intended to replace the traditional Latin alphabet with an alternative, more phonetically accurate alphabet for the English language. This would offer immigrants an opportunity to learn to read and write English, he said, the orthography of which is often less phonetically consistent than those of many other languages.:65–66 Similar experiments were not uncommon during the period, the most well-known of which is the Shavian alphabet.
Young also prescribed the learning of Deseret to the school system, stating "It will be the means of introducing uniformity in our orthography, and the years that are now required to learn to read and spell can be devoted to other studies".
During the alphabet's heyday between 1854 and 1869, books, newspapers, street signs and correspondence used the new letters, but despite heavy and costly promotion by the early LDS church, the alphabet never enjoyed prolonged widespread use and has been regarded by historians as a failure.
- 1 History
- 2 Alphabet
- 3 Examples
- 4 Handwriting
- 5 Design criticism
- 6 Ulterior motives
- 7 Encodings
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
The Deseret alphabet was developed primarily by a committee made up of the university's board of regents, members of which included church leaders Brigham Young, Parley P. Pratt and Heber C. Kimball. According to Brigham Young University professor Richard G. Moore, most scholars believe that Watt's contribution to the alphabet was the greatest; Kenneth R. Beesley goes so far as to credit him with "plant[ing] the idea of spelling reform in Brigham Young's mind" through a phonography class he gave after the death of Joseph Smith which Young attended.:6 In addition, Jules Remy reported that William W. Phelps helped "work out the letters."
Before they decided on the Deseret alphabet, the attention of the board of regents was mostly focused on Pitman style alphabets, and in April 1847 Brigham Young nearly purchased 200 pounds (91 kg) of lead type to print books using Pitman's orthography.:7 The University of Deseret was incorporated on 28 February 1850; less than three weeks later, on 20 March, the new board of regents began to discuss spelling reform.
On 29 November 1853 the committee almost voted on using a slightly modified version of the Pitman orthography, when Willard Richards, who had been deathly ill and missed the debate before the vote, saw the proposed alphabet. Richards was quick to condemn it, saying to the committee "Those characters...seem like putting old wine into new bottles...I am inclined to think...we shall...throw away all characters that bear much resemblance to the English characters, and introduce an alphabet that is original.":10
These words persuaded Brigham Young and the rest of the committee, and George D. Watt then endeavored to create an original alphabet. Less than two months later, on 19 January 1854, the board of regents finally approved the first 38-letter Deseret alphabet.:11
Use by the Mormon pioneers (1854–1869)
Upon the alphabet's acceptance, its first user was its principal architect, George D. Watt, who began writing the meeting minutes of the early Bishops in a cursive form of it in 1854.:12 Almost immediately after its publication, church members began experimenting with it, and by 1855 travel writers Jules Remy and Julius Brenchley published a chart of the new alphabet which differed heavily from the 1854 version. Some early Mormons, such as Thales Hastings Haskell, began writing their personal journals in the new alphabet.:16 Remy further reported that during his time in Salt Lake City, he saw signs on the street and above shops using the new alphabet.
After its approval by the board of regents, Brigham Young testified before the Utah territorial legislature that the new alphabet should "be thoroughly and extensively taught in all the schools." Some teaching in Utah schools did take place: John B. Milner taught the alphabet in Provo, Lehi, American Fork, and Pleasant Grove, while evening classes were taught in Salt Lake City and Farmington.
After several months' practice writing with the new alphabet, Watt wrote to Brigham Young that he was unhappy with it, and proposed a complete overhaul, which was never followed up on.:22
Word of the new alphabet soon spread outside Utah, and most press reports in non-Mormon papers were critical. Other writers, however, acquainted with other phonotypic and stenographic alphabets, ranged from neutral descriptions of the new alphabet to praise.
Until this point, all the printed material (mostly just charts of the alphabet and its standard orthography equivalents) had been produced with large wooden type, which was not suitable for printing at small sizes. Because the alphabet was wholly unique, no font existed, so in 1857 the board of regents appointed Erastus Snow to procure metal type from St. Louis-based font foundry Ladew & Peer. However, in May 1857 the Utah War began, and Snow left St. Louis to support the Mormon pioneers. During the war, Ladew & Peer kept working on the type, and the punches and matrices were delivered in the winter of 1858. The first use of the new type was to make a business card for George A. Smith, an early Mormon historian.:15
In 1859, with the new type in hand, the Deseret News began printing with it. It would print one piece per issue in the new alphabet, usually a quotation from The Book of Mormon or the New Testament. However, this only lasted for one year, after which the practice stopped; it would start again in May 1864 and stop permanently at the end of that year.:20
Benn Pitman, the brother of Isaac Pitman, was also interested in spelling reform, and by 1864 had published his own orthography, which the board of regents considered adopting. However, they ultimately decided not to and used the opportunity to re-affirm their commitment to the Deseret alphabet.:20
Brigham Young blamed the failure of this first attempt at reform on the ugliness of the type developed by Ladew & Peer, and so he commissioned Russell's American Steam Printing House, a New York City based font foundry, to design more pleasing type. The result was the Bodoni-esque font (at right) that was used to print all of the books in this period.:20 In an 1868 article, the Deseret News wrote that "the characters, to a person unaccustomed to them, may look strange, [but] to the eye to which they are familiar they are beautiful.":69
At least four books were published in the new alphabet, all transcribed by Orson Pratt and all using the Russell's House font: The First Deseret Alphabet Reader (1868), The Second Deseret Alphabet Reader (1868), The Book of Mormon (1869), and a Book of Mormon excerpt called First Nephi–Omni (1869).:69–70
Considerable non-printed material in the Deseret alphabet was made, including a replica headstone in Cedar City, Utah, some coinage, letters, diaries, and meeting minutes. One of the more curious items found in the Deseret alphabet is an English-Hopi dictionary prepared by two Mormon missionaries. It sat unappreciated in handwritten form at the LDS Church Archives until 2014, when Kenneth R. Beesley, a writing system researcher and computer scientist, noticed its significance and transcribed it into standard written English.
Despite years of heavy promotion, the Deseret alphabet was never widely adopted. This reluctance was partly due to prohibitive costs; the project had already cost the early church $20,000,:76 with $6,000 going to Pratt as remuneration for his transcription effort and most of the rest going to cutting metal type featuring the new alphabet and printing costs.:6 In 1859, Parley P. Pratt estimated that the cost of supplying all Utah Territory schoolchildren with suitable textbooks would cost over US$5,000,000.:76
According to Beesley, many have written that interest in the Deseret alphabet died with Brigham Young. This, however, isn't true; the alphabet was already regarded as a failure during Young's time.:29 Only 500 copies of the full Book of Mormon translated into the Deseret alphabet sold for US$2 each, and even Young realized that the venture was too expensive and even the most devout Mormons could not be convinced to purchase and study the Deseret edition books over the books in the traditional orthography.:27 In the winter of 1870, just one year after their publication, advertisements for the Deseret alphabet books were quietly removed from the Deseret News.
Contemporary writers noted that thousands of copies of the US$0.15 and US$0.20 Deseret primers went unsold,:6 and historian Roby Wentz speculated that the LDS Church at that time had a "cache" of the primers in mint condition, which it was slowly selling off; according to him, one such primer sold for $250 in 1978.
The Mormons had planned to use the profits from sale of the earlier books to fund printing of more books, and in anticipation Orson Pratt had already transcribed the complete Bible, Doctrine and Covenants, and John Jaques's Catechism for Children. Pratt had also prepared an apparent sequel to the primers, the Deseret Phonetic Speller. After the sales failure, however, none of these books were ever published and were thought lost until being rediscovered in a storage area of the LDS Church Archives in Salt Lake City in May 1967.
Ralph Vigoda, a reporter for The Philadelphia Inquirer, has speculated that the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad may have contributed to the alphabet's downfall: non-Mormons, not loyal to Brigham Young, became a large part of the city, and without the religious motivation it would be difficult indeed to get them to learn a new alphabet. In a retrospective piece, historian A. J. Simmonds claims that the new railroad doomed the alphabet. According to him, easy access to "the whole literature of the English speaking world" rendered the alphabet useless.
In July 1877, Young would try one more time at a spelling reform, ordering lead type designed for the orthography of Benn Pitman (Isaac's brother) with the intention of printing an edition of the Book of Mormon and Doctrine and Covenants using it. Most of the type had arrived by August, but upon Young's death, the translation was never undertaken and the type never used. Young's death thus marked the end of the Mormon experimentation with English spelling reforms.:29
Rediscovery in the computer era
Modern digital typography has reduced the costs of typesetting substantially, especially for small print runs. As long as a freely licensed Deseret alphabet font and a font of the standard orthography have similar inked surface areas, printing a book in the Deseret alphabet using modern technology would have a similar cost as printing a book in the standard orthography.
Film director Trent Harris used the Deseret alphabet in his 1994 satire of Mormon theology, Plan 10 from Outer Space, where it features as an alien language used on a mysterious "Plaque of Kolob".:37
During the 1996 Utah Centennial celebration, an activity book for children was distributed, within which one of the activities was for a child to write their own name in the alphabet. The book says that a child who does this will be "the first kid in 100 years to write [their] name in the Deseret alphabet!"
Also in 1996, Buffalo River Press published a reprint of the Deseret First Book, of which only 10,000 were originally printed. The entire Book of Mormon in the Deseret alphabet has been likewise reprinted, as only 500 copies from the original print run exist, and they can sell on eBay for ≈$7,500 (as of 2004).:47 In 1997, John Jenkins uploaded a free three part PDF of the so-called "triple combination", that is, a combined Book of Mormon, Doctrine and Covenants and Pearl of Great Price.
Beginning around 2007, the Republic of Molossia (est. 1999), a micronation surrounded on all sides by the state of Nevada, used the Deseret alphabet on some signs to give their territory a more "foreign" appearance. The official website of the micronation cautions that any former or current "use of the...alphabet does not imply support of or adherence to LDS teachings [or] practices." In 2015, the micronation's stance towards the alphabet changed. After that date, the alphabet is officially described as a "formerly" used writing system and not a writing system in current use.
Xkcd, a web comic written by Randall Munroe, is published under a Creative Commons license that allows derivative works. Due to this, Mary Jenkins, a fan of both the alphabet and the comic, publishes a transcription of the comic into the Deseret alphabet. She has done so for every comic since Xkcd #658, published on 4 November 2009.
Owing to the character set's inclusion in Unicode, most of the original books and many of the original manuscripts have been transcribed into plain text,:32–34 and, when this is not possible due to discrepancies between the Unicode reference glyphs and the documents, LaTeX.:42
The first digital font for the Deseret alphabet, called "Deseret", was designed by Greg Kearney as part of work he was doing for the LDS Church History Department in 1991; the font was used in an exhibit that year.:32 In August 1995, a cleaned up, digitized version of the font in use in the Deseret Second Book was created by Salt Lake City graphic designer Edward Bateman, who made the font in Fontographer while working on Plan 10 from Outer Space.:32–33
Besides maintaining a Deseret input method for Windows, Joshua Erickson, a UCLA alumnus, also maintains a large collection of freeware Unicode fonts for the alphabet, which he collectively terms the "Bee Fonts."
There also exist free software fonts for the Deseret alphabet. Google, through its Noto Sans project, the aim of which is "to support all languages with a harmonious look and feel", has also released a Deseret font under the name "Noto Sans Deseret". George Douros maintains a public domain font called "Analecta" as part of his Unicode Fonts for Ancient Scripts project, which supports the Coptic, Gothic, and Deseret scripts. Deseret glyphs are also available in the popular pan-Unicode fonts Code2001 and Everson Mono (as of version 5.1.5).
Although the Deseret alphabet has letter case, the only difference between the minuscule and majuscule forms is that the majuscule forms are larger.
|𐐀 𐐨||Long I||/iː/||𐐁 𐐩||Long E||/eɪ/||𐐂 𐐪||Long A||/ɑː/||𐐃 𐐫||Long Ah||/ɔː/|
|𐐄 𐐬||Long O||/oʊ/||𐐅 𐐭||Long Oo||/uː/||𐐆 𐐮||Short I||/ɪ/||𐐇 𐐯||Short E||/ɛ/|
|𐐈 𐐰||Short A||/æ/||𐐉 𐐱||Short Ah||/ɒ/||𐐊 𐐲||Short O||/ʌ/||𐐋 𐐳||Short Oo||/ʊ/|
|𐐌 𐐴||Ay||/aɪ/||𐐍 𐐵||Ow||/aʊ/||𐐎 𐐶||Wu||/w/||𐐏 𐐷||Yee||/j/|
|𐐐 𐐸||H||/h/||𐐑 𐐹||Pee||/p/||𐐒 𐐺||Bee||/b/||𐐓 𐐻||Tee||/t/|
|𐐔 𐐼||Dee||/d/||𐐕 𐐽||Chee||/tʃ/||𐐖 𐐾||Jee||/dʒ/||𐐗 𐐿||Kay||/k/|
|𐐘 𐑀||Gay||/ɡ/||𐐙 𐑁||Ef||/f/||𐐚 𐑂||Vee||/v/||𐐛 𐑃||Eth||/θ/|
|𐐜 𐑄||Thee||/ð/||𐐝 𐑅||Es||/s/||𐐞 𐑆||Zee||/z/||𐐟 𐑇||Esh||/ʃ/|
|𐐠 𐑈||Zhee||/ʒ/||𐐡 𐑉||Er||/r/||𐐢 𐑊||El||/l/||𐐣 𐑋||Em||/m/|
|𐐤 𐑌||En||/n/||𐐥 𐑍||Eng||/ŋ/||𐐦 𐑎||Oi*||/ɔɪ/||𐐧 𐑏||Ew*||/juː/|
|§ Versions below*Not part of original alphabet; see|
A degree of free spelling is allowed to accommodate dialectal differences in English. For example, in the Deseret edition of The Book of Mormon, the word "wherefore" is written as 𐐸𐐶𐐯𐑉𐑁𐐬𐑉 (/hwɛrfoʊr/), which means that the translator of the book did not exhibit the wine–whine merger. Those who do exhibit the merger might instead prefer the spelling 𐐶𐐯𐑉𐑁𐐬𐑉 to match the pronunciation (/wɛrfoʊr/), or, depending on dialect, perhaps 𐐶𐐯𐑉𐑁𐐫𐑉 (/wɛrfɔːr/).:38
The alphabet was designed to be able to write all of the vowels used in the Received Pronunciation as still spoken in 19th century Utah. The vowel inventory has also been attributed to the fact that unlike other American pioneers, the Mormon pioneers were from New England as opposed to the American South. As such, many of the vowels in the Deseret alphabet have since merged in the modern era: they are no longer distinguished in many dialects of English.
Speakers who exhibit the father–bother merger no longer distinguish /ɑː/ (𐐪) and /ɒ/ (𐐱), and so both father and bother would be written with 𐐪: as 𐑁𐐪𐑄𐐲𐑉 and 𐐺𐐪𐑄𐐲𐑉 as opposed to as 𐑁𐐪𐑄𐐲𐑉 and 𐐺𐐱𐑄𐐲𐑉. For those with the cot–caught merger, /ɔː/ (𐐫) and /ɒ/ (𐐱) are no longer distinguished: both cot and caught are thus written by them as 𐐿𐐱𐐻 (/kɒt/) in the case of North American English and as 𐐿𐐫𐐻 (/kɔːt/) in the case of Scottish English. For those exhibiting both mergers, both would be written 𐐿𐐪𐐻 (/kɑːt/).:28
There have been several published versions of the alphabet. Most versions (including the versions used in The Deseret First Book, The Deseret Second Book, The Deseret News and The Book of Mormon) had only 38 letters, but some versions contained two ligatures, 𐐧 (ew) and 𐐦 (oi). In place of 𐐮𐐭 or 𐐷𐐭, 𐑏 was to be used; in place of 𐐱𐐮, 𐑎.
In the 23 February 1859 edition of the Deseret News, the editors announced their approval of the two new letters and eventual intention to use them in the newsletter. However, due to the hot metal typesetting technology in use at the time, casting the new letters for use would have been a considerable expense, so it was never realized.
Representation of /ə/
Because of the lack of a schwa, the author must write the sound that would be used if the word was stressed. For example, the word enough is commonly pronounced [əˈnɐf], but when it is stressed (as in a declaration of irritation) it is pronounced [iˈnɐf]. The Deseret spelling of the word, 𐐨𐑌𐐲𐑁, reflects that stressed pronunciation. If /ə/ does not have an inherent stressed value in a word, as is often the case before /r/, then it is written as 𐐲.:32–33
Marion J. Shelton, an early Mormon missionary, proposed the addition of a new glyph to represent the schwa, a simple vertical line of the same height as other Deseret characters with a similar appearance to the Turkish dotless i (ı). The addition of this glyph did not catch on among his contemporaries, however, and no document outside of ones penned by Shelton makes use of it.:19–20 Shelton used the new glyph in an 1860 letter to Brigham Young reporting on a recently completed mission to the Paiute people.
Each letter in the Deseret alphabet has a name, and when a letter is written on its own it has the value of that name. This allows some short words to be written with a single letter, and is called a letter's "syllabic value". The most common word in English, the, is written simply 𐑄, as the letter's name is /ðiː/ and that is the stressed pronunciation of the word. The consonants with syllabic values are 𐐶 (woo), 𐐷 (yee), 𐐸 (ha), 𐐹 (pee), 𐐺 (be/bee), 𐐻 (tee/tea), 𐐽 (qi), 𐐾 (gee), 𐑀 (gay), and 𐑄 (the/thee).:25
Syllabic values do not apply within words, although this was formerly the case. In early documents, Watt writes "people" as 𐐹𐐹𐑊 with the expectation that readers will interpret the first 𐐹 as /pi/, but the second 𐐹 as /p/.:13 This contextual value switching was soon done away with, so in later documents, while "bee" is written 𐐺, "bees" is written 𐐺𐐨𐑆.
In 40-letter versions of the alphabet which include the letter 𐐧 (ew) which represents /juː/, the letter 𐐧 when standing alone can be used to represent the word "you".:25,51
- - 𐐐𐐯𐑊𐐬, 𐐸𐐵 𐐪𐑉 𐑏? – 𐐌'𐑋 𐐼𐐭𐐮𐑍 𐑀𐑉𐐩𐐻, 𐑃𐐰𐑍𐐿𐑅! – 𐐆𐐻 𐐶𐐲𐑆 𐑌𐐨𐑅 𐑅𐐨𐐨𐑍 𐑏, 𐐺𐐲𐐻 𐐌'𐑂 𐑀𐐪𐐻 𐐻𐐭 𐑉𐐲𐑌! 𐐓𐐩𐐿 𐐿𐐩𐑉!
- Oil floats on water, but mercury sinks below both. This is due to their relative densities.
- 𐐦𐑊 𐑁𐑊𐐬𐐻𐑅 𐐪𐑌 𐐶𐐫𐐻𐐲𐑉, 𐐺𐐲𐐻 𐑋𐐲𐑉𐐿𐐷𐐲𐑉𐐨 𐑅𐐮𐑍𐐿𐑅 𐐺𐐮𐑊𐐬 𐐺𐐬𐑃. 𐐜𐐮𐑅 𐐮𐑆 𐐼𐐭 𐐻𐐭 𐑄𐐯𐑉 𐑉𐐯𐑊𐐲𐐻𐐮𐑂 𐐼𐐯𐑌𐑅𐐮𐐻𐐨𐑆.
The first lesson in the Deseret First Book reads simply:
I am in.
As we go.
On to it.
𐐌 𐐰𐑋 𐐮𐑌.
𐐈𐑆 𐐶𐐨 𐑀𐐬.
𐐉𐑌 𐐻𐐭 𐐮𐐻.
The Little Star
Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are.
Up above the world so high,
Like a diamond in the sky.
When the blazing sun is set,
And the grass with dew is wet,
Then you show your little light;
Twinkle, twinkle, all the night.
Then if I were in the dark,
I would thank you for your spark;
I could not see which way to go,
If you did not twinkle so.
And when I am sound asleep,
Oft you through my window peep,
For you never shut your eye
Til the sun is in the sky.
𐐜 𐐢𐐮𐐻𐑊 𐐝𐐻𐐪𐑉.
𐐓𐐶𐐮𐑍𐐿𐑊, 𐐻𐐶𐐮𐑍𐐿𐑊, 𐑊𐐮𐐻𐑊 𐑅𐐻𐐪𐑉,
𐐐𐐵 𐐌 𐐶𐐲𐑌𐐼𐐲𐑉 𐐸𐐶𐐱𐐻 𐐷𐐭 𐐪𐑉.
𐐊𐐹 𐐰𐐺𐐲𐑂 𐑄 𐐶𐐲𐑉𐑊𐐼 𐑅𐐬 𐐸𐐴,
𐐢𐐴𐐿 𐐩 𐐼𐐴𐑋𐐲𐑌𐐼 𐐮𐑌 𐑄 𐑅𐐿𐐴.
𐐐𐐶𐐯𐑌 𐑄 𐐺𐑊𐐩𐑆𐐮𐑍 𐑅𐐲𐑌 𐐮𐑆 𐑅𐐯𐐻,
𐐈𐑌𐐼 𐑄 𐑀𐑉𐐪𐑅 𐐶𐐮𐑄 𐐼𐐮𐐭 𐐮𐑆 𐐶𐐯𐐻,
𐐜𐐯𐑌 𐐷𐐭 𐑇𐐬 𐐷𐐳𐑉 𐑊𐐮𐐻𐑊 𐑊𐐴𐐻;
𐐓𐐶𐐮𐑍𐐿𐑊, 𐐻𐐶𐐮𐑍𐐿𐑊, 𐐫𐑊 𐑄 𐑌𐐴𐐻.
𐐜𐐯𐑌 𐐮𐑁 𐐌 𐐶𐐲𐑉 𐐮𐑌 𐑄 𐐼𐐪𐑉𐐿,
𐐌 𐐶𐐳𐐼 𐑃𐐰𐑍𐐿 𐐷𐐭 𐑁𐐫𐑉 𐐷𐐭𐑉 𐑅𐐹𐐪𐑉𐐿;
𐐌 𐐿𐐳𐐼 𐑌𐐪𐐻 𐑅𐐨 𐐸𐐶𐐮𐐽 𐐶𐐩 𐐻𐐭 𐑀𐐬,
𐐆𐑁 𐐷𐐭 𐐼𐐮𐐼 𐑌𐐱𐐻 𐐻𐐶𐐮𐑍𐐿𐑊 𐑅𐐬.
𐐈𐑌𐐼 𐐸𐐶𐐯𐑌 𐐌 𐐰𐑋 𐑅𐐵𐑌𐐼 𐐰𐑅𐑊𐐨𐐹,
𐐉𐑁𐐻 𐐷𐐭 𐑃𐑉𐐭 𐑋𐐴 𐐶𐐮𐑌𐐼𐐬 𐐹𐐨𐐹,
𐐙𐐫𐑉 𐐷𐐭 𐑌𐐯𐑂𐐯𐑉 𐑇𐐲𐐻 𐐷𐐳𐑉 𐐴
𐐓𐐮𐑊 𐑄 𐑅𐐲𐑌 𐐮𐑆 𐐮𐑌 𐑄 𐑅𐐿𐐴.
There were two main handwritten forms of the Deseret alphabet: a cursive version and a printed version. Over the lifetime of the alphabet, the cursive form fell out of favor among most users of the alphabet and by 1856 no more cursive documents exist.:21 Its impact on the glyphs can however still be plainly seen in the loops of certain characters such as 𐑅, 𐑀 and 𐐼.:13 The earliest surviving versions of the Deseret alphabet, from 1853 (one year before its January 1854 approval), have printed and cursive forms side-by-side, suggesting that a cursive form was part of the plan from the very beginning.
The cursive form of the Deseret alphabet was mainly used by two people: George D. Watt, and James Henry Martineau.:21 Watt, a stenographer, recorded several bishops meetings and wrote other personal documents in this cursive style.:13 A chart of the cursive form appears below. The blue glyphs represent how to write each character, while the top row of printed glyphs shows the corresponding Unicode reference glyph.
The cursive style has many unorthodox characteristics uncommon to Western writing systems. Vowels can be dropped if the writer is in a hurry and feels the word is obvious as in an abjad, letters can be written above or below the base line depending on what precedes them, and 𐐮 is placed on letters after they are already written as in an abugida. Furthermore, unlike the typeset alphabet, the cursive alphabet has no letter case. These characteristics could have arisen because Watt was a local expert in Pitman shorthand, which is written in a similar way.:13
The table below shows some examples of how the cursive form is written. Dropped vowels are marked in parenthesis.
Dear Bro. I herein submit for your examination the result of much thought and extensive practice on the new alphabet since the Board of Regents last met. I candidly confess that I never did like the present construction of the alphabet. I was not left as free as I could have wished to be in the construction of it. [...] I am now thoroughly convinced that it is not the most expeditious method of writing and printing, but on the contrary it retards the hand in its onward course.
His new alphabet closely resembled an 1853 publication of Isaac Pitman, containing only 33 letters. However, at this point, Young was still enamored with the original Deseret alphabet, and so he rejected the proposal and Watt continued to publicly promote the alphabet as part of his job despite his reservations.
After 1855, no more cursive documents appear, and all surviving journals are written in block letters.:21 Marion J. Shelton, an early Mormon missionary who wrote a dictionary of the Hopi language in the alphabet, was a "typical" 40-letter Deseret writer,:19 and his style of writing is shown below.
The Deseret alphabet was purposely designed so as to not have ascenders and descenders.:14 This was envisioned as a practical benefit for the alphabet in an era of metal type: after many uses, the edges of type sorts become dull, and narrow ascenders and descenders are most prone to this effect.
While well intentioned, this lack has been described as a "catastrophic" mistake that makes type look "monotonous" and makes all words look alike. Some have drawn comparisons between the alphabet and the Old Turkic script, saying that writing in the new alphabet could be mistaken from afar as a Turkish tax list.
The Mormon pioneers were apparently aware of the problems caused by its monotony::76
President Young has decided that [the letters] are not so well adapted for the purpose designed as it was hoped they would be. There being no shanks (ascenders or descenders) to the letters, all being very even, they are trying to the eye, because of their uniformity.— article in the Juvenile Instructor, 2 October 1875
Other criticism of the design was harsher still. In an 18 December 1857 editorial in the Boston Globe, the alphabet was described as being "so arranged and named as to cause the greatest possible annoyance to outsiders" and the design of the letters as "incomprehensible as [...] the hieroglyphics of the [...] Egyptians." On 4 March 1872, The New York Times called the alphabet "rude, awkward and cumbersome."
Some modern computer fonts and printed books have attempted to correct this perceived fault: in some of the books in John Jenkins' Deseret Alphabet Classics series, the font used adds a descender to 𐑉 and 𐐻 and an ascender to 𐐼 and 𐑇 among other tweaks.
Officially, the Deseret alphabet was created to simplify the spelling of English words for the benefit of children and English as a second language learners. Some historians, however, have posited an alternative motivation for its development: increasing the isolation of the early Mormons.
To keep outsiders from reading Mormon secrets
The charge that the Deseret alphabet's main purpose was to keep outsiders ("gentiles" in LDS terminology) in the dark was brought almost immediately, as evidenced by the following 1858 Lyttelton Times reprint of an unnamed "New York newspaper":
Mormon Secretiveness.—The new "Deseret Alphabet" is completed, and a fount of pica type has been cast in St. Louis. Specimens of the type are published in the St. Louis papers, but they are unproducible in types that common people use [...] The ukases of Brother Brigham will hereafter be a sealed letter, literally, to Gentile eyes.
Having obtained a copy of the Deseret News in 1859, the Richmond Dispatch disparaged it on April 25, writing "The Deseret News is filled with a lot of hieroglyphs. It seems to be [an alphabet] which the Mormons alone are to be taught."
Modern historians, however, doubt the veracity of this theory. For one thing, notes Kenneth R. Beesley, the Deseret News and every book published in the alphabet prominently feature the key to the alphabet,:36 and anyone without a key could have gotten a copy of A Journey to Great-Salt-Lake City, or traveled to Salt Lake City themselves and bought one. Contemporary scholars Richard F. Burton and Jules Remy also dismissed the secrecy argument, in 1860 and 1855 respectively.:36
To keep Mormons from reading outside literature
With the impending completion of the Transcontinental Railroad, the Mormon pioneers would have easy, cheap access to publications from the east, including yellow-backs, penny dreadfuls, pulp magazines and other often scandalous or dirty publications that were rising to prominence in the 19th century. Indeed, in an article about the benefits of the alphabet, the Deseret News proudly wrote:
If our community were situated as others are, it might be Quixotic to attempt the introduction of this reform among us with the hope of carrying it into practical operation. But our position is unique, we are united. [...] Some have an idea that if a child be educated in the system of spelling and writing by sound it will be a detriment to it in learning the present system. [...] If they could find no better reading than much of the miserable trash that now obtains extensive circulation, it would be better if they never learned to read the present orthography. In such a case ignorance would be blissful. [...] The greatest evils which now flourish and under which Christendom groans are directly traceable to the licentiousness of the press.— "The Deseret Alphabet—Its Advantages", 19 August 1868, The Deseret News
In another article, the News cited an example of the kind of literature Mormons would benefit from not being able to read: The Police Gazette.:35 Historians A. J. Simmonds and Roby Wentz contend that while this may have been a tertiary goal of the alphabet, a sort of "happy accident", the main purpose of it was simple orthographic reform. Simmonds notes that the teaching of English to foreigners was not a mere hypothetical to mask isolationist tendencies: 35% of the Utah Territory's population at the time was Scandinavian, with German, Italian and Welsh speaking people also making up a considerable percentage of inhabitants; therefore, communication between the recently baptized and the community was a real problem.
The Deseret alphabet (U+10400–U+1044F) was added to the Unicode Standard in March 2001 with the release of version 3.1, after a request by John H. Jenkins of Apple, making it one of the first scripts to be added outside of the Basic Multilingual Plane.:6 The letters 𐐧 (ew) and 𐐦 (oi) were added to the Unicode Standard in April 2003 with the release of version 4.0.
According to Kenneth R. Beesley, who submitted the proposal to expand the encoding, "Unicode fonts based on the current heterogeneous collection of glyphs will be useless for any practical typesetting of 40-letter Deseret Alphabet documents.":29 This is because the Unicode Consortium chose to use glyphs from 1855 as the reference glyphs, while by 1859 those glyphs were already outmoded and replaced with newer glyphs. Beesley thus recommends using LaTeX along with his Metafont desalph font to typeset Deseret text, but fonts which use the alternate glyphs for the two codepoints in question would also work for transcription of 40-letter Deseret texts written during and after 1859.
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
On 25 February 2016, the Library of Congress approved an ALA-LC romanization for the Deseret alphabet. The table can be used to display approximations of titles in non-Latin scripts using the Latin alphabet for use in library catalogs that do not support non-Latin alphabets.
- English spelling reform
- George D. Watt
- Isaac Pitman
- English Phonotypic Alphabet
- Deseret (disambiguation)
- Shavian alphabet
- International Phonetic Alphabet
- State of Deseret
- Brigham Young
- Mormon pioneers
- LDS.org: "Book of Mormon Pronunciation Guide" (retrieved 2012-02-25), IPA-ified from "dĕz-a-rĕt'"
- Moore, Richard G. (2006). "The Deseret Alphabet Experiment" (PDF). Religious Studies Center. Brigham Young University. Retrieved 2017-01-06.
- Watt, Ronald G. (2009). The Mormon passage of George D. Watt: First British convert, scribe for Zion. Logan, Utah: Utah State University Press. web access to the book
- Wentz, Roby (1978). 38 Mormon Characters: A Forgotten Chapter in Western Typographic History (PDF). Los Angeles, California.
- Beesley, Kenneth R. (2004). "Typesetting the Deseret Alphabet with LATEX and METAFONT" (PDF). Presented at the 25th Annual Meeting and Conference of TeX Users Group. Berlin: Springer-Verlag GmbH – via CiteSeerX.
- Young, Brigham (8 October 1868). Journal of Discourses. 12. delivered in the Tabernacle, Salt Lake City, UT. p. 289.
- Zobell, Jr., Albert L. (1967). The Improvement Era. 70 no. 7. Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. pp. 10–11.
- Simmonds, A. J. (1968). "Utah's Strange Alphabet" (PDF). Sparta, Illinois: Major Magazines, Inc. Retrieved 2017-01-10.
- Spendlove, Loren Blake (2015-01-01). "Say Now Shibboleth, or Maybe Cumorah". Interpreter: A Journal of Mormon Scripture. 15.
- Jules Remy, A Journey to Salt Lake City (London, 1861) 185.
- "The Deseret Alphabet". Evening Star. Washington D.C. 11 June 1855. Retrieved 2017-01-16 – via Newspapers.com. (subscription required (. ))
- Beesley, Kenneth R. (14 August 2002). "The Deseret Alphabet in Unicode" (PDF). 22nd International Unicode Conference. Xerox Research Centre Europe.
- "Mormon Secretiveness". Lyttelton Times. 1858-01-23. Retrieved 2017-01-16 – via National Library of New Zealand.
- "Affairs in Utah". The New York Times. 4 March 1872. p. 1. Retrieved 2017-01-16 – via Newspapers.com. (subscription required (. ))
- Schindler, Harold (1998). In Another Time: Sketches of Utah History. Logan, Utah: Utah State University Press. pp. 125–127. ISBN 9780874212426.
- "Mormon Items—From Salt Lake". The Chicago Tribune. 10 May 1856. Retrieved 16 January 2017 – via Newspapers.com. (subscription required (. ))
- "Iron County", I Love History: Place: Counties, Utah Division of State History
- Headstone of John Thomas Morris, 1828–1855.
- Beesley, Kenneth R. and Dirk Elzinga. 2014. An 1860 English-Hopi Vocabulary Written in the Deseret Alphabet. University of Utah Press.
- Vigoda, Ralph (3 June 1990). "A churchman's failed mission: Language logic". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. 2C. Retrieved 14 January 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
- Krantz, Steven G. (2000-08-31). Handbook of Typography for the Mathematical Sciences. CRC Press. p. 149. ISBN 9781420036015.
Print-on-demand digital technology allows the printing of a small number of copies of a document, at the moment of demand. In traditional typesetting, the cost of setting up the printer made it too impractical and costly to do small print runs. With digital technology this is now feasible and affordable.
- Patrick, Colin (27 August 2010). "And The Award For Least Economical Typeface Goes To...". Mental Floss. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
- Austin, Patrick (7 March 2016). "5 Ways to Save on Printer Ink". Consumer Reports. Retrieved 2017-01-25.
Your choice of typeface can make a difference in ink consumption. [...] We got 27 percent more mileage when using Times New Roman rather than Arial, a default font in many browsers. Calibri and Century Gothic both outperformed Arial, as well. An option called Ecofont is designed specifically for frugality—it removes enough printer ink from its characters to stay legible while saving money.
- Zion, Brion (1996). "Brion Zion's DESERET ALPHABET BOOK". brionzion.com. Wanderer Press, L.C. Retrieved 2017-01-06.
- Deseret First Book (Deseret Alphabet) Historic Reprint (Later printing ed.). Salt Lake City: Buffalo River Press. 1996-01-01. ASIN 1887727027. ISBN 9781887727020.
- Smith, Joseph (2015-01-31). The Book of Mormon (2015 Deseret Alphabet edition): Another Testament of Jesus Christ. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ASIN 1507628234. ISBN 9781507628232.
- "Triple Combination: Book of Mormon, Doctrine and Covenants, and Pearl of Great Price in the Deseret Alphabet" (PDF). Deseret Alphabet Portal. Adapted by John Jenkins. Cupertino, California. 1997.
- Baugh, Kevin (31 January 2009). "The Deseret Alphabet". Official Website of the Republic of Molossia. Khamsin Molossia News. Retrieved 2017-01-09.
- Peterson, Daniel C. (2015-07-11). Interpreter: A Journal of Mormon Scripture, Volume 15 (2015). The Interpreter Foundation. p. 40. ISBN 9781514843598.
- "Republic of Molossia – Deseret Alphabet". Official Website of the Republic of Molossia. Republic of Molossia. Retrieved 2017-01-09.
- Compare two archived versions of previous reference ("Official Website of the Republic of Molossia"): 15 February 2015 ("The Republic of Molossia formerly used the Deseret Alphabet") and 9 November 2014 ("The Republic of Molossia uses the Deseret Alphabet")
- Carroll, Lewis (2014-09-21). Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (𐐈𐑊𐐮𐑅'𐑆 𐐈𐐼𐑂𐐯𐑌𐐽𐐲𐑉𐑆 𐐮𐑌 𐐎𐐲𐑌𐐼𐐲𐑉𐑊𐐰𐑌𐐼): An edition printed in the Deseret Alphabet. Foreword by: John H. Jenkins. Evertype. ASIN 1782010645. ISBN 9781782010647.
- Austen, Jane (2013-04-01). Pride and Prejudice 𐐑𐑉𐐴𐐼 𐐰𐑌𐐼 𐐑𐑉𐐯𐐾𐐲𐐼𐐮𐑅. Adapter: John H. Jenkins (1 ed.). CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ASIN 1482672014. ISBN 9781482672015.
- Baum, L. Frank (2016-12-30). The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ASIN 1541134729. ISBN 9781541134720.
- Jenkins, Mary (4 November 2009). "xkcd: 𐐃𐑉𐐺𐐮𐐻𐐲𐑊𐑆" [xkcd: Orbitals]. XKCD in the Deseret Alphabet. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- "What's New for International Customers in Windows 7". Microsoft Developer Network. Microsoft. Retrieved 2017-01-19.
In Windows 7, support for 10 new scripts is added : Braille, Deseret, New Tai Lue, Ogham, Osmanya, Phags-pa, Runic, Symbols, Tai Le and Tifinagh.
- Erickson, Joshua. "Deseret Bee Fonts". University of California Los Angeles Chemistry & Biochemistry Department. Retrieved 2017-01-06.
- "Google Noto Fonts". www.google.com. Retrieved 2017-01-06.
- Douros, George (1 October 2015). "Unicode Fonts for Ancient Scripts". Retrieved 7 January 2017.
- Wood, Alan (27 October 2001). "Deseret – Test for Unicode support in Web browsers". Alan Wood's Unicode Resources. Retrieved 2017-01-19.
- Everson, Michael (2008-12-28). "Everson Mono". Evertype. Evertype. Retrieved 2017-01-19.
- Smith, Joseph (1869). Book of Mormon in the Deseret Alphabet (1990 ed.). Corporation of the Presiding Bishop, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. p. 2.
- Walker, Neil Alexander (2005). A Complete Guide to Reading and Writing the Deseret Alphabet (PDF). Lulu.com. p. 26. ISBN 141164865X.
- Beesley, Kenneth R. (2002-04-25). "Proposal to Modify the Encoding of Deseret Alphabet in Unicode" (PDF). Unicode Consortium. Xerox Research Center Europe. Retrieved 2017-01-04.
- 𐐜 𐐔𐐯𐑅𐐨𐑉𐐯𐐻 𐐙𐐲𐑉𐑅𐐻 𐐒𐐳𐐿 [The Deseret First Book]. Deseret University. 1868. p. 18 – via Internet Archive.
For 𐐮𐐭: "𐐜 𐐶𐐩𐑂𐑆 𐑉𐐬𐑊 𐐱𐑌 𐑄 𐐼𐐨𐐹 𐐺𐑊𐐮𐐭 𐑅𐐨." (The waves roll on the deep blue sea.)
- 𐐜 𐐔𐐯𐑅𐐨𐑉𐐯𐐻 𐐝𐐯𐐿𐐲𐑌𐐼 𐐒𐐳𐐿 [The Deseret Second Book]. Deseret University. 1868. p. 7 – via Internet Archive.
For 𐐷𐐭: "𐐐𐐨𐑉 𐐮𐑆 𐐪 𐐸𐐩𐑉. 𐐔𐐮𐐼 𐐷𐐭 𐐯𐑂𐐯𐑉 𐑅𐐨 𐐶𐐲𐑌?" (Here is a hare. Did you ever see one?), For 𐐱𐐮: "𐐌 𐐸𐐨𐑉 𐐪 𐑌𐐱𐐮𐑆!" (I hear a noise!)
- Shelton, Marion J. (3 April 1860). "Beloved brother, it is with heartfelt gratitude to my Heavenly Father..." (Letter). Letter to Brigham Young.
- University of Deseret papers: New alphabet file, circa 1853. Church History Library, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah (Call number MS 4223 – you can see the digital object on https://history.lds.org )
- Watt, Ronald G. (1977-01-01). "Sailing "The Old Ship Zion": The Life of George D. Watt". Brigham Young University Studies. 18 (1): 56. JSTOR 43042710 – via JSTOR. (registration required (. ))
- Brigham Young office files: General Correspondence, Incoming, 1840–1877, General Letters, 1840–1877, T-W, 1854. Church History Library, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah (Identifier CR 1234 1/b0023/f0017 0049)
- Nash, William V. (1957) The Deseret Alphabet. Master's thesis, University of Illinois Library School: Urbana, Illinois
- Wells, H. G. (2013-06-14). 𐐜 𐐓𐐴𐑋 𐐣𐐲𐑇𐐨𐑌 [The Time Machine]. adapted by John Jenkins. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. pp. iii–iv. ASIN 1482742403. ISBN 9781482742404.
- "Later from Utah". Richmond Dispatch. 25 April 1859. p. 1. Retrieved 2017-01-24 – via Newspapers.com. (subscription required (. ))
- "The Deseret Alphabet—Its Advantages". Deseret News. 18 August 1868. p. 2. Retrieved 2017-01-16 – via University of Utah: Utah Digital Newspapers.
- "The Unicode Standard, version 4.0: UnicodeData-4.0.0.txt". The Unicode Consortium. Retrieved 2017-01-25.
This is the first version of the standard with these characters: 10426;DESERET CAPITAL LETTER OI;Lu;0;L;;;;;N;;;;1044E; 10427;DESERET CAPITAL LETTER EW;Lu;0;L;;;;;N;;;;1044F; 1044E;DESERET SMALL LETTER OI;Ll;0;L;;;;;N;;;10426;;10426 1044F;DESERET SMALL LETTER EW;Ll;0;L;;;;;N;;;10427;;10427. Compare to http://www.unicode.org/Public/3.2-Update/UnicodeData-3.2.0.txt , where the last character in the block is DESERET SMALL LETTER ENG instead.
- ALA-LC Deseret Romanization table
- Bigler, David. 1998. Forgotten kingdom: the Mormon theocracy in the American West, 1847–1896. Spokane: Arthur Clark
- Ivins, Stanley S. 1947. The Deseret Alphabet. Utah Humanities Review 1:223-39.
- Lynott, Patricia A. 1999. "Communicating Insularity: The Deseret Alphabet of Nineteenth-Century Mormon Education." American Educational History Journal 26 (1):20–26.
- Thompson, Roger. 1982. Language planning in frontier America: The case of the Deseret Alphabet. Language Problems and Language Planning 6:45–62.
- Wintersteen, Larry Ray. 1970. A History of the Deseret Alphabet. MA thesis, Brigham Young University.
- Young, Brigham (October 8, 1868), "Southern Missions—Deseret Alphabet—Relief Societies—Home Manufactures", Journal of Discourses Volume 12 By President Brigham Young, his two Counsellors, and the Twelve Apostles, 12, Liverpool: Albert Carrington, pp. 297–301.
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