Desmond Doss

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Desmond Doss
DossDesmondT USArmy.jpg
Doss about to receive the Medal
of Honor in October 1945
Birth name Desmond Thomas Doss
Born (1919-02-07)February 7, 1919
Lynchburg, Virginia, United States
Died March 23, 2006(2006-03-23) (aged 87)
Piedmont, Alabama, United States
Service/branch United States Army
Years of service 1942–1946
Rank Corporal
Unit B Company, 1st Battalion, 307th Infantry Regiment, 77th Infantry Division
Battles/wars

World War II

Awards
Spouse(s)
  • Dorothy Pauline (née Schutte) Doss (m. 1942–91)
  • Frances May (née Duman) Doss (m. 1993–2006)

Desmond Thomas Doss (February 7, 1919 – March 23, 2006) was a United States Army corporal who served as a combat medic with an infantry company in World War II. After distinguishing himself in the Battle of Okinawa, he became the first conscientious objector to receive the Medal of Honor for actions above and beyond the call of duty. He is also the only conscientious objector to receive the medal during World War II.

Early life[edit]

Desmond Doss was born in Lynchburg, Virginia, the son of William Thomas Doss, a carpenter, and Bertha Edward Doss (née Oliver), a homemaker and shoe factory worker.[1][2][3] His mother raised him as a devout Seventh-day Adventist and instilled Sabbath-keeping, nonviolence, and a vegetarian lifestyle in his upbringing.[4] He grew up in the Fairview Heights area of Lynchburg, Virginia alongside his older sister Audrey and younger brother Harold.[3]

Doss attended the Park Avenue Seventh-day Adventist Church school until the eighth grade, and subsequently found a job at the Lynchburg Lumber Company to support his family during the Great Depression.[3]

World War II service[edit]

Before the outbreak of World War II, Doss was employed as a joiner at a shipyard in Newport News, Virginia.[3] Doss enlisted – despite being offered a deferment for his shipyard work[5] – and entered military service on April 1, 1942 at Camp Lee, Virginia.[6] He was sent to Fort Jackson in South Carolina for training with the reactivated 77th Infantry Division. Meanwhile, his brother Harold served aboard the USS Lindsey.[7] Doss refused to kill an enemy soldier or carry a weapon into combat because of his personal beliefs as a Seventh-day Adventist.[8] He consequently became a medic assigned to 2nd Platoon, B Company, 1st Battalion, 307th Infantry, 77th Infantry Division. While serving with his platoon in 1944 on Guam and the Philippines, he was awarded a Bronze Star Medal for aiding wounded soldiers under fire. During the Battle of Okinawa, he saved the lives of 75 wounded infantrymen[DTD 1] atop the Maeda Escarpment. Doss was wounded four times in Okinawa,[10] and was evacuated on May 21, 1945 aboard the USS Mercy.[11]

Subsequent life[edit]

Desmond Doss.

After the war, Doss initially planned to continue his career in carpentry but extensive damage to his arm left him unable to do so.[3] In 1946, Doss was diagnosed with tuberculosis which he contracted in Leyte.[11] He subsequently underwent treatment for five and a half years – which cost him a lung and five ribs – before being honorably discharged in August 1951 with 90% disability.[12][13] Doss continued to receive treatment from the military but after an overdose of antibiotics rendered him completely deaf in 1976, he was given 100% disability; he was able to regain hearing after receiving a cochlear implant in 1988.[1][11] Despite the severity of his injuries, Doss managed to raise a family on a small farm in Rising Fawn, Georgia.[11]

Doss married Dorothy Schutte on August 17, 1942 and they had one child, Desmond "Tommy" Doss Jr., born in 1946.[11] Dorothy died on November 17, 1991 due to a car accident.[11] Doss remarried on July 1, 1993 to Frances Duman.[1][14]

Doss died on March 23, 2006 at his home in Piedmont, Alabama, after being hospitalized for difficulty breathing,[15] the same day as another Medal of Honor recipient, David Bleak. A horse-drawn hearse delivered the flag-covered casket to the grave site while military helicopters flew overhead in a tribute formation.[16] He was buried on April 3, 2006 in the National Cemetery in Chattanooga, Tennessee.

Awards and decorations[edit]

Doss' awards include:[17]

CombatMedBadge.gif
V
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Arrowhead
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
77th Infantry Division.patch.jpg
Combat Medical Badge
Medal of Honor
Bronze Star Medal
with one Oak leaf cluster and "V" Device
Purple Heart
with two Oak leaf Clusters
Army Good Conduct Medal
American Campaign Medal Asiatic–Pacific Campaign Medal
with arrowhead device and three 316" bronze stars
World War II Victory Medal
Philippine Liberation Medal
with one 316" bronze service star
Army Presidential Unit Citation Meritorious Unit Commendation
77th Infantry Division SSI-FWTS

Medal of Honor citation[edit]

Medal of Honor

Rank and organization: Private First Class, United States Army, Medical Detachment, 307th Infantry, 77th Infantry Division.

Place and date: Near Urasoe Mura, Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, April 29, 1945 – May 21, 1945.

Entered service at: Lynchburg, Virginia

Birth: Lynchburg, Virginia

G.O. No.: 97, November 1, 1945.

Corporal Doss receiving the Medal of Honor from President Harry Truman on October 12, 1945
Doss on top of the Maeda Escarpment, 4 May 1945

Citation:
The President of the United States of America, in the name of Congress, takes pleasure in presenting the Medal of Honor to Private First Class Desmond Thomas Doss, United States Army, for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action above and beyond the call of duty from April 29 – 21 May 1945, while serving with the Medical Detachment, 307th Infantry Regiment, 77th Infantry Division, in action at Urasoe Mura, Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands. Private First Class Doss was a company aid man when the 1st Battalion assaulted a jagged escarpment 400 feet high. As our troops gained the summit, a heavy concentration of artillery, mortar and machine gun fire crashed into them, inflicting approximately 75 casualties and driving the others back. Pfc. Doss refused to seek cover and remained in the fire-swept area with the many stricken, carrying all 75 casualties one-by-one to the edge of the escarpment and there lowering them on a rope-supported litter down the face of a cliff to friendly hands. On May 2, he exposed himself to heavy rifle and mortar fire in rescuing a wounded man 200 yards forward of the lines on the same escarpment; and 2 days later he treated 4 men who had been cut down while assaulting a strongly defended cave, advancing through a shower of grenades to within eight yards of enemy forces in a cave's mouth, where he dressed his comrades' wounds before making 4 separate trips under fire to evacuate them to safety. On May 5, he unhesitatingly braved enemy shelling and small arms fire to assist an artillery officer. He applied bandages, moved his patient to a spot that offered protection from small arms fire and, while artillery and mortar shells fell close by, painstakingly administered plasma. Later that day, when an American was severely wounded by fire from a cave, Pfc. Doss crawled to him where he had fallen 25 feet from the enemy position, rendered aid, and carried him 100 yards to safety while continually exposed to enemy fire. On May 21, in a night attack on high ground near Shuri, he remained in exposed territory while the rest of his company took cover, fearlessly risking the chance that he would be mistaken for an infiltrating Japanese and giving aid to the injured until he was himself seriously wounded in the legs by the explosion of a grenade. Rather than call another aid man from cover, he cared for his own injuries and waited 5 hours before litter bearers reached him and started carrying him to cover. The trio was caught in an enemy tank attack and Pfc. Doss, seeing a more critically wounded man nearby, crawled off the litter; and directed the bearers to give their first attention to the other man. Awaiting the litter bearers' return, he was again struck, by a sniper bullet while being carried off the field by a comrade, this time suffering a compound fracture of one arm. With magnificent fortitude he bound a rifle stock to his shattered arm as a splint and then crawled 300 yards over rough terrain to the aid station. Through his outstanding bravery and unflinching determination in the face of desperately dangerous conditions, Pfc. Doss saved the lives of many soldiers. His name became a symbol throughout the 77th Infantry Division for outstanding gallantry far above and beyond the call of duty.

Other honors and recognition[edit]

Desmond Doss (left) at the Georgia State Capitol on March 20, 2000 after being presented a special resolution sponsored by state representative Randy Sauder (right)
Doss Hall renaming ceremony
  • He was a resident of Lynchburg, Virginia, in which a portion of US Route 501 near Peaks View Park is named "Pfc. Desmond T. Doss Memorial Expressway" in his honor. Local veterans of the area still honor him by decorating the signs marking this portion of road several times during the year, particularly around patriotic holidays and especially Memorial Day.[3]
  • In 1951, Camp Desmond T. Doss was created in Grand Ledge, Michigan to help train young Seventh-day Adventist men for service in the military.
  • In the early 1980s, a school in Lynchburg was renamed Desmond T. Doss Christian Academy. The school was founded by the Lynchburg Seventh-Day Adventist Church, the home church of Desmond Doss during his years in Lynchburg. The church wanted to honor Doss for standing strong in his faith, both as a Christian and as a Seventh-Day Adventist, in the face of great adversity.[18] Desmond Doss visited the school that bears his name three times before his death.[19]
  • On July 10, 1990, a section of Georgia Highway 2 between US Highway 27 and Georgia Highway 193 in Walker County was named the "Desmond T. Doss Medal of Honor Highway."[20]
  • On March 20, 2000, Doss appeared before the Georgia House of Representatives and was presented a special resolution honoring his heroic accomplishments on behalf of the country.[21]
  • On July 4, 2004, a statue of Doss was dedicated at the National Museum of Patriotism in Atlanta, Georgia, which remained until the museum's closure in July 2010.[1]
  • In May 2007, a statue of Doss was dedicated at Veterans Memorial Park in Collegedale, Tennessee.[22]
  • In July 2008, the guest house at Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, D.C., was renamed Doss Memorial Hall.[23]
  • On August 30, 2008, a two-mile stretch of Alabama Highway 9 in Piedmont was named the "Desmond T. Doss Sr. Memorial Highway."[24]
  • On October 25, 2016, the City of Lynchburg, Virginia, awarded a plaque in his honor to Desmond T. Doss Christian Academy.[25]
  • On February 7, 2017, PETA posthumously honored Doss with a Hero to Animals award in recognition of his lifelong commitment to vegetarianism.[26]

In popular culture[edit]

On February 18, 1959, Doss appeared on the Ralph Edwards NBC TV show This Is Your Life.[27]

Doss was also featured in the Medal of Honor Special comic written by Doug Murray and published by Dark Horse Comics. The comic was a special edition of the series Medal of Honor, published April 1, 1994. The title was sanctioned by the United States Congressional Medal of Honor Society.[28] The issue features Corporal Desmond Doss along with another Medal of Honor recipient, Lieutenant Charles Q. Williams.[29]

Doss is the subject of The Conscientious Objector, an award-winning documentary in 2004.[30] He is also the subject of the book The Unlikeliest Hero.[16]

The feature film Hacksaw Ridge, based on his life, was directed by Mel Gibson, and was released nationwide in the U.S. on November 4, 2016, to positive reviews. Doss is portrayed by Andrew Garfield, who was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor for his performance.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ The exact number is unknown, although estimates range from 50 to 100 due to the fact that 55 – of the 155 soldiers involved in the action – were able to retreat without assistance.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Desmond T. Doss". collegedale-americanlegion.org. Retrieved November 20, 2014. 
  2. ^ "Hacksaw Ridge: The True Story of Desmond Doss". People. November 5, 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Desmond Doss, an American hero". November 5, 2016. 
  4. ^ Military.com, Seventh-Day Adventist Saved Fellow Soldiers on Sabbath at the Wayback Machine (archived August 11, 2001) Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  5. ^ "The Conscientious Objector". March 2004. 
  6. ^ "WWII Army Enlistment Records". National Archives. Retrieved June 30, 2005. 
  7. ^ "In Memory of Harold Edward Doss". Brown Funeral Home. Retrieved August 1, 2015. 
  8. ^ "Who was Desmond Doss of Hacksaw Ridge". Bibleinfo.com. Retrieved December 2, 2016. 
  9. ^ "Desmond T. Doss". HomeOfHeroes.com. Retrieved January 10, 2017. 
  10. ^ "Private First Class Desmond T. Doss Interview". March 20, 1987. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f "Hacksaw Ridge (2016)". HistoryvsHollywood.com. Retrieved November 7, 2016. 
  12. ^ Herndon, Booton (1967). The Unlikeliest Hero. Boise, Idaho: Pacific Press Publishing Association. p. 182. ISBN 0-8163-2048-9. 
  13. ^ "This is Your Life - Desmond Doss". February 18, 1959. 
  14. ^ "Lauded Conscientious Objector Desmond T. Doss Sr". March 26, 2006. 
  15. ^ Richard Goldstein (March 25, 2006). "Desmond T. Doss, 87, Heroic War Objector, Dies". New York Times. Retrieved June 16, 2013. 
  16. ^ a b "'Unlikeliest Hero' buried with 21-gun salute". Associated Press. NBC News. April 4, 2006. 
  17. ^ Herndon, Booton (2016). Redemption at Hacksaw Ridge. Remnant Publications. p. Foreword. ISBN 978-1-629131-55-9. 
  18. ^ "History of Desmond Doss". Desmond T. Doss Christian Academy. Retrieved August 16, 2016. 
  19. ^ "Remembering visits from Mr. Desmond T. Doss, the man for whom our school is named - Desmond T. Doss Christian Academy". May 17, 2016. 
  20. ^ "Walker County". Calhoun Times. September 1, 2004. p. 108. Retrieved April 26, 2015. 
  21. ^ "HR 206 – Doss, Desmond T.; invite to House – Fulltext". March 14, 2000. 
  22. ^ "Desmond Doss Sculpture Unveiled at Veterans Memorial Park". Adventist Review. uccsda.org. May 14, 2007. 
  23. ^ "Guest House named after Medal of Honor recipient". WRAMC News Releases. July 17, 2008. Retrieved August 31, 2008. 
  24. ^ Michael A. Bell (August 31, 2008). "Piedmont Medal of Honor recipient honored with state highway designation". The Anniston Star. Retrieved August 31, 2008. 
  25. ^ "Desmond Doss' Hacksaw Ridge Heroics and School Honored". October 30, 2016. 
  26. ^ "PETA awards Lynchburg hero Desmond Doss the Hero to Animals award". February 7, 2017. 
  27. ^ "This Is Your Life Episode List". Jim Davidson's Classic TV Info. Retrieved September 12, 2016. 
  28. ^ "Medal of Honor Special". Dark Horse Comics. Retrieved September 17, 2014. 
  29. ^ "Medal of Honor Special". Pritzker Military Museum & Library. Retrieved September 17, 2014. 
  30. ^ "The Conscientious Objector". imdb.com. Retrieved January 29, 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Leepson, Marc (2008), "Wonder Man of Okinawa," Military History magazine, September/October 2008, Vol. 25, No. 4.
  • Herndon, Booton (2004). The Unlikeliest Hero: The Story of Desmond T. Doss, Conscientious Objector Who Won His Nation's Highest Military Honor. Mountain View, California: Pacific Press Publishing Association. ISBN 978-0-8163-2048-6. .
  • Doss, Frances M. (2005). Desmond Doss: Conscientious Objector. Pacific Press Publishing Association. ISBN 978-0-8163-2124-7. 
  • Doss, Frances M. (1998). Desmond Doss: In God's care: The unlikeliest hero and Congressional Medal of Honor recipient. The College Press. 
  • Smith, Larry (2003). Beyond Glory: Medal of Honor Heroes in Their Own Words. Norton. ISBN 039305134X. 

External links[edit]