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Detached object

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Trans-Neptunian objects plotted by their distance and inclination. Objects beyond a distance of 100 AU display their designation.
  Resonant TNO & Plutino
  Cubewanos (classical KBO)
  Scattered disc object
  Detached object

Detached objects are a dynamical class of minor planets in the outer reaches of the Solar System and belong to the broader family of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). These objects have orbits whose points of closest approach to the Sun (perihelion) are sufficiently distant from the gravitational influence of Neptune that they are only moderately affected by Neptune and the other known planets: this makes them appear to be "detached" from the Solar System.[1][2]

In this way, detached objects differ substantially from most other known TNOs, which form a loosely defined set of populations that have been perturbed to varying degrees onto their current orbit by gravitational encounters with the giant planets, predominantly Neptune. Detached objects have larger perihelia than these other TNO populations, including the objects in orbital resonance with Neptune, such as Pluto, the classical Kuiper belt objects in non-resonant orbits such as Makemake, and the scattered disk objects like Eris.

Detached objects have also been referred to in the scientific literature as extended scattered disc objects (E-SDO),[3] distant detached objects (DDO),[4] or scattered–extended, as in the formal classification by the Deep Ecliptic Survey.[5] This reflects the dynamical gradation that can exist between the orbital parameters of the scattered disk and the detached population.

At least nine such bodies have been securely identified,[6] of which the largest, most distant, and best known is Sedna. Those with perihelia greater than 75 AU are termed sednoids. As of 2016, there are two known sednoids, Sedna and 2012 VP113.

Orbits[edit]

Detached objects have perihelia much larger than Neptune's aphelion. They often have highly elliptical, very large orbits with semi-major axes of up to a few hundred astronomical units (AU, the radius of Earth's orbit). Such orbits cannot have been created by gravitational scattering by the giant planets, not even Neptune. Instead, a number of explanations have been put forward, including an encounter with a passing star[7] or a distant planet-sized object,[4] or Neptune itself (which may once have had a much more eccentric orbit, from which it could have tugged the objects to their current orbit)[8][9][10][11][12] or ejected planets (present in the early Solar System that were ejected).[13][14][15]

The classification suggested by the Deep Ecliptic Survey team introduces a formal distinction between scattered-near objects (which could be scattered by Neptune) and scattered-extended objects (e.g. 90377 Sedna) using a Tisserand's parameter value of 3.[5]

The Planet Nine hypothesis suggests that the orbits of several detached objects can be explained by the gravitational influence of a large, unobserved planet between 200 AU and 1200 AU from the Sun and/or the influence of Neptune.[16]

Classification[edit]

Detached objects are one of five distinct dynamical classes of TNO; the other four classes are classical Kuiper-belt objects, resonant objects, scattered-disc objects (SDO), and sednoids. Detached objects generally have a perihelion distance greater than 40 AU, deterring strong interactions with Neptune, which has an approximately circular orbit about 30 AU from the Sun. However, there are no clear boundaries between the scattered and detached regions, since both can coexist as TNOs in an intermediate region with perihelion distance between 37 and 40 AU.[6] One such intermediate body with a well determined orbit is (120132) 2003 FY128.

The discovery of 90377 Sedna in 2003, together with a few other objects discovered around that time such as (148209) 2000 CR105 and 2004 XR190, has motivated discussion of a category of distant objects that may also be inner Oort cloud objects or (more likely) transitional objects between the scattered disc and the inner Oort cloud.[2]

Although Sedna is officially considered a scattered-disc object by the MPC, its discoverer Michael E. Brown has suggested that because its perihelion distance of 76 AU is too distant to be affected by the gravitational attraction of the outer planets it should be considered an inner-Oort-cloud object rather than a member of the scattered disc.[17] This classification of Sedna as a detached object is accepted in recent publications.[18]

This line of thinking suggests that the lack of a significant gravitational interaction with the outer planets creates an extended–outer group starting somewhere between Sedna (perihelion 76 AU) and more conventional SDOs like 1996 TL66 (perihelion 35 AU), which is listed as a scattered–near object by the Deep Ecliptic Survey.[19]

Influence of Neptune[edit]

One of the problems with defining this extended category is that weak resonances may exist and would be difficult to prove due to chaotic planetary perturbations and the current lack of knowledge of the orbits of these distant objects. They have orbital periods of more than 300 years and most have only been observed over a short observation arc of a couple years. Due to their great distance and slow movement against background stars, it may be decades before most of these distant orbits are determined well enough to confidently confirm or rule out a resonance. Further improvement in the orbit and potential resonance of these objects will help to understand the migration of the giant planets and the formation of the Solar System. For example, simulations by Emel’yanenko and Kiseleva in 2007 show that many distant objects could be in resonance with Neptune. They show a 10% likelihood that 2000 CR105 is in a 20:1 resonance, a 38% likelihood that 2003 QK91 is in a 10:3 resonance, and an 84% likelihood that (82075) 2000 YW134 is in an 8:3 resonance.[20] The likely dwarf planet (145480) 2005 TB190 appears to have less than a 1% likelihood of being in a 4:1 resonance.[20]

Influence of hypothetical planet(s) beyond Neptune[edit]

Mike Brown—who made the Planet Nine hypothesis—makes an observation that "all of the known distant objects which are pulled even a little bit away from the Kuiper seem to be clustered under the influence of this hypothetical planet (specifically, objects with semimajor axis > 100 AU and perihelion > 42 AU)."[21] Carlos de la Fuente Marcos and Ralph de la Fuente Marcos have calculated that some of the statistically significant commensurabilities are compatible with the Planet Nine hypothesis; in particular, a number of objects[A] may be trapped in the 5:3 and 3:1 mean-motion resonances with a putative Planet Nine with a semimajor axis ∼700 AU.[24]

Possible detached objects[edit]

This is a list of known objects by decreasing perihelion, that could not be easily scattered by Neptune's current orbit and therefore are likely to be detached objects, but that lie inside the perihelion gap of ≈50–75 AU that defines the sednoids:[25][26][27][28][29][30]

Objects listed below have a perihelion of more than 40 AU, and a semimajor axis of more than 47.7 AU (the 1:2 resonance with Neptune, and the approximate outer limit of the Kuiper Belt) [31]

Name Diameter
(km)
H Perihelion
(AU)
Semi-major axis
(AU)
Aphelion
(AU)
Argument of perihelion (°) Discovery
Year
Discoverer Method[a] Notes & Refs
(148209) 2000 CR105 ≈ 120–375 6.3 44.252 221.2 398 316.93 2000 M. W. Buie assumed [32]
(82075) 2000 YW134 < 500 4.7 41.207 57.795 74.383 316.481 2000 Spacewatch infrared ~3:8 Neptune resonance
2001 KA77 ≈ 210–680 5.0 43.41 47.74 52.07 120.3 2001 M. W. Buie assumed borderline classical KBO
2002 CP154 ≈ 110–340 6.5 42 52 62 50 2002 M. W. Buie assumed orbit fairly poor, but definitely a detached object
2003 UY291 ≈ 70–230 7.4 41.19 48.95 56.72 15.6 2003 M. W. Buie assumed borderline classical KBO
90377 Sedna ≈ 1000 1.5 76.072 483.3 890 311.61 2003 M. E. Brown, C. A. Trujillo, D. L. Rabinowitz direct obs Sednoid
2004 PD112 ≈ 120–360 6.1 40 70 90 40 2004 M. W. Buie assumed orbit very poor, might not be a detached object
(474640) 2004 VN112 ≈ 110–340 6.5 47.308 315 584 326.925 2004 Cerro Tololo (unspecified) assumed [33][34][35]
2004 XR190 ≈ 320–1030 4.1 51.085 57.336 63.586 284.93 2004 R. L. Allen, B. J. Gladman, J. J. Kavelaars
J.-M. Petit, J. W. Parker, P. Nicholson
assumed pseudo-Sednoid, very high inclination[32][36]
2005 CG81 ≈ 130–410 6.1 41.03 54.10 67.18 57.12 2005 CFEPS assumed
(385607) 2005 EO297 ≈ 77–250 7.2 41.215 62.98 84.75 349.86 2005 M. W. Buie assumed
(145480) 2005 TB190 ≈ 400 4.5 46.197 75.546 104.896 171.023 2005 A. C. Becker, A. W. Puckett, J. M. Kubica infrared
2006 AO101 ≈ 80–260 7.1 -- -- -- -- 2006 Mauna Kea (unspecified) assumed orbit extremely poor, might not be a TNO
(278361) 2007 JJ43 ≈ 610 4.5 40.383 48.390 56.397 6.536 2007 Palomar (unspecified) derived borderline classical KBO
2007 LE38 ≈ 84–270 7.0 41.798 54.56 67.32 53.96 2007 Mauna Kea (unspecified) assumed
2008 ST291 ≈ 310–990 4.2 42.27 99.3 156.4 324.37 2008 M. E. Schwamb, M. E. Brown, D. L. Rabinowitz assumed ~1:6 Neptune resonance
2009 KX36 ≈ 53–170 8.0 -- 100 100 -- 2009 Mauna Kea (unspecified) assumed orbit extremely poor, might not be a TNO
2010 DN93 ≈ 240–780 4.7 45.102 55.501 65.90 33.01 2010 Pan-STARRS assumed ~2:5 Neptune resonance
2010 ER65 ≈ 210–680 5.0 40.035 99.71 159.39 324.19 2010 D. L. Rabinowitz, S. W. Tourtellotte assumed
2010 GB174 ≈ 110–340 6.5 48.8 360 670 347.7 2010 Mauna Kea (unspecified) assumed
2012 FH84 ≈ 77–250 7.2 42 56 70 10 2012 Las Campanas (unspecified) assumed
2012 VP113 ≈ 330–1080 4.0 80.47 256 431 293.8 2012 S. S. Sheppard, C. A. Trujillo assumed Sednoid
2013 FQ28 ≈ 130–430 6.0 45.9 63.1 80.3 230 2013 S. S. Sheppard, C. A. Trujillo assumed
2013 FT28 ≈ 97–310 6.7 43.5 310 580 40.3 2013 S. S. Sheppard assumed
(496315) 2013 GP136 ≈ 100–330 6.6 41.061 155.1 269.1 42.38 2013 OSSOS assumed
2013 GQ136 ≈ 110–340 6.5 40.79 49.06 57.33 155.3 2013 OSSOS assumed borderline classical KBO
2013 GG138 ≈ 100–330 6.6 46.64 47.792 48.946 128 2013 OSSOS assumed borderline classical KBO
(500876) 2013 JD64 ≈ 53–170 8.0 42.603 73.12 103.63 178.0 2013 OSSOS assumed
(500880) 2013 JJ64 ≈ 70–230 7.4 44.04 48.158 52.272 179.8 2013 OSSOS assumed borderline classical KBO
2013 SY99 ≈ 93–300 6.8 49.97 670 1300 32.2 2013 OSSOS assumed
2013 SK100 ≈ 66–200 7.6 45.468 61.61 77.76 11.5 2013 OSSOS assumed
(505478) 2013 UT15 ≈ 120–360 6.3 43.89 195.7 348 252.33 2013 OSSOS assumed
2013 UB17 ≈ 83–270 7.0 44.49 62.31 80.13 308.93 2013 OSSOS assumed
2013 VD24 ≈ 57–200 7.8 40 50 70 197 2013 Dark Energy Survey assumed orbit very poor, might not be a detached object
2013 YJ151 ≈ 180–570 5.4 40.866 72.35 103.83 141.83 2013 Pan-STARRS assumed
2014 EZ51 ≈ 380–1240 3.7 40.70 52.49 64.28 329.84 2014 Pan-STARRS assumed
2014 FC69 ≈ 250–820 4.6 40 70 100 190 2014 S. S. Sheppard, C. A. Trujillo assumed orbit fairly poor, but definitely a detached object
2014 FZ71 ≈ 88–280 6.9 55.9 76.2 96.5 245 2014 S. S. Sheppard, C. A. Trujillo assumed pseudo-Sednoid
2014 FC72 ≈ 270–860 4.5 51.670 76.329 100.99 32.85 2014 Pan-STARRS assumed pseudo-Sednoid
2014 JM80 ≈ 170–540 5.5 46.00 63.00 80.01 96.1 2014 Pan-STARRS assumed
2014 JS80 ≈ 170–540 5.5 40.013 48.291 56.569 174.5 2014 Pan-STARRS assumed borderline classical KBO
2014 OJ394 ≈ 210–680 5.0 40.80 52.97 65.14 271.60 2014 Pan-STARRS assumed in 3:7 Neptune resonance
2014 QR441 ≈ 92–300 6.8 42.6 67.8 93.0 283 2014 Dark Energy Survey assumed
2014 SR349 ≈ 100–330 6.6 47.6 300 540 341.1 2014 S. S. Sheppard, C. A. Trujillo assumed
2014 SS349 ≈ 64–210 7.6 45 140 240 148 2014 S. S. Sheppard, C. A. Trujillo assumed
2014 UT228 ≈ 74–230 7.3 43.97 48.593 53.216 49.9 2014 OSSOS assumed borderline classical KBO
2014 UA230 ≈ 110–320 6.5 42.27 55.05 67.84 132.8 2014 OSSOS assumed
2014 UO231 ≈ 43–150 8.3 42.25 55.11 67.98 234.56 2014 OSSOS assumed
2014 WK509 ≈ 330–1080 4.0 40.08 50.79 61.50 135.4 2014 Pan-STARRS assumed
2015 AL281 ≈ 130–380 6.1 42 48 54 120 2015 Pan-STARRS assumed borderline classical KBO
orbit very poor, might not be a detached object
(495603) 2015 AM281 ≈ 230–940 4.8 41.380 55.372 69.364 157.72 2015 Pan-STARRS assumed
(487581) 2015 BE519 ≈ 170–540 5.5 44.82 47.866 50.909 293.2 2015 Pan-STARRS assumed borderline classical KBO
2015 FJ345 ≈ 56–180 7.9 51 63.0 75.2 78 2015 S. S. Sheppard, C. A. Trujillo assumed pseudo-Sednoid
2015 GP50 ≈ 110–340 6.5 40.4 55.2 70.0 130 2015 S. S. Sheppard, C. A. Trujillo assumed
2015 KH162 ≈ 350–1130 3.9 41.63 62.29 82.95 296.805 2015 S. S. Sheppard, D. J. Tholen, C. A. Trujillo assumed
2015 KG163 ≈ 46–150 8.3 40.502 826 1610 32.06 2015 OSSOS assumed
2015 KH163 ≈ 52–180 7.9 40.06 157.2 274 230.29 2015 OSSOS assumed ~1:12 Neptune resonance
2015 KE172 ≈ 51–164 8.1 44.137 133.12 222.1 15.43 2015 OSSOS assumed 1:9 Neptune resonance
2015 KG172 ≈ 150–380 6.0 42 55 69 35 2015 R. L. Allen, D. James, D. Herrera assumed orbit fairly poor, might not be a detached object
2015 RX245 ≈ 110–340 6.2 45.5 410 780 65.3 2015 OSSOS assumed
2001 FL193 8.7 40.29 50.26 60.23 108.6 2001
2017 DP121 7.2 40.52 50.48 60.45 217.9 2017
2017 FP161 7.1 40.88 47.99 55.1 218 2017

The following objects can also be generally thought to be detached objects, although with slightly lower perihelion distances of 38-40 AU.

Name Diameter
(km)
H Perihelion
(AU)
Semi-major axis
(AU)
Aphelion
(AU)
Argument of perihelion (°) Discovery
Year
Discoverer Method[b] Notes & Refs
(506479) 2003 HB57 ≈ 70–340 7.4 38.116 166.2 294 11.082 2003 Mauna Kea (unspecified) assumed
2003 SS422 < 130 >7.1 39 200 400 210 2003 Cerro Tololo (unspecified) assumed orbit very poor, might not be a detached object
2005 RH52 ≈ 58–190 7.8 38.957 152.6 266.3 32.285 2005 CFEPS assumed
2007 TC434 ≈ 84–270 7.0 39.577 128.41 217.23 351.010 2007 Las Campanas (unspecified) assumed 1:9 Neptune resonance
2012 FL84 ≈ 100–330 6.6 38.607 106.25 173.89 141.866 2012 Pan-STARRS assumed
2014 FL72 ≈ 92–300 6.8 38.1 104 170 259.49 2014 Cerro Tololo (unspecified) assumed
2014 JW80 ≈ 170–540 5.5 38.161 142.62 247.1 131.61 2014 Pan-STARRS assumed
2014 YK50 ≈ 160–520 5.6 38.972 120.52 202.1 169.31 2014 Pan-STARRS assumed
2015 GT50 ≈ 42–130 8.6 38.46 333 627 129.3 2015 OSSOS assumed

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Method of diameter calculation: "Assumed" means the albedo of the object is assumed to be 0.04, and the object's diameter is calculated accordingly.
  2. ^ Method of diameter calculation: "Assumed" means the albedo of the object is assumed to be 0.04, and the object's diameter is calculated accordingly.
  1. ^ Twelve minor planets with a semi-major axis greater than 150 AU and perihelion greater than 30 AU are known,[22][nb 1] which are called Extreme trans Neptunian objects (ETNOs).[23]
  1. ^ 2003 SS422 is excluded from the count because it has an observation arc of only 76 days and hence its semi-major axis is not securely known.

References[edit]

  1. ^ P. S. Lykawka; T. Mukai (2008). "An Outer Planet Beyond Pluto and the Origin of the Trans-Neptunian Belt Architecture". Astronomical Journal. 135: 1161–1200. arXiv:0712.2198Freely accessible. Bibcode:2008AJ....135.1161L. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/135/4/1161. 
  2. ^ a b D.Jewitt, A.Delsanti The Solar System Beyond The Planets in Solar System Update : Topical and Timely Reviews in Solar System Sciences , Springer-Praxis Ed., ISBN 3-540-26056-0 (2006) Preprint of the article (pdf) Archived January 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ Gladman, B.; et al. (2002). "Evidence for an Extended Scattered Disk". Icarus. 157: 269–279. arXiv:astro-ph/0103435Freely accessible. Bibcode:2002Icar..157..269G. doi:10.1006/icar.2002.6860. 
  4. ^ a b Rodney S. Gomes; Matese, J; Lissauer, J (2006). "A distant planetary-mass solar companion may have produced distant detached objects". Icarus. Elsevier. 184 (2): 589–601. Bibcode:2006Icar..184..589G. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2006.05.026. 
  5. ^ a b J. L. Elliot; S. D. Kern; K. B. Clancy; A. A. S. Gulbis; R. L. Millis; M. W. Buie; L. H. Wasserman; E. I. Chiang; A. B. Jordan; D. E. Trilling; K. J. Meech (2006). "The Deep Ecliptic Survey: A Search for Kuiper Belt Objects and Centaurs. II. Dynamical Classification, the Kuiper Belt Plane, and the Core Population" (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. 129: 1117–1162. Bibcode:2005AJ....129.1117E. doi:10.1086/427395. 
  6. ^ a b Lykawka, Patryk Sofia; Mukai, Tadashi (July 2007). "Dynamical classification of trans-neptunian objects: Probing their origin, evolution, and interrelation". Icarus. 189 (1): 213–232. Bibcode:2007Icar..189..213L. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2007.01.001. 
  7. ^ Morbidelli, Alessandro; Levison, Harold F. (November 2004). "Scenarios for the Origin of the Orbits of the Trans-Neptunian Objects 2000 CR105 and 2003 VB12". The Astronomical Journal. 128 (5): 2564–2576. arXiv:astro-ph/0403358Freely accessible. Bibcode:2004AJ....128.2564M. doi:10.1086/424617. Retrieved 2008-07-02. 
  8. ^ "Evidence for an extended scattered disk". Icarus. 157: 269–279. arXiv:astro-ph/0103435Freely accessible. Bibcode:2002Icar..157..269G. doi:10.1006/icar.2002.6860. 
  9. ^ "Mankind's Explanation: 12th Planet". 
  10. ^ "A comet's odd orbit hints at hidden planet". 
  11. ^ "Is There a Large Planet Orbiting Beyond Neptune?". 
  12. ^ "Signs of a Hidden Planet?". 
  13. ^ "A Moment With ... Dr. Brett Gladman". 
  14. ^ "Production of the Extended Scattered Disk by Rogue Planets". The Astrophysical Journal. 643: L135–L138. Bibcode:2006ApJ...643L.135G. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.386.5256Freely accessible. doi:10.1086/505214. 
  15. ^ "The long and winding history of Planet X". 
  16. ^ Batygin, Konstantin; Brown, Michael E. (20 January 2016). "Evidence for a distant giant planet in the Solar system". The Astronomical Journal. 151 (2): 22. arXiv:1601.05438Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016AJ....151...22B. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/151/2/22. 
  17. ^ Brown, Michael E. "Sedna (The coldest most distant place known in the solar system; possibly the first object in the long-hypothesized Oort cloud)". California Institute of Technology, Department of Geological Sciences. Retrieved 2008-07-02. 
  18. ^ D.Jewitt, A. Moro-Martın, P.Lacerda The Kuiper Belt and Other Debris Disks to appear in Astrophysics in the Next Decade, Springer Verlag (2009). Preprint of the article (pdf)
  19. ^ Marc W. Buie (2007-12-28). "Orbit Fit and Astrometric record for 15874". SwRI (Space Science Department). Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  20. ^ a b Emel’yanenko, V. V (2008). "Resonant motion of trans-Neptunian objects in high-eccentricity orbits". Astronomy Letters. 34: 271–279. Bibcode:2008AstL...34..271E. doi:10.1134/S1063773708040075. (subscription required)
  21. ^ Mike Brown. "Why I believe in Planet Nine". 
  22. ^ "Minor Planets with semi-major axis greater than 150 AU and perihelion greater than 30 AU". 
  23. ^ C. de la Fuente Marcos; R. de la Fuente Marcos (September 1, 2014). "Extreme trans-Neptunian objects and the Kozai mechanism: signalling the presence of trans-Plutonian planets". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 443 (1): L59–L63. arXiv:1406.0715Freely accessible. Bibcode:2014MNRAS.443L..59D. doi:10.1093/mnrasl/slu084. 
  24. ^ de la Fuente Marcos, Carlos; de la Fuente Marcos, Raúl (21 July 2016). "Commensurabilities between ETNOs: a Monte Carlo survey". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters. 460 (1): L64–L68. arXiv:1604.05881Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016MNRAS.460L..64D. doi:10.1093/mnrasl/slw077. 
  25. ^ Michael E. Brown (10 September 2013). "How many dwarf planets are there in the outer solar system? (updates daily)". California Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on 2011-10-18. Retrieved 2013-05-27. Diameter: 242km 
  26. ^ "objects with perihelia between 40–55 AU and aphelion more than 60 AU". 
  27. ^ "objects with perihelia between 40–55 AU and aphelion more than 100 AU". 
  28. ^ "objects with perihelia between 40–55 AU and semi-major axis more than 50 AU". 
  29. ^ "objects with perihelia between 40–55 AU and eccentricity more than 0.5". 
  30. ^ "objects with perihelia between 37–40 AU and eccentricity more than 0.5". 
  31. ^ "MPC list of q > 40 and a > 47.7". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 7 May 2018. 
  32. ^ a b E. L. Schaller; M. E. Brown (2007). "Volatile loss and retention on Kuiper belt objects" (PDF). Astrophysical Journal. 659: I.61–I.64. Bibcode:2007ApJ...659L..61S. doi:10.1086/516709. Retrieved 2008-04-02. 
  33. ^ Marc W. Buie (2007-11-08). "Orbit Fit and Astrometric record for 04VN112". SwRI (Space Science Department). Archived from the original on 2010-08-18. Retrieved 2008-07-17. 
  34. ^ "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: (2004 VN112)". Retrieved 2015-02-24. 
  35. ^ "List Of Centaurs and Scattered-Disk Objects". Retrieved 2011-07-05. Discoverer: CTIO 
  36. ^ R. L. Allen; B. Gladman (2006). "Discovery of a low-eccentricity, high-inclination Kuiper Belt object at 58 AU". The Astrophysical Journal. 640: L83–L86. arXiv:astro-ph/0512430Freely accessible. Bibcode:2006ApJ...640L..83A. doi:10.1086/503098.