|Classification and external resources|
|ICD-10||K05.1 (ILDS K05.130)|
Signs and symptoms
Desquamative gingivitis involves lesions of the free and attached gingiva. Unlike plaque-induced inflammation of the gums (normal marginal gingivitis), desquamative gingivitis extends beyond the marginal gingiva, involving the full width of the gingiva and sometimes the alveolar mucosa. The term "full width gingivitis" usually refers to the oral lesions of orofacial granulomatosis however. The color is another dissimilarity between typical marginal gingivitis and desquamative gingivitis, in the latter it is dusky red. Plasma cell gingivitis is another form of gingivitis which affects both the attached and free gingiva.
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Desquamative gingivitis is a descriptive clinical term, not a diagnosis. Dermatologic conditions cause about 75% of cases of desquamative gingivitis, and over 95% of the dermatologic cases are accounted for by either oral lichen planus or cicatricial pemphigoid. The exact cause of desquamative gingivitis cannot be determined about a third of cases.
- Oral lichen planus
- Cicatricial pemphigoid or less commonly bullous pemphigoid
- Pemphigus vulgaris
- Linear immunoglobulin A disease
- Dermatitis herpetiformis
- Lupus erythematosus
- Chronic ulcerative stomatitis
- Chronic bacterial, fungal, and viral infections
- Reactions to medications, mouthwashes, and chewing gum
Rare causes include:
- Crohn’s disease
- factitious (self inflicted) lesions
- Squamous cell carcinoma (can be mistaken for desquamative gingivitis)
- Improving oral hygiene
- Minimising irritation of the lesions
- Specific therapies for the underlying disease (where available)
- Local or systemic immunosupressive or dapsone therapy (notably not corticosteroids)
This condition was first recognized and reported in 1884, but the term desquamative gingivits was not coined until 1932.
- (editors) Newman MG, Takei HH, Klokkevold PR, Carranza FA (2012). Carranza's clinical periodontology (11th ed.). St. Louis, Mo.: Elsevier/Saunders. pp. 111–126. ISBN 978-1-4377-0416-7.
- Lo Russo, L; Fedele, S; Guiglia, R; Ciavarella, D; Lo Muzio, L; Gallo, P; Di Liberto, C; Campisi, G (January 2008). "Diagnostic pathways and clinical significance of desquamative gingivitis.". Journal of periodontology. 79 (1): 4–24. PMID 18166088. doi:10.1902/jop.2008.070231.
- Odell EW (Editor) (2010). Clinical problem solving in dentistry (3rd ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. p. 192. ISBN 9780443067846.
- Welbury R; Duggal M; Hosey MT (2012). Paediatric dentistry (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 319. ISBN 978-0199574919.