||The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with North America and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (October 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
A media market, broadcast market, media region, designated market area (DMA), television market area, or simply market is a region where the population can receive the same (or similar) television and radio station offerings, and may also include other types of media including newspapers and Internet content. They can coincide or overlap with 1 or more metropolitan areas, though rural regions with few significant population centers can also be designated as markets. Conversely, very large metropolitan areas can sometimes be subdivided into multiple segments. Market regions may overlap, meaning that people residing on the edge of one media market may be able to receive content from other nearby markets. They are widely used in audience measurements, which are compiled in the United States by Nielsen Media Research. Nielsen measures both television and radio audiences since its acquisition of Arbitron, which was completed in September 2013.
Markets are identified by the largest city, which are usually located in the center of the market region. However, geography and the fact that some metropolitan areas have large cities separated by some distance can make markets have unusual shapes and result in two, three, or more names being used to identify a single region (such as Wichita-Hutchinson, Kansas; Chico-Redding, California; Albany-Schenectady-Troy, New York; and Harrisburg-Lebanon-Lancaster-York, Pennsylvania).
In North America, radio markets are generally a bit smaller than their television counterparts, as broadcast power restrictions are stricter for radio than TV, and TV reaches further via cable. AM band and FM band radio ratings are sometimes separated, as are broadcast and cable television. Market researchers also subdivide ratings demographically between different age groups, genders, and ethnic backgrounds; as well as psychographically between income levels and other non-physical factors. This information is used by advertisers to determine how to reach a specific audience. In countries such as the United Kingdom, a government body defines the media markets; in countries such as the United States, media regions are defined by a privately held institution, without government status.
Market is regarded as a place which is engaged in the activities of commodity exchange while simultaneously the media market implies an exploration through the media and other related media market. According to the Caillaud and Jullien (2001, 2003), Amstrong (2006), Rochet and Tirole (2006), media market is also regarded a two-sided market with opposites in audience and the sources.
Media market also making profit by spreading information, etc. and there are two of the most common way. One is coming from the advertisers who buy the advertising spread time and space. The other is a fee from audience buying media products. Which means externalities in the interaction between advertisers and the audience. (Maria& Alessandro, 2015)Compared with the former, once the consumers are charged to a certain degree they may not be willing to pay again. So it becomes the most commonly used method which is using advertisements to promote an increasing income of the media.
In order to squeeze as much as possible the advertising value, media generally adopt the way how they publish or broadcast even appeared the newspaper advertising going to determine length or accounts for a layout of the main factors of the total.
There are also some similar phenomenon in the field of radio television. The most typical example is recently soft advertisements and hard advertisements in movies are increasing sharply. According to Ken (2005) it was quiet less advertisements during the movies before, but it become completely opposite for the advertisements running 30 minutes before the show starts and there are even 15 minutes of ads after the lights are dimmed.
Pros and cons
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Previously, only if the media attracted a considerable number of audience it can directly or indirectly to making profit because the media is close relate to the market. So it would lead the marketization of the media a "vulgar" situation. The “vulgar” performance is mainly embodied in the content of media products such as vulgarization and entertainment news.。The vulgarity content shows that sex and violence are regarded as a selling point which can improve circulation or ratings to cope with the increasingly competitive environment. While the increasing proportion of soft news such as lace news, celebrity anecdotes, and violence as main content is the news entertainment performance.
On the other hand, media market gather revenue mainly comes from advertising so the media marketization leads to too much advertisements to come up. The Cinema Advertising Council reports that on-screen advertising grew from an already impressive US $191 million in 2002 to $315 million in 2003, up 45%.( Ken, 2005)
Although, media market has boundedness to pursuit of media attention and profitable and it lead some shortage in operating. There are still some advantages by using media market.
- Media marketization leads to a transformation in media from the communicator standard to the audience standard and take the initiative to reduce the distance between mass media and the audience. Because media market is face to the market and audience, in order to meet the different needs of different audience, media is more focus on what individual concern and reflect what people’s suffering. And then make the content of the report is more close to the people, reality and life
- The marketization promote the development of media which shows that market-oriented media must meet the needs of the audience. Because of the various demands from audience it needs the diversification of media development. Soon there will be a new media to fill when a demand could not be achieve. Media market also impact the original old media industry management system deeply. At the same time, to promote further development in the field of media.
- The media market promote a further strengthen in supervision of public opinion function. On the other hand, social negative news always be good for media for making attraction. So in order to attract audience, media market may maximum critical supervision
Marketing communication various means including communications, as on-line social networks, blogs, forums etc. (Stanković & Đukić, 2014) Radio and television station are the two most common massive media which can receive media region, designated market area(DMA), television market area or simply market. Companies use communication method in media market to transmission the message that the company want to shows the individuals. Communication is also a channel which connect both companies and audience with massive information and the media market like a bridge for bring the information to the audience.
A Television Market Area (TMA) is a group of counties in the United States covered by a specific group of television stations. The term is used by the U.S. Government's Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to regulate broadcast, cable, and satellite transmissions, according to the Code of Federal Regulations, at 47 CFR § 76.51 and FCC.gov. The TMAs not only have full control over local broadcasts, but also delineate which channels will be received by Satellite or Cable subscribers ("must-carry" rules). These market areas can also be used to define restrictions on rebroadcasting of broadcast television signals. Generally speaking, only stations within the same market area can be rebroadcast. The only exception to this rule is the "significantly viewed" list. Virtually all of the United States is located within the boundaries of exactly one TMA.
A similar term used by Nielsen Media Research is the Designated Market Area (DMA), and they control the trademark on it. DMAs are used by Nielsen Media Research to identify TV stations that best reach an area and attract the most viewers. There are 210 Nielsen DMAs in the United States, 56 of which are metered (in other words, viewership in these markets are estimated automatically instead of through the archaic diary system still in use in the smaller markets).
TMAs may cover a much larger area than the stations that serve it, especially since the digital television transition. This is particularly true in markets that have hilly or mountainous terrain that is ill-suited for digital broadcasting. In these cases, the outlying areas of a TMA may only be served by cable and satellite, or perhaps by small translators. (There are some cases, such as that of Olean, New York, where a sizable number of independent stations operate, but none carry any major network affiliation unless they operate as translators. Because of this, Olean is considered part of the Buffalo, New York market despite none of that city's major signals reaching the city from 70 miles away.) Conversely, a geographically small market such as Erie, Pennsylvania may have stations where their signal spills well over into neighboring TMAs (most of Chautauqua County, New York is closer to Erie than Buffalo, but the county is also located within the Buffalo DMA).
Arbitron (now Nielsen Audio) at one time also maintained similar areas for television ratings, each called an area of dominant influence (ADI). There were 286 ADI's in the United States. Arbitron stopped offering a television ratings service.
Arbitron (now known as Nielsen Audio) maintains smaller areas for radio stations; each is called an Arbitron Radio Metro. Whereas a typical TMA may cover ten counties, an Arbitron market generally covers two to four, and a TMA may contain two to four separate Radio Metros. There are 302 Radio Metros in the United States, but not all areas of the country are covered.
In 2009, Nielsen began offering radio ratings in competition with Arbitron, starting in those markets ranked 101st and smaller.
- See the PDF's at http://web.archive.org/web/20121209184657/http://www.nielsen.com/us/en/measurement/television-measurement.html. Archived from the original on December 9, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2013. Missing or empty
- "Radio Measurement | Radio Audience". Nielsen. Archived from the original on August 13, 2012. Retrieved 2013-06-25.
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6.Caillaud, B., & Jullien, B. (2001). Competing cybermediaries. European Economic Review, 45, 797–808.
7.Caillaud, B., & Jullien, B. (2003). Chicken and egg: competition among intermediation service providers. The
8.Rochet, J. C., & Tirole, J. (2006). Two-sided markets: a progress report. Rand Journal of Economics, 37(3),
9.Maria B., & Alessandro V. (2015).Watchdogs, Platforms and Audience: An Economic. International Atlantic Economic Society 2015 Perspective on Media Markets
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