|Trade names||Pristiq, Desfax, Ellefore, others|
|Other names||O-desmethylvenlafaxine, WY-45233|
|Protein binding||Low (30%)|
|Metabolism||CYP2C19, CYP3A4, (CYP2D6 is not involved)|
|Elimination half-life||11 h|
|Excretion||45% excreted unchanged in urine|
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||263.381 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
|(what is this?)|
Desvenlafaxine, sold under the brand name Pristiq among others, is a medication used to treat depression. It is an antidepressant of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class and is taken by mouth. It is recommended that the need for further treatment be occasionally reassessed. It may be less effective than its parent compound venlafaxine, although some studies have found comparable efficacy.
Common side effects include dizziness, trouble sleeping, increased sweating, constipation, sleepiness, anxiety, and sexual problems. Serious side effects may include suicide in those under the age of 25, serotonin syndrome, bleeding, mania, and high blood pressure. A withdrawal syndrome may occur if the dose is decreased or the medication completely stopped. It is unclear if use during pregnancy or breastfeeding is safe.
Desvenlafaxine was approved for medical use in the United States in 2008. In Europe its application for use was denied in 2009. But it is available in Spain and Germany. In 2019, it was the 177th most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 3 million prescriptions.
Desvenlafaxine is primarily used as a treatment for major depressive disorder. Use has only been studied up to 8 weeks. It may be less effective than venlafaxine, although some studies have found comparable efficacy with a lower rate of nausea.
Doses of 50–400 mg/day appear effective for major depressive disorder, although no additional benefit was demonstrated at doses greater than 50 mg/day, and adverse events and discontinuations were more frequent at higher doses.
Very common adverse effects include:
- Dry mouth
Common adverse effects include:
Uncommon adverse effects include:
Rare adverse effects include:
Common adverse effects whose intensity is unknown include:
Desvenlafaxine is a synthetic form of the isolated major active metabolite of venlafaxine, and is categorized as a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). When most normal metabolizers take venlafaxine, approximately 70% of the dose is metabolized into desvenlafaxine, so the effects of the two drugs are expected to be very similar. It works by blocking the "reuptake" transporters for key neurotransmitters affecting mood, thereby leaving more active neurotransmitters in the synapse. The neurotransmitters affected are serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). It is approximately 10 times more potent at inhibiting serotonin uptake than norepinephrine uptake.
Wyeth announced on 23 January 2007 that it received an approvable letter from the Food and Drug Administration for desvenlafaxine. Final approval to sell the drug was contingent on a number of things, including:
- A satisfactory FDA inspection of Wyeth's Guayama, Puerto Rico facility, where the drug is to be manufactured;
- Several postmarketing surveillance commitments, and follow-up studies on low-dose use, relapse, and use in children;
- Clarity by Wyeth around the company's product education plan for physicians and patients;
- Approval of desvenlafaxine's proprietary name, Pristiq.
The FDA approved the drug for antidepressant use in February 2008, and was to be available in US pharmacies in May 2008.
In March 2017, the generic form of the drug was made available in the US.
In 2009, an application to market desvenlafaxine for major depressive disorder in the European Union was declined. In 2012, Pfizer received authorization in Spain to market desvenlafaxine for the disorder. In August 2022, following a 14-year approval process, desvenlafaxine was brought to the market for the disorder in Germany.
Desvenlafaxine is classified as a schedule 4 (prescription only) drug in Australia. It was listed on the PBS (Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme) in 2008 for the treatment of major depressive disorders.
- "Desvenlafaxine Metabolic pathways". SMPBD. Retrieved February 3, 2022.
- "Desvenlafaxine Succinate Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
- "Withdrawal Assessment Report for Dessvenlafaxime" (PDF). EMA. p. 3. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
- Coleman, Kristina A.; Xavier, Vanessa Y.; Palmer, Trish L.; Meaney, James V.; Radalj, Libby M.; Canny, Louise M. (2012). "An indirect comparison of the efficacy and safety of desvenlafaxine and venlafaxine using placebo as the common comparator". CNS Spectrums. 17 (3): 131–141. doi:10.1017/S1092852912000648. ISSN 2165-6509. PMID 22883424. S2CID 35165334. Retrieved 2019-11-06.
- "Desvenlafaxine Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings". Drugs.com. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
- "The Top 300 of 2019". ClinCalc. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
- "Desvenlafaxine - Drug Usage Statistics". ClinCalc. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
- "PRODUCT INFORMATION – PRISTIQ desvenlafaxine (as succinate)" (PDF). TGA eBusiness Services. Pfizer Australia Pty Ltd. 10 December 2012. Retrieved 8 November 2013.
- Perry, Richard; Cassagnol, Manouchkathe (2009). "Desvenlafaxine: a new serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor for the treatment of adults with major depressive disorder". Clinical Therapeutics. 31 Pt 1: 1374–1404. doi:10.1016/j.clinthera.2009.07.012. ISSN 1879-114X. PMID 19698900.
- Thase ME, Kornstein SG, Germain JM, Jiang Q, Guico-Pabia C, Ninan PT (March 2009). "An integrated analysis of the efficacy of desvenlafaxine compared with placebo in patients with major depressive disorder". CNS Spectr. 14 (3): 144–54. doi:10.1017/s1092852900020125. PMID 19407711. S2CID 32901068.
- Soares CN, Kornstein SG, Thase ME, Jiang Q, Guico-Pabia CJ (October 2009). "Assessing the efficacy of desvenlafaxine for improving functioning and well-being outcome measures in patients with major depressive disorder: a pooled analysis of 9 double-blind, placebo-controlled, 8-week clinical trials". J Clin Psychiatry. 70 (10): 1365–71. doi:10.4088/JCP.09m05133blu. PMID 19906341.
- "DESVENLAFAXINE tablet, extended release [Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc.]". DailyMed. Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc. March 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2013.
- "desvenlafaxine (Rx) - Pristiq, Khedezla". Medscape Reference. WebMD. Retrieved 9 November 2013.
- Lemke, Thomas L.; Williams, David A. (2012). Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 609. ISBN 978-1-60913-345-0.
- Deecher, DC; Beyer, CE; Johnston, G; Bray, J; Shah, S; Abou-Gharbia, M; Andree, TH (August 2006). "Desvenlafaxine succinate: A new serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor" (PDF). The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 318 (2): 657–665. doi:10.1124/jpet.106.103382. PMID 16675639. S2CID 15063064.
- Roth, BL; Driscol, J (Dec 2012). "PDSP Ki Database". Psychoactive Drug Screening Program (PDSP). University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the United States National Institute of Mental Health. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
- "Wyeth Receives Approvable Letter From FDA For Pristiq (Desvenlafaxine Succinate) For The Treatment Of Major Depressive Disorder" (Press release). 2007-01-23. Retrieved 2007-04-04.
- "FDA Approves Pristiq" (Press release). Wyeth. 2008-02-29. Archived from the original on 2008-03-05. Retrieved 2008-02-29.
- Health Canada Notice of Compliance - Pristiq[permanent dead link]. February 4, 2009, retrieved on March 9, 2009.
- "Summary Basis of Decision (SBD) PrPristiq". Health Canada. 2009-05-29. Archived from the original on 2016-10-18. Retrieved 2016-12-30.
- "Pristiq 100 mg Comprimidos de Liberacion Prolongada". AEMPS Medicines Online Information Center - CIMA. Retrieved 2016-12-30.
- "Pristiq 50 mg Comprimidos de Liberacion Prolongada". AEMPS Medicines Online Information Center - CIMA. Retrieved 2016-12-30.
- Möthrath, Cynthia (August 1, 2022). "Desvenlafaxin: Grünes Licht nach 14 Jahren". Apotheke Adhoc (in German). Retrieved 2022-08-12.
- "Desvenlafaxine". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.