Deshpande (Marathi: देशपांडे)(Kannada: ದೇಶಪಾಂಡೆ)(Hindi: देशपांडे) is one of the most famous Brahmin surnames in the state of Maharashtra, North Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh. Deshpande was the revenue post created by the King Krishnadevraya of Devgiri (Daulatabad). One Deshpande used to be appointed superior to about 10 Pandes. More than 96% of Deshpandes belong to the Deshastha Brahmin community. Some Goud Saraswat Brahmin (GSB), Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu (CKP), Smarth Brahmin families also have this surname.
Deshpande derives from the Marathi title dešpande,. Dešpande was formerly a hereditary office, and is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit terms deśa ("country", or "district") and pandita ("learned man"). Deshpande is also said to mean "tax collector" from the historic caste system.
- Baji Prabhu Deshpande, Minister/Count and commander for Shivaji maharaj, known for the Battle of Pavan Khind.
- Murarbaji Deshpande, 17th-century general in the early Maratha Empire during the reign of Shivaji maharaj.
- Bapuji Mudgal Deshpande - general in the early Maratha Empire, best remembered for his major role during first and second recapturing attempts of “Kondhana” fort in 1647 and 1656 respectively.
- Nirmala Deshpande, a noted Indian social activist and a Padmashri award winner (2005).
- P. L. Deshpande (known as Pu. La. Deshpande); Marathi writer, playwright, actor, and song-writer.
- Vasantrao Deshpande - Hindustani classical music vocalist, contributed especially to Hindustani classical and Natya Sangeet.
- Gururao Deshpande - known as Gayanacharya, Hindustani classical music singer from Karnataka, India; avid reader, astrologist.
- Rahul Deshpande - Hindustani classical music vocalist, grandson of late Kai. Pt. Vasantrao Deshpande.
- Satyasheel Deshpande - Hindustani classical music vocalist, disciple of Pt. Kumar Gandharva and son of Vamanrao Deshpande.
- Dr. Ashwini Bhide-Deshpande - Hindustani classical music vocalist of the Jaipur-Atrauli Gharana.
- Bala Deshpande - Senior Managing Director of the venture capital firm, New Enterprise Associates (India) since 2008. NEA is the world’s largest venture capital firm.
- Gururaj Deshpande - Indian-American businessman, co-founder and chairman of Sycamore Networks and chairman of A123 Systems, founder of Deshpande Foundation.
- Bhavurao Venkatrao Deshpande - late senior leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), one of the founding fathers of BJP in Karnataka.
- Ravi Deshpande - Indian advertising executive, headed Contract India between 2005 to June 2013 leading to 400 awards.
- Ramakant Krishnaji Deshpande - Indian surgical oncologist, pioneer of thoracoscopic surgery at the Tata Memorial Hospital, awarded with Padma Shri for contributions to medicine.
- Govind Purushottam Deshpande - (known as GoPu or GPD) Marathi playwright and academic, economist, anthologist from Nashik, Maharashtra.
- Gauri Deshpande - novelist, short story writer, and poet from Maharashtra, India.
- Kusumavati Deshpande - (1904–1961) Marathi writer from Amravati, Maharashtra, India.
- Anagha Deshpande - cricketer who has played in 20 women's One Day Internationals and seven Twenty20 internationals for India.
- Arun Deshpande - a coach of the Indian Carrom team.
- V. G. Deshpande - Indian politician, former general secretary of Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha.
- Makarand Deshpande - actor, writer, and director in Hindi and Marathi films and theatre, often playing supporting yet pivotal roles.
- Mrunmayee Deshpande - actress of Hindi Bollywood and Marathi films and TV Serials; an established leading actress in Marathi cinema and an accomplished dancer, and writer.
- Tara Deshpande - actress, writer, former model and MTV VJ, known for Is Raat Ki Subah Nahin, Kaizad Gustad's Bombay Boys.
- Sunita Deshpande - Marathi writer, wife of Kai. Shri. Pu La Deshpande, known for आहे मनोहर तरी... (Ahe Manohar Tari...), प्रिय जी.ए. (Priya G. A.) and so on.
- Madhav Kashinath Deshpande - Marathi writer, renowned professor of English language and literature, known for novel Aadhar (अंधार) (1953), Priya Kavite (प्रिय कविते) (1972)..
- Prerana Deshpande - exponents of Kathak dance in India, shishyaa of Dr. Rohini Bhate, of Lucknow and Jaipur gharanas.