Designated marksman rifle

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A U.S. Marine adjusting the scope on a Mk 12 SPR
A G28 of the German Army

A designated marksman rifle (DMR) is a modern scoped high-precision rifle used by infantrymen in the designated marksman (DM) role. It generally fills the engagement range gap between a service rifle and a dedicated sniper rifle, at around 300–600 metres (330–660 yd).

DMRs, unlike the often bolt-action sniper rifles, are semi-automatic as these have higher rates of fire and typically larger magazine capacities (10, 20, or 30 rounds depending on the firearm and operational requirements) to allow rapid engagement of multiple targets. These rifles have to be effective, in terms of hit rates and terminal ballistics, at application ranges exceeding those of ordinary assault rifles and battle rifles, but do not require the extended-range performance of a dedicated sniper rifle. DMRs need to function as part of squad (and possibly at close quarters) and often share some basic characteristics with sniper rifles when compared to other weapons carried in the DM's platoon. They typically have telescopic sights for more detailed observation and aiming, often also quick-deployed bipod for optimized accuracy, reduced recoil and better stability, and an adjustable stock for better ergonomics.

Comparison to sniper rifles, battle rifles, and carbines[edit]

Designated marksman with an SR-25

Most designated marksman rifles are based on modified designs of an assault rifle currently issued by a nation's military, or on a battle rifle that was formerly issued. The ammunitions used are often of the same caliber as that of the machine guns within the same combat unit, typically a fully powered cartridge such as the 7.62 mm NATO. For example, battle rifles such as the M14, FN FAL, AR-10 and Heckler & Koch G3 were largely replaced during the 1980s and 1990s by modern assault rifles firing the 5.56 mm NATO intermediate cartridge for standard riflemen, but many were accurized and retained as DMRs.

Conversely, some nations have also built rifles that were designed for the designated marksman from the ground up. Examples include the Soviet SVD and Chinese QBU-88.

Sights[edit]

Some designated marksman rifles will have some type of optical sight with a higher magnification level than the standard issue rifle. For example, the SDM-R issued to the United States Army is fitted with a Trijicon 4× ACOG, while the standard-issue M4 carbine is equipped with an unmagnified Aimpoint CompM2 or CompM4. Commonly, the sighting system will be the only difference between the standard rifle and the designated marksman rifle, as is the case with the F88S DMR issued to the Australian Army.

Sniper rifles often have even greater magnification than designated marksman rifles outfitted with magnification, for example, the M110 SASS used by the United States Army, is equipped with a Leupold 3.5-10× variable-power scope. However, some designated marksman rifles, such as the Mk 12 Special Purpose Rifle or the USMC Squad Advanced Marksman Rifle are fitted with scopes with similar magnification.

Barrels[edit]

In some cases, the designated marksman rifle will have a longer barrel than the standard issued rifle. For example, until October 2015, when the M4 carbine was approved as the new standard issue rifle, the M16A4 rifle was still standard issue throughout the United States Marine Corps. The barrel on the Mk 12 Special Purpose Rifle, the current rifle used by the squad designated marksman in the USMC, is only 500 mm (18 in) long - 50 mm (2 in) shorter than the barrel on the standard rifle. This is no longer the case, however, as the M4 carbine has a barrel length of only 370 mm (14.5 in). Also, some rifles, such as the F88S Austeyr, have a barrel that is the same length as the standard service rifle. The FD-200 has an accurized barrel, also found on designated marksman rifles.

Most sniper rifles, such as the Accuracy International Arctic Warfare, have a barrel with a length of 610 mm (24 in) or greater. Only the Dragunov sniper rifle (SVD) and similar designated marksman rifles have a barrel of this length. The designated marksman rifles based on the M14 have barrels 460–560 mm (18–22 in) long.

Ammunition[edit]

In most cases, a designated marksman rifle will share the caliber and possibly even the ammunition type used by standard issue rifles. DM rifles may be issued with standard ball ammunition, or special match grade loads, such as 7.62 mm NATO 'M118LR' sniper round. Sniper rifles are (almost exclusively) deployed with match grade ammunition in order to take advantage of their full effective range and accuracy potential; in addition, some sniper rifles are chambered for specialized ammunition, such as .338 Lapua Magnum, that they do not share with common weapons.

In the U.S. military, designated marksman rifles chambered for 5.56 mm NATO have available the 5 g (77 grain) match grade Mk 262 Mod 0/1[note 1] cartridge that enhances the effective range to roughly 600–800 m (2,000–2,600 ft).

Action[edit]

All designated marksman rifles in use today are semi-automatic, some with select fire. Sniper rifles are generally bolt-action rifles, but can also be semi-automatic.

Designated marksman rifles in service by nation[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In the U.S. military, 7.62×51 mm (.308 rounds) are most commonly used for marksmen, as they are cheaper.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Muir, Tom (1 February 2010). "Land Force: Army's broad fire capabilities key to mission success | ADM Feb 2010". Australian Defence Magazine. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
  2. ^ Wellfare, John (14 April 2011). "Shooting for modern combat". Army News (Australia). Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
  3. ^ Pratt, Anthony. "COMBAT SHOOTING, A NEW PERSPECTIVE". Australian Army Journal.
  4. ^ "Contract Notice View - CN352591". AusTender. Australian Government. 14 December 2010. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
  5. ^ Hetherington, Andrew (3 February 2011). "Extreme Peril". Army News (Australia). Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ "French Assault Rifles". Archived from the original on 26 November 2010. Retrieved 25 December 2010.
  8. ^ "H&K 417 CALIBRE 7,62x51mm NATO - Operacional". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2010.
  9. ^ Pellumb Nili (26 December 2007). "hk in albania". Archived from the original on 6 June 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2016 – via YouTube.
  10. ^ http://www.mil.no/hv/start/article.jhtml?articleID=140199K[permanent dead link]
  11. ^ "DIMOC - Home Page". Archived from the original on 6 June 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
  12. ^ "34. Bercsény László Különleges Műveleti Zászlóalj". Archived from the original on 8 May 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  13. ^ "«تیراندازان نخبه»؛ نقش جدیدی که با ژ-3 در سازمان رزم ارتش ایجاد شد +عکس". Mashregh News. 11 May 2016. Archived from the original on 1 June 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  14. ^ "IWI - Israel Weapons Industry". Archived from the original on 13 August 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2019.
  15. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 September 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  16. ^ "Sig Sauer 716 DMR @ PA". Defense of the Republic of the Philippines forum. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  17. ^ Engelbrecht, Leon (21 January 2010). "Fact file: R1 battle rifle". defenceweb.co.za. defenceweb. Archived from the original on 4 May 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
  18. ^ Engelbrecht, Leon (3 March 2011). "R6.2 million for R4". defenceweb.co.za. DefenceWeb. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
  19. ^ SIG SG 550#Sights
  20. ^ https://peosoldier.army.mil/newpeo/Equipment/Temp.asp?id=IW_M14[permanent dead link]
  21. ^ Kokalis, Peter (2005). "M14 reborn: Crazy Horse and the Romanian Option". Shotgun News. 50 (12): 20–22, 24, 26.
  22. ^ "M39 Enhanced Marksmanship Rifle - US Special Operations - Weapons". Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2010.
  23. ^ "SRCSGT - 10 - The Marine Corps Systems Command desires to collect information regarding potential rifle scopes to be utilized on Sniper Rifles (M40A3, M107, Mk11, Mk 12, M14 DMR and M39 EMR). - 03-Aug-08 - FBO#2442". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2010.
  24. ^ Bryant and Bryant, Weapons of the US Army Rangers. Copyright 2005, Zenith Press.
  25. ^ Jahner, Kyle (8 April 2016). "H&K confirms: This is the Army's new and improved sniper rifle". Army Times. Retrieved 9 June 2016. The gun will replace the M110 made by Knight's Armament as a culmination of the Army's desire for a shorter, lighter rifle that didn't sacrifice accuracy or performance.