The purpose of this
timeline is to give a detailed account of Christianity from the beginning of the current era ( AD) to the present. Question marks on dates indicate approximate dates.
year one is the first year in the (there is no Christian calendar year zero), which is the calendar presently used (in unison with the Gregorian calendar) almost everywhere in the world. Traditionally, this was held to be the year Jesus was born; however, most modern scholars argue for an earlier or later date, the most agreed upon being between 6 BC and 4 BC.
Herod Archelaus deposed by Augustus; Samaria, Judea and Idumea annexed as Iudaea Province under direct Roman administration, capital at [1 ] Caesarea, Quirinius became Legate (Governor) of Syria, conducted Census of Quirinius, opposed by Zealots ( JA18, , Luke 2:1–3 Acts 5:37) 7-26 Brief period of peace, relatively free of revolt and bloodshed in Iudaea &
Galilee [2 ] 9
Pharisee leader Hillel the Elder dies, temporary rise of Shammai 14-37
Tiberius, Roman Emperor 18-36
Caiaphas, appointed High Priest of Herod's Temple by Prefect Valerius Gratus, deposed by Syrian Legate Lucius Vitellius 19 Jews, Jewish
Proselytes, Astrologers, expelled from Rome [3 ] 26-36
Pontius Pilate, Prefect (governor) of Iudaea, recalled to Rome by Syrian Legate Vitellius on complaints of excess violence (JA18.4.2) 28 or 29
John the Baptist begins his ministry in the "15th year of Tiberius" ( ), saying: " Luke 3:1–2 Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is near" ( ), a relative of Jesus ( Matthew 3:1–2 Luke 1:36), a Nazirite ( Luke 1:15), baptized Jesus ( ), later arrested and Mark 1:4–11 beheaded by Herod Antipas ( ), it's possible that, according to Luke 3:19–20 Josephus' chronology, John was not killed until 36 (JA18.5.2) [4 ]
Jesus begins his
ministry after his baptism by John and during the rule of Pilate, preaching: "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is near" ( ). While the Matthew 4:12–17 historicity of the gospel accounts is questioned to some extent by some critical scholars and non-Christians, the traditional view states the following chronology for his ministry: Temptation, Sermon on the Mount, Appointment of the Twelve, Miracles, Temple Money Changers, Last Supper, Arrest, Trial, Passion, Crucifixion on Nisan 14th ( John 19:14, Mark 14:2, Gospel of Peter) or Nisan 15th ( Synoptic Gospels), entombment by Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, Resurrection by God and Resurrection appearances of Jesus to Mary Magdalene and other women ( Mark 16:9, ), John 20:10–18 Simon Peter ( Luke 24:34), and others, ( ), 1Cor.15:3–9 Great Commission, Ascension, Second Coming Prophecy to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy such as the Resurrection of the dead, the Last Judgment, and establishment of the Kingdom of God and the Messianic Age.
Apostolic Age [ edit ]
Shortly after the death of Jesus (
Nisan 14 or 15), the Jerusalem church is founded as the first Christian church with about 120 Jews and Jewish Proselytes ( Acts 1:15), followed by Pentecost ( Sivan 6), the Ananias and Sapphira incident, Pharisee Gamaliel's defense of the Apostles ( 5:34-39), the stoning of Saint Stephen (see also Persecution of Christians) and the subsequent dispersion of the Apostles ( 7:54-8:8, also Mark 16:20) which leads to the baptism of Simon Magus in Samaria ( 8:9-24), and also an Ethiopian eunuch ( 8:26-40). Paul's " Road to Damascus" conversion to "Apostle to the Gentiles" is first recorded in 9:13-16, cf. Gal 1:11-24. Peter baptizes the Roman Centurion Cornelius, who is traditionally considered the first Gentile convert to Christianity ( 10). The Antioch church is founded, it was there that the term Christian was first used ( 11:26).
37-41 Crisis under
Caligula, proposed as the first open break between Rome and the Jews [5 ] before 44
Epistle of James if written by James the Great 44?
Saint James the Great: According to ancient local tradition, on 2 January of the year AD 40, the Virgin Mary appeared to James on a pillar on the bank of the Ebro River at Caesaraugusta, while he was preaching the Gospel in Spain. Following that vision, St James returned to Judea, where he was beheaded by King Herod Agrippa I in the year 44 during a Passover (Nisan 15) ( Acts 12:1-3). 44 Death of
Herod Agrippa I ( JA19.8.2, Acts 12:20-23) 44-46?
Theudas beheaded by Procurator Cuspius Fadus for saying he would part the Jordan river (like Moses and the Red Sea or Joshua and the Jordan) ( JA20.5.1, Acts 5:36-37 places it before the Census of Quirinius) 45-49? Mission of
Barnabas and Paul, ( Acts 13:1-14:28), to Cyprus, Pisidian Antioch, Iconium, Lystra and Derbe (there they were called "gods ... in human form"), then return to Syrian Antioch. Map1 47 The
Church of the East is created by Saint Thomas 48-100
Herod Agrippa II appointed King of the Jews by Claudius, seventh and last of the Herodians 49 "Since the Jews constantly made disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus,
he [ [6 ] Claudius] expelled them from Rome." (referenced in Acts 18:2) [7 ] 50
Passover riot in Jerusalem, 20-30,000 killed (JA20.5.3, JW2.12.1) 50?
Council of Jerusalem and the "Apostolic Decree", Acts 15:1-35, same as Galatians 2:1-10?, which is followed by the Incident at Antioch at which Paul publicly accuses Peter of " [8 ] Judaizing" ( 2:11-21), see also Circumcision controversy in early Christianity 50-53? Paul's 2nd mission, (
Acts 15:36-18:22), split with Barnabas, to Phrygia, Galatia, Macedonia, Philippi, Thessalonica, Berea, Athens, Corinth, "he had his hair cut off at Cenchrea because of a vow he had taken", then return to Antioch; 1 Thessalonians, Galatians written? Map2. Lydia of Thyatira, a seller of purple, becomes the first European Christian convert [9 ] (Acts 16:11-15) 51-52 or 52-53 Proconsulship of
Gallio according to an inscription, only fixed date in chronology of Paul [10 ] 52, November 21
St. Thomas the Apostle lands in India. [11 ] Establishes churches at [12 ] Kodungalloor, Palayoor, Paraur, Kottakkav, Kokkamangalam, Nilakkal, Niranam and Kollam 53-57? Paul's 3rd mission, (
Acts 18:23-22:30), to Galatia, Phrygia, Corinth, Ephesus, Macedonia, Greece, and Jerusalem where James the Just challenges him about rumor of teaching antinomianism ( 21:21); he addresses a crowd in their language (most likely Aramaic), Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Philippians written? Map3 55? "
Egyptian prophet" (allusion to Moses) and 30,000 unarmed Jews doing The Exodus reenactment massacred by Procurator Antonius Felix (JW2.13.5, JA20.8.6, Acts 21:38) 58? Paul arrested, accused of being a
revolutionary, "ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes", teaching resurrection of the dead, imprisoned in Caesarea ( Acts 23-26) 59? Paul shipwrecked on Malta, there he is called a god (
Acts 28:6) 60? Paul in Rome: greeted by many "brothers", three days later calls together the Jewish leaders, who hadn't received any word from Judea about him, but were curious about "this sect", which everywhere is spoken against; he tries to convince them from the "
law and prophets", with partial success – said the Gentiles would listen, and spends two years proclaiming the Kingdom of God and teaching "the Lord Jesus Christ" ( Acts 28:15-31); Epistle to Philemon written? 60-64? early date for writing of
1 Peter (Peter as author) before 62
Epistle of James if written by James the Just 62 James the Just stoned to death for law transgression by
High Priest Ananus ben Artanus, popular opinion against act results in Ananus being deposed by new procurator Lucceius Albinus (JA20.9.1) 63-107?
Simeon, 2nd Bishop of Jerusalem, crucified under Trajan 64-68 after July 18
Great Fire of Rome, Nero blames and persecutes the Christians (or Chrestians ), possibly the earliest mention of [13 ] Christians, by that name, in Rome, see also Tacitus on Jesus, Paul beheaded? ( Col 1:24, Eph 3:13, 2 Tim 4:6-8, 1Clem 5:5-7), Peter crucified upside-down? ( Jn 21:18, 1 Pet 5:13, Tertullian's Prescription Against Heretics chapter XXXVI, Eusebius' Church History Book III chapter I), "...a vast multitude, were convicted, not so much of the crime of incendiarism as of hatred of the human race. And in their deaths they were made the subjects of sport; for they were wrapped in the hides of wild beasts and torn to pieces by dogs, or nailed to crosses, or set on fire, and when day declined, were burned to serve for nocturnal lights." ( Annals (Tacitus) XV.44) 64/67(?)-76/79(?)
Pope Linus succeeds Peter as Episcopus Romanus (Bishop of Rome) 64
Epistle to the Hebrews written 65?
Q document, a hypothetical Greek text thought by many critical scholars to have been used in writing of Matthew and Luke 66-73
Great Jewish Revolt: destruction of Herod's Temple and end of Judaism according to Supersessionism, Qumran community (site of Dead Sea Scrolls found in 1947)destroyed 70(+/-10)?
Gospel of Mark, written in Rome, by Peter's interpreter (1 Peter 5:13), original ending apparently lost, endings added c. 400, see Mark 16 70?
Signs Gospel written, hypothetical Greek text used in Gospel of John to prove Jesus is the Messiah 70-100? Additional
Pauline Epistles 70-200?
Gospel of Thomas, Jewish Christian Gospels: Gospel of the Ebionites, Gospel of the Hebrews, Gospel of the Nazarenes 72, July 3 Martyrdom of
St. Thomas the Apostle at Chinnamala, Mylapore, Chennai (Tamil Nadu) 76/79(?)-88
Pope Anacletus: first Greek Pope, who succeeds Linus as Episcopus Romanus (Bishop of Rome) 80(+/-20)
Didache written 80(+/-20)?
Gospel of Matthew, based on Mark and Q, most popular in Early Christianity 80(+/-20)?
Gospel of Luke, based on Mark and Q, also Acts of the Apostles by same author 80(+/-20)?
Pastoral Epistles written (possible post-Pauline authorship) 88-101?
Clement, fourth Bishop of Rome: wrote Letter of the Romans to the Corinthians (Apostolic Fathers) 90?
Council of Jamnia of Judaism (disputed), Domitian applies the Fiscus Judaicus tax even to those who merely "lived like Jews" [14 ] 90(+/-10)? late date for writing of
1 Peter (associate of Peter as author) 94
Testimonium Flavianum, disputed section of Jewish Antiquities by Josephus in Aramaic, translated to Koine Greek 95(+/-30)?
Gospel of John and Epistles of John 95(+/-10)?
Book of Revelation written, by John (son of Zebedee) and/or a disciple of his 96
Nerva modifies the Fiscus Judaicus, from then on, practising Jews pay the tax, Christians do not [15 ] 98-117?
Ignatius, third Bishop of Antioch, fed to the lions in the Roman Colosseum, advocated the Bishop (Eph 6:1, Mag 2:1,6:1,7:1,13:2, Tr 3:1, Smy 8:1,9:1), rejected Sabbath on Saturday in favor of "The Lord's Day" (Sunday). (Mag 9.1), rejected Judaizing (Mag 10.3), first recorded use of the term catholic (Smy 8:2). 100(+/-30)?
Epistle of Barnabas (Apostolic Fathers) 100(+/-25)?
Epistle of James if written by author other than James the Just or James the Great 100(+/-10)?
Epistle of Jude written, probably by doubting relative of Jesus (Mark 6,3), rejected by some early Christians due to its reference to apocryphal Book of Enoch (v14)
Ante-Nicene Period [ edit ]
Apocryphon of James, Gospel of Mary Magdalene, Gospel of James, Infancy Gospel of Thomas, Secret Gospel of Mark ( Complete Gospels, published by Jesus Seminar) 110-130?
Papias, bishop of Hierapolis, writes "Expositions of the Sayings of the Lord", lost, widely quoted (Apostolic Fathers) 110-160?
Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, Letter to the Philippians, (Apostolic Fathers) 120?
Rabbi Tarfon advocates burning the Gospels [16 ] 125(+/-5)?
2 Peter written, widely accepted into canon by the early 4th century 125?
Rylands Library Papyrus P52, oldest extant NT fragment, p. 1935, parts of Jn18:31-33,37-38 130-250? "Christian Apologists" writings against
Roman religion: Justin Martyr, Athenagoras, Apology of Aristides, Theophilus of Antioch, Tatian, Quadratus, Melito of Sardis, Apollinaris Claudius, Marcus Minucius Felix, Arnobius, Epistle to Diognetus 132-135
Bar Kokhba's revolt: final Jewish revolt, Judea and Jerusalem erased from maps, region renamed Syria Palæstina (the term Palestine was originally coined by Herodotus), Jerusalem renamed Aelia Capitolina 142-144?
Marcion of Sinope: bishop according to Catholic Encyclopedia, goes to Rome, possibly to buy the bishopric of Rome, upon rejection forms his own church in Rome, later called Marcionism, rejected Old Testament, decreed canon of one Gospel, one Apostolicon (10 Letters of Paul) and one Antithesis which contrasted the Old Testament with the [17 ] New Testament, cited Western text-type, see also Expounding of the Law#Antithesis of the Law 150? "Western Revisor" adds/subtracts from original Acts to produce
Western version which is 10% larger and found in Papyrus P29,38,48 and Codex Bezae (D) 150?
Valentinius (most famous Christian Gnostic, according to Tertullian) narrowly loses election for Bishop of Rome 150(+/-10)?
Shepherd of Hermas, written in Rome (Apostolic Fathers) 150-200? Other Gospels:
Unknown Berlin Gospel, Gospel of Peter, Oxyrhynchus Gospels, Dialogue of the Saviour 155?
Montanus claims to be the Paraclete ("Counselor") of John 14:16 160?
Martyrdom of Polycarp (Apostolic Fathers) 170?
Dionysius, bishop of Corinth claimed Christians were changing and faking his own letters just as [he knew] they had changed the Gospels ( [18 ] Eusebius' EH 4 c.23 v.12; Ante-Nicene Fathers,v.8) 170?
Tatian produces " Diatessaron" (Harmony) by blending 4 "Western" text-type Gospels into 1 170?
Symmachus the Ebionite writes new Greek translation of Hebrew Bible 177
Persecution in Lyon, martyrdom of Blandina 180?
Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyon: combated heresies, cited "Western" Gospel text-type (Ante-Nicene Fathers); second "Primate of the Gauls" 185-350?
Muratorian fragment, 1st extant canon for New Testament after Marcion?, written in Rome by Hippolytus?, excludes Hebrews, James, 1-2 Peter, 3 John; includes Wisdom of Solomon, Apocalypse of Peter 186?
Saint Apollonius: used the term catholic in reference to 1 John 188-231
Saint Demetrius: bishop of Alexandria, condemned Origen 189-198
Pope Victor I: 1st Latin Pope, excommunicated Eastern churches that continued to observe Easter on Nisan 14 Quartodeciman 196?
Polycrates, bishop of Ephesus (Ante-Nicene Fathers) 199-217? Caius,
[19 ] [20 ] presbyter of Rome, wrote "Dialogue against Proclus" in Ante-Nicene Fathers, rejected Revelation, said to be by Gnostic Cerinthus, see also Alogi 200?
Papyrus 46: 2nd Chester Beatty, Alexandrian text-type; Papyrus 66: 2nd Bodmer, John, 1956, "Alexandrian/Western" text-types; Papyrus 75: Bodmer 14-15, Luke & John, earliest extant Luke, ~Vaticanus; 200? Papyrus 32: J. Rylands Library: Titus 1:11-15;2:3-8; Papyrus 64 (+67): Mt3:9,15; 5:20-22,25-28; 26:7-8,10,14-15,22-23,31-33 200?
Sextus Julius Africanus 200?
Antipope Natalius, rival bishop of Rome, according to [21 ] Eusebius's EH5.28.8-12, quoting the Little Labyrinth of Hippolytus, after being " scourged all night by the holy angels", covered in ash, dressed in sackcloth, and "after some difficulty", tearfully submitted to Pope Zephyrinus 217-236 Antipope Hippolytus,
Logos sect? Later dispute settled and considered martyr, Roman canon 218-258
Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, cited "Western" NT text-type, claimed Christians were freely forging his letters to discredit him (Ante-Nicene Fathers) 220?
Clement of Alexandria, cited "Alexandrian" NT text-type & Secret Gospel of Mark & Gospel of the Egyptians; wrote "Exhortations to the Greeks"; "Rich Man's Salutation"; "To the Newly Baptized"; (Ante-Nicene Fathers) 220?-340?
Codex Tchacos, manuscript containing a copy of the Gospel of Judas, is written 223?
Tertullian: sometimes called "father of the Latin Church", because he coined trinitas, tres Personae, una Substantia, Vetus Testamentum, Novum Testamentum, convert to Montanism, cited "Western" Gospel text-type (Ante-Nicene Fathers) 225?
Papyrus 45: 1st Chester Beatty Papyri, Gospels ( Caesarean text-type, mixed), Acts (Alexandrian text-type) 235-238
Maximinus Thrax: emperor of Rome, ends Christian schism in Rome by deporting Pope Pontian and Antipope Hippolytus to Sardinia, where they soon die 248-264
Dionysius, Patriarch of Alexandria see also List of Patriarchs of Alexandria 250?
Apostolic Constitutions, Liturgy of St James, Old Roman Symbol, Clementine literature 250? Letters of
Methodius, Pistis Sophia, Porphyry Tyrius, Commodianus (Ante-Nicene Fathers) 250? Papyrus 72: Bodmer 5-11+, pub. 1959, "Alexandrian" text-type: Nativity of Mary; 3Cor;
11; Jude 1-25; Melito's Homily on Passover; Hymn fragment; Apology of Phileas; Ps33,34; 1Pt1:1-5:14; 2Pt1:1-3:18 Odes of Solomon 250?
Origen, Jesus and God one substance, adopted at First Council of Nicaea in 325, compiled Hexapla; cites Alexandrian, Caesarean text-type; Eusebius claimed Origen castrated himself for Christ due to Mt19:12 (EH6.8.1-3) 251-424?
Synods of Carthage 251-258
Antipope Novatian decreed no forgiveness for sins after baptism (An antipope was an individual whose claim to the papacy was either rejected by the Church at the time or later recognized as invalid.) [22 ] 254-257
Pope Stephen I: major schism over rebaptizing heretics and apostates 258 "
Valerian's Massacre": Roman emperor issues edict to execute immediately all Christian Bishops, Presbyters, and Deacons, including Pope Sixtus II, Antipope Novatian, Cyprian of Carthage ( CE: Valerian, Schaff's History Vol 2 Chap 2 § 22) 264-269
Synods of Antioch: condemned Paul of Samosata, Bishop of Antioch, founder of Adoptionism (Jesus was human until Holy Spirit descended at his baptism), also condemned term homoousios adopted at Nicaea 265
Gregory Thaumaturgus (Ante-Nicene Fathers) 270?
Anthony begins monastic movement 275? Papyrus 47: 3rd Chester Beatty, ~Sinaiticus, Rev9:10-11:3,5-16:15,17-17:2
Mani (prophet), crucified, founder of the dualistic Manichaean sect in Persia 282-300?
Theonas, bishop of Alexandria (Ante-Nicene Fathers) 290-345?
St Pachomius, founder of Christian monasticism 296-304
Pope Marcellinus, offered pagan sacrifices for Diocletian, later repented. Name in Martyrology of Bede 301 -
Armenia is the first kingdom in history to adopt Christianity as state religion 303-312
Diocletian's Massacre of Christians, includes burning of scriptures ( EH 8.2) 303
Saint George, patron saint of Georgia, England and other states 304?
Victorinus, bishop of Pettau 304?
Pope Marcellinus, having repented from his previous defection, suffers martyrdom with several companions 306
Synod of Elvira prohibits relations between Christians and Jews 310
Maxentius deports Pope Eusebius and Heraclius [23 ] to Sicily (relapse controversy) [24 ] 312
Lucian of Antioch, founder of School of Antioch, martyred 312
Vision of Constantine: while gazing into the sun he sees a cross with the words by this sign conquer, see also Labarum, he was later called the 13th Apostle and Equal-to-apostles 313
Edict of Milan: Constantine and Licinius end persecution, establish toleration of Christianity 313?
Lateran Palace given to Pope Miltiades for residence by Constantine 313? Traditional date for founding of the
Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre 314 King
Urnayr of Caucasian Albania adopts Christianity as official religion 314 Catholic
Council of Arles, called by Constantine against [25 ] Donatist schism to confirm the Council of Rome in 313 314-340?
Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea, church historian, cited Caesarean text-type, wrote in 325 Ecclesiastical History [26 ] 317?
Lactantius 321 Constantine decrees Sunday as state "day of rest" (
CJ3.12.2), see also Sol Invictus
First Seven Ecumenical Councils [ edit ]
Constantine called the
First Council of Nicaea in 325 to unify Christology, also called the first great Christian council by Jerome, the first ecumenical, decreed the Original Nicene Creed, but rejected by Nontrinitarians such as Arius, Theonas, Secundus of Ptolemais, Eusebius of Nicomedia, and Theognis of Nicaea who were excommunicated, also addressed Easter controversy and passed 20 Canon laws such as Canon VII which granted special recognition to Jerusalem.
325, 20 May- 19 June: The
First Council of Nicaea 325 The
Kingdom of Aksum (Modern Ethiopia and Eritrea) declares Christianity as the official state religion, becoming the 2nd country to do so 325
Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, ordered built by Constantine 326, November 18
Pope Sylvester I consecrates the Basilica of St. Peter built by Constantine the Great over the tomb of the Apostle 328-373
Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, first cite of modern 27 book New Testament canon 330 Old
Church of the Holy Apostles, dedicated by Constantine 330, May 11:
Constantinople solemly inaugurated. Constantine moves the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantium, renaming it New Rome 331 Constantine commissions Eusebius to deliver 50 Bibles for the Church of Constantinople
[27 ] 335 Council in Jerusalem reverses Nicaea's condemnation of
Arius, consecrates Jerusalem Church of the Holy Sepulchre 337?
Mirian III of Iberia (present-day Georgia) adopts Christianity. [28 ] 337, May 22: Constantine the Great dies (baptized shortly prior to his death)
Shapur II's persecution of Persian Christians 343? Catholic
Council of Sardica, canons confirmed by Pope Julius 350?
Julius Firmicus Maternus 350?
Codex Sinaiticus(א), Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1209(B): earliest Christian Bibles, Alexandrian text-type 350?
Ulfilas, Arian, apostle to the Goths, translates Greek NT to Gothic 350?
Comma Johanneum 1Jn5:7b-8a( KJV) 350?
Aëtius, Arian, "Syntagmation": "God is agennetos (unbegotten)", founder of Anomoeanism 350?
School of Nisibis founded 353-367
Hilary, bishop of Poitiers 355-365
Antipope Felix II, Arian, supported by Constantius II, consecrated by Acacius of Caesarea 357
Council of Sirmium issues so-called Blasphemy of Sirmium or Seventh Arian Confession, called high point of Arianism [29 ] 359
Council of Rimini, Dated Creed ( Acacians); Pope Liberius rejects Arian creed of council 360
Julian the Apostate becomes the last non-Christian Roman Emperor 363-364
Council of Laodicea: Canon 29 decreed anathema for Christians who rest on the Sabbath, disputed Canon 60 named 26 NT books (excluded Revelation) 366-367
Antipope Ursicinus, rival to Pope Damasus I 367-403
Epiphanius, Bishop of Salamis, wrote Panarion against heresies 370-379
Basil the Great, Bishop of Caesarea 370?
Doctrine of Addai at Edessa proclaims 17 book NT canon using Diatessaron (instead of the 4 Gospels) + Acts + 15 Pauline Epistles (inc. 3 Corinthians) Syriac Orthodox Church 370 (d. ca.) Optatus of Milevis, who in his conflict with the sectarian Donatists stressed unity and catholicity as marks of the Church over and above holiness, and also that the sacraments derived their validity from God, not from the priest
Gregory, Bishop Of Nyssa 373
Ephrem the Syrian, cited Western Acts 374-397
Ambrose, governor of Milan until 374, then made Bishop of Milan 375-395
Ausonius, Christian governor of Gaul 379-381
Gregory Nazianzus, Bishop of Constantinople 380, February 27: Emperor
Theodosius I issues the Edict of Thessalonica, declaring Nicene Christianity as the state church of the Roman Empire [30 ] 380, November 24: Emperor
Theodosius I is baptised 381
First Council of Constantinople, 2nd ecumenical: Jesus had true human soul, Nicene Creed of 381 382 Catholic
Council of Rome under Pope Damasus I sets the Biblical Canon, listing the inspired books of the Old Testament and the New Testament (disputed) 383?
Frumentius, Apostle of Ethiopia 385
Priscillian, first heretic to be executed? 386
Cyril of Jerusalem: wrote compellingly of catholicity of the Church 390?
Apollinaris, Bishop of Laodicea, believed Jesus had human body but divine spirit 391: The
Theodosian decrees outlaw most pagan rituals still practiced in Rome 396-430
Augustine, bishop of Hippo, considered the founder of formalized Christian theology ( Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers) 397?
Saint Ninian evangelizes Picts in Scotland 398-404
John Chrysostom, Patriarch of Constantinople, see also List of Patriarchs of Constantinople, (Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers) 400:
Jerome's Vulgate (Latin edition and translation of the Bible) is published 400? Ethiopic Bible: in Ge'ez, 81 books, standard
Ethiopian Orthodox Bible 400?
Peshitta Bible in Syriac (Aramaic), Syr(p), OT + 22 NT, excludes: 2Pt, 2-3Jn, Jude, Rev; standard Syriac Orthodox Church Bible 406 Armenian Bible, translated by
Saint Mesrop, standard Armenian Orthodox Bible 410, 24 August: Sack of Rome by
Alaric and the Visigoths 412-444
Cyril, bishop of Alexandria, coined Hypostatic union 418-419
Antipope Eulalius, rival to Pope Boniface I 420 St.
Jerome, Vulgate translator, Latin scholar, cited expanded ending in Mark after Mark 16:8, Pericope of the Adultress addition to John (John 7:53-8:11) (Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers) 423-457
Theodoret, bishop of Cyrrhus, noted Tatian's Diatesseron in heavy use, wrote a Church History 431
Council of Ephesus, 3rd ecumenical: repudiated Nestorianism, decreed Mary the Mother of God, forbade any changes to Nicene Creed of 381, rejected by the Persian Church, leading to the Nestorian Schism 432
St Patrick begins his mission in Ireland. Almost the entire nation is Christian by the time of his death in a conversion that is both incredibly successful and largely bloodless 440-461
Pope Leo the Great: sometimes considered the first pope (of influence) by non-Catholics, stopped Attila the Hun at Rome, issued Tome in support of Hypostatic Union, approved Council of Chalcedon but rejected canons in 453 449
Second Council of Ephesus, Monophysite: Jesus was divine but not human 450?
Codex Alexandrinus(A): Alexandrian text-type; Codex Bezae(D): Greek/Latin Gospels + Acts; Codex Washingtonianus(W): Greek Gospels; both of Western text-type 450? std. Aramaic
Targums, Old Testament in Aramaic 450?
Socrates Scholasticus Church History of 305-438; Sozomen Church History of 323-425 451
Council of Chalcedon, 4th ecumenical, declared Jesus is a Hypostatic Union: both human and divine in one ( Chalcedonian Creed), rejected by Oriental Orthodoxy 455: Sack of Rome by the
Vandals. The spoils of the Temple of Jerusalem previously taken by Titus are allegedly among the treasures taken to Carthage 456?
Eutyches of Constantinople, Monophysite 465?
Prosper of Aquitaine 476, September 4 Emperor
Romulus Augustus is deposed in Rome, marked by many as the fall of the Western Roman Empire 484-519
Acacian Schism, over Henoticon, divides Eastern (Greek) and Western (Latin) churches 491
Armenian Orthodox split from East (Greek) and West (Latin) churches 495, May 13
Vicar of Christ decreed a title of Bishop of Rome by Pope Gelasius I 496
Clovis I, King of the Franks, baptized 498-499,501-506
Antipope Laurentius, rival of Pope Symmachus, Laurentian schism 500?
Incense introduced in Christian church service, first plans of Vatican 524
Boethius, Roman Christian philosopher, wrote "Theological Tractates", Consolation of Philosophy; (Loeb Classics) (Latin) 525
Dionysius Exiguus defines Christian calendar (AD) 527
Fabius Planciades Fulgentius 529
Benedict of Nursia establishes his first monastery in the Abbey of Monte Cassino, Italy, where he writes the Rule of St Benedict 530
Antipope Dioscorus, possibly a legitimate Pope 535-536 Unusual
climate changes recorded 537-555
Pope Vigilius, involved in death of Pope Silverius, conspired with Justinian and Theodora, on April 11, 548 issued Judicatum supporting Justinian's anti-Hypostatic Union, excommunicated by bishops of Carthage in 550 538 Byzantine general Belisarius defeats last Arian kingdom; Western Europe completely Catholic
Plague of Justinian 543 Justinian condemns
Origen, disastrous earthquakes hit the world 544 Justinian
condemns the Three Chapters of Theodore of Mopsuestia (died 428) and other writings of Hypostatic Union Christology of Council of Chalcedon 550
St. David converts Wales, crucifix introduced 553
Second Council of Constantinople, 5th ecumenical, called by Justinian 556-561
Pope Pelagius I, selected by Justinian, endorsed Judicatum 563
Columba goes to Scotland to evangelize Picts, establishes monastery at Iona 567
Cassiodorus 589 Catholic
Third Council of Toledo: Reccared and the Visigoths convert from Arianism to Catholicism and Filioque clause is added to Nicene Creed of 381 590-604
Pope Gregory the Great, whom many consider the greatest pope ever, reforms church structure and administration and establishes Gregorian Chant, Seven deadly sins 591-628
Theodelinda, Queen of the Lombards, began gradual conversion from Arianism to Catholicism 596
St. Augustine of Canterbury sent by Pope Gregory to evangelise the Jutes 600?
Evagrius Scholasticus, Church History of AD431-594 [31 ] 604
Saxon cathedral created (by Mellitus) where St Paul's Cathedral in London now stands 609
Pantheon, Rome renamed Church of Santa Maria Rotonda 612?
Bobbio monastery in northern Italy 613
Abbey of St. Gall in Switzerland 614
Khosrau II of Persia conquers Damascus, Jerusalem, takes Holy Cross of Christ 622 Mohammed founds Islam after fleeing to Mecca
Battle of Badr, considered beginning of Islamic Empire 625
Paulinus of York comes to convert Northumbria 628
Babai the Great, pillar of Church of the East, dies 628-629
Battle of Mut'ah: Heraclius recovers Cross of Christ and Jerusalem from Islam until 638 632 Eorpwald of
East Anglia baptized under influence of Edwin of Northumbria 634-644
Umar, 2nd Sunni Islam Caliph: capital at Damascus, conquered Syria in 635, defeated Heraclius at Battle of Yarmuk in 636, conquered Egypt and Armenia in 639, Persia in 642 635
Cynegils of Wessex baptized by Bishop Birinus 664
Synod of Whitby unites Celtic Christianity of British Isles with Roman Catholicism 680-681
Third Council of Constantinople, 6th ecumenical, against Monothelites, condemned Pope Honorius I, Patriarch Sergius I of Constantinople, Heraclius' Ecthesis 681-686
Wilfrid converts Sussex 687-691
Dome of the Rock built 690?
Old English Bible translations 692 Orthodox
Quinisext Council, convoked by Justinian II, approved Canons of the Apostles of Apostolic Constitutions, Clerical celibacy, rejected by Pope Constantine 698 Fall of
Umayyad conquest of Hispania 717-718
Second Arab siege of Constantinople 718-1492
Reconquista: Iberian Peninsula retaken by Roman Catholic Visigoth monarchs 718
Saint Boniface, archbishop of Mainz; an Englishman, given commission by Pope Gregory II to evangelize the Germans 720?
Disentis Abbey of Switzerland 730-787
First Iconoclasm: Byzantine Emperor Leo III bans Christian icons; Pope Gregory II excommunicates him 731
English Church History written by Bede 732 Battle of Tours stops Islam from expanding westward
750? Tower added to St Peter's Basilica at the front of the atrium
Donation of Constantine, granted Western Roman Empire to the Pope (later proved a forgery) 756
Donation of Pepin recognizes Papal States 781
Nestorian Stele, Daqin Pagoda, Jesus Sutras, Christianity in China 787
Second Council of Nicaea, 7th ecumenical: ends first Iconoclasm 793 Sacking of the monastery of
Lindisfarne marks the beginning of Viking raids on Christendom
Middle Ages [ edit ]
Charlemagne of the Franks is crowned first Holy Roman Emperor of the West by Pope Leo III 849-865
Ansgar, Archbishop of Bremen, "Apostle of the North", began evangelisation of North Germany, Denmark, Sweden 855
Antipope Anastasius: Louis II, Holy Roman Emperor appoints him over Pope Benedict III but popular pressure causes withdrawal 863
Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius sent by the Patriarch of Constantinople to evangelise the Slavic peoples. They translate the Bible into Slavonic 869-870 Catholic
Fourth Council of Constantinople condemns Patriarch Photius (rejected by Orthodox) 879-880 Orthodox
Fourth Council of Constantinople restores Photius, condemns Pope Nicholas I and Filioque (rejected by Catholics) 897, January
Cadaver Synod: Pope Stephen VI conducts trial against dead Pope Formosus, public uprising against Stephen leads to his imprisonment and strangulation 909
Abbey of Cluny, Benedictine monastery, founded in France 966 Duke
Mieszko I of Poland baptised; Poland becomes a Christian country 984
Antipope Boniface VII, murdered Pope John XIV, alleged to have murdered Pope Benedict VI in 974 988?
Christianization of Kievan Rus' 991
Archbishop Arnulf of Rheims accuses Pope John XV of being the Antichrist 997-998
Antipope John XVI, deposed by Pope Gregory V and his cousin Holy Roman Emperor Otto III 1000 or 1001
Saint Stephen of Hungary crowned; Hungary becomes a Christian country 1001 Byzantine emperor
Basil II and Fatimid Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah execute a treaty guaranteeing the protection of Christian pilgrimage routes in the Middle East 1009 Caliph
Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah destroys the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, built over the tomb of Jesus in Jerusalem, and then rebuilds it to its current state 1012
Antipope Gregory VI, removed by Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor 1030
Battle of Stiklestad, considered victory of Christianity over Norwegian paganism 1045
Sigfrid of Sweden, Benedictine evangelist 1046
Council of Sutri: Pope Sylvester III exiled, Pope Gregory VI admits to buying the papacy and resigns, Pope Benedict IX resigns, council appoints Pope Clement II 1054
East-West Schism split between Eastern ( Orthodox Christianity) and Western (Roman Catholic) churches formalized 1058-1059
Antipope Benedict X, defeated in war with Pope Nicholas II and Normans 1061-1064
Antipope Honorius II, rival of Pope Alexander II 1065
Westminster Abbey consecrated 1073-1085
Pope Gregory VII: Investiture Controversy with Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, proponent of clerical celibacy, opponent of simony, concubinage, Antipope Clement III 1079
Stanislaus of Szczepanów, patron saint of Poland 1080
Hospital of Saint John the Baptist founded in Jeruselem by merchants from Amalfi and Salerno - serves as the foundation for the Knights Hospitaller 1082
Engelberg Abbey of Switzerland built 1093-1109
Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, writes Cur Deus Homo ( Why God Became Man), a landmark exploration of the Atonement 1095-1291 10
Crusades, first called by Pope Urban II at Council of Clermont against Islamic Empire, to reconquer the Holy Land for Christendom 1098 Foundation of the reforming monastery of
Cîteaux, leads to the growth of the Cistercian order 1101
Antipope Theodoric and Antipope Adalbert deposed by Pope Paschal II 1113
Knights Hospitaller confirmed by Papal bull of Pope Paschal II, listing Blessed Gerard ( Gerard Thom) as founder, (a.k.a. Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta) 1118
Knights Templar founded, to defend Holy Land 1123 Catholic
First Lateran Council 1124
Conversion of Pomerania - first mission of Otto of Bamberg 1128
Holyrood Abbey in Scotland 1128
Conversion of Pomerania - second mission of Otto of Bamberg 1130
Peter of Bruys burned at the stake 1131
Tintern Abbey founded in Wales 1131-1138
Antipope Anacletus II 1139 Catholic
Second Lateran Council 1140?
Decretum Gratiani, Catholic Canon law 1142
Peter Abélard, Letters of Abelard and Heloise 1144 The
Saint Denis Basilica of Abbot Suger is the first major building in the style of Gothic architecture 1154-1159
Pope Adrian IV, first (and to date only) English pope 1155
Theotokos of Vladimir arrives to Bogolyubovo 1155
Carmelites founded 1163 Construction begins on
Notre Dame de Paris 1168
Conversion of Pomerania - Principality of Rugia missioned by Absalon 1173
Waldensians founded 1179 Catholic
Third Lateran Council 1191
Teutonic Knights founded 1204-1261
Latin Empire of Constantinople 1205
Saint Francis of Assisi becomes a hermit, founding the Franciscan order of friars; renounces wealth and begins his ministry 1208 Start of the
Albigensian Crusade against the Cathars 1214
Rosary is reportedly given to St. Dominic (who founded Dominican Order) by an apparition of Mary 1215 Catholic
Fourth Lateran Council decrees special dress for Jews and Muslims, and declares Waldensians, founded by Peter Waldo, as heretics. One of the goals is the elimination of the heresy of the Cathars 1219 Francis of Assisi crosses enemy lines during the Fifth Crusade to speak to Sultan al-Kamil; the meeting ends with a meal. James of Vitry writes that Muslim soldiers returned Francis and another friar, Illuminato, "with signs of honor."
[32 ] 1220-1263 St
Alexander Nevsky, holy patron of Russia 1231 Charter of the
University of Paris granted by Pope Gregory IX 1241
Pope Gregory IX denounced as Antichrist by Eberhard II von Truchsees, Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg, at the Council of Regensburg 1245 Catholic
First Council of Lyon 1252, May 15
Ad exstirpanda: Pope Innocent IV authorizes use of torture in Inquisitions 1260 Date at which a 1988 Vatican sponsored scientific study places the origin of the
Shroud of Turin 1263, July 20–24 The
Disputation of Barcelona is held at the royal palace of King James I of Aragon in the presence of the King, his court, and many prominent ecclesiastical dignitaries and knights, between a convert from Judaism to Christianity Dominican Friar Pablo Christiani and Rabbi Nachmanides 1274
Summa Theologiae, written by Thomas Aquinas, theologian and philosopher, landmark systematic theology which later becomes official Catholic doctrine 1274 Catholic
Second Council of Lyon 1291 Last Crusader city (Acre) falls to the Mamelukes
Renaissance [ edit ]
Divine Comedy (Divina Commedia), by Dante Alighieri; most consensual dates are: Inferno written between 1307–1308, Purgatorio from 1307-1308 to 1313-1314 and last the Paradiso from 1313-1314 to 1321 (year of Dante's death) 1307 The arrest of many of the Knights Templar, beginning confiscation of their property and extraction of confessions under torture
Avignon Papacy, Popes reside in Avignon, France 1311-1312 Catholic
Council of Vienne disbands Knights Templar 1313 Foundation of the legendary
Order of the ( Rose Cross Rosicrucian Order), a mystic Christian fraternity for the first time expounded in the major Christian literary work The Divine Comedy [33 ] [34 ] [35 ] [36 ] 1314
Jacques de Molay, last Grandmaster of Knights Templar, burned at the stake 1326
Metropolitan Peter moves his see from Kiev to Moscow 1341-1351 Orthodox
Fifth Council of Constantinople 1342
Marsilius of Padua 1345
Sergii Radonezhskii founds a hermitage in the woods, which grows into the Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra 1378-1418
Western Schism in Roman Catholicism 1380-1382
Wycliffe's Bible, by John Wycliffe, eminent theologian at Oxford, NT in 1380, OT (with help of Nicholas of Hereford) in 1382, translations into Middle English, 1st complete translation to English, includes deuterocanonical books, preaches against abuses, expresses anti-catholic views of the sacraments ( Penance and Eucharist), the use of relics, and clerical celibacy 1388
Twenty-five Articles of the Lollards published 1408 Council of Oxford forbids translations of the Scriptures into the vernacular, unless and until they are fully approved by church authority
Council of Pisa declares Roman Pope Gregory XII and Avignon Pope Benedict XIII deposed, electsd Pope Alexander V (called the Pisan Pope) 1414-1418 Catholic
Council of Constance asks Gregory XII, Benedict XIII, Pisan Pope John XXIII to resign their papal claims, then elects Pope Martin V; condemns John Wycliffe and Jan Hus, who is burned at the stake 1423-1424
Council of Siena 1425
Catholic University of Leuven 1430?
Andrei Rublev, the greatest of medieval icon-painters 1431 St.
Joan of Arc, French national heroine, burned at the stake 1431-1445 Catholic
Council of Basel-Ferrara-Florence 1439
Notre-Dame de Strasbourg, highest building in the world until 1874 1452
Dum Diversas, papal bull issued on 18 June 1452, credited with ushering in the West African slave trade in Europe and the New World 1453
Fall of Constantinople, overrun by Ottoman Empire 1455
Gutenberg Bible, first printed Bible, by Johann Gutenberg 1473-1481
Sistine Chapel built 1478
Spanish Inquisition established by Pope Sixtus IV 1483
Martin Luther born in Eisleben 1484 December 5,
Summis desiderantes against Witchcraft issued by Pope Innocent VIII 1487 Persecution and crusade against the
Waldensians instigated by Pope Innocent VIII 1492
Columbus opens new continents to Christianity 1498
Girolamo Savonarola, Dominican priest, writes Bonfire of the Vanities 1506
Pope Julius II orders the Old St. Peter's Basilica torn down and authorizes Donato Bramante to plan a new structure (demolition completed in 1606); Vatican Swiss Guard founded 1508-1512
Michelangelo frescoes the Sistine Chapel's vaulted ceiling 1512-1517 Catholic
Fifth Council of the Lateran: condemned Conciliarism
Reformation [ edit ]
95 Theses of Martin Luther begins German Protestant Reformation 1518
Heidelberg Disputation: Martin Luther puts forth his Theology of the Cross 1519
Leipzig Debate between Martin Luther and Johann Eck 1520 Luther publishes three monumental works,
, To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation , and On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church On the Freedom of a Christian 1521 Luther refuses to recant his works at the
Diet of Worms 1521 Papal bull
( Decet Romanum Pontificem It Pleases the Roman Pontiff) excommunicates Luther 1521
Ferdinand Magellan claims the Philippines for Spain, first mass and subsequent conversion to Catholicism, first in East Asia 1522
Luther's NT, German NT translation 1524
The Freedom of the Will published by Erasmus 1525
On the Bondage of the Will published by Luther in response to Erasmus 1525
Anabaptist movement begins 1526
Tyndale's NT, English NT translation from 1516 Greek text of Erasmus, first printed edition, reflects influence of Luther's NT in rejecting priest for elder, church for congregation, banned in 1546 by Henry VIII of England 1526 Luther publishes his
and German Mass , his first written work against the The Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ—Against the Fanatics Sacramentarians 1528
Reformation in Denmark-Norway and Holstein, Lutheranism is officially adopted 1528 Luther affirms the real presence of Christ's body and blood in his
Confession Concerning Christ's Supper 1529
Marburg Colloquy, Luther defends doctrine of Real Presence in discussion with Zwingli 1530
Augsburg Confession, first doctrinal statement of the Lutheran Church 1531
Huldrych Zwingli is killed during the Second war of Kappel 1531
in Mexico: According to tradition, when the roses fell from it the icon of the Virgin of Guadalupe appeared imprinted on the cactus cloth. The sudden, extraordinary success of the evangelizing of ten million Indians in the decade of 1531–1541. Our Lady of Guadalupe 1534 Henry VIII establishes new independent entity
Church of England, see also English Reformation 1534
Jesuit order founded by Ignatius of Loyola, helped reconvert large areas of Poland, Hungary, and south Germany and sent missionaries to the New World, India, and China 1535-1537
Myles Coverdale's Bible, used Tyndale's NT along with Latin and German versions, included Apocrypha at the end of the OT (like Luther's Bible of 1534) as was done in later English versions, 1537 edition received royal license, but banned in 1546 by Henry VIII 1535
Thomas More refuses to accept King Henry VIII's claim to be the supreme head of the Church in England, and is executed 1535-1679
Forty Martyrs of England and Wales 1536
Desiderius Erasmus, eminent Dutch humanist and editor of the Textus Receptus, dies 1536
Tyndale put to death, left his OT translation in manuscript, English ecclesiastical authorities ordered his Bible burned because it was thought to be part of Lutheran reform 1536
Institutes of the Christian Religion written by John Calvin ( Calvinism) 1536
John of Leiden, fanatic Dutch Anabaptist 1536
Jacob Hutter, founder of Hutterites 1536
Helvetic Confessions of the Reformed Churches of Switzerland 1536-1540
Dissolution of the Monasteries in England, Wales and Ireland 1536
Pilgrimage of Grace 1536-1541
Michelangelo paints "The Last Judgement" 1537
Christian III of Denmark decreed Lutheranism state religion of Norway and Denmark 1537 Luther writes
Smalcald Articles 1537-1551
Matthew Bible, by John Rogers, based on Tyndale and Coverdale received royal license but not authorized for use in public worship, numerous editions, 1551 edition contained offensive notes (based on Tyndale) 1539-1569
Great Bible, by Thomas Cromwell, 1st English Bible to be authorized for public use in English churches, defective in many places, based on last Tyndale's NT of 1534-1535, corrected by a Latin version of the Hebrew OT, Latin Bible of Erasmus, and Complutensian Polyglot, last edition 1569, never denounced by England 1541
John Calvin returns to Geneva 1542
Roman Inquisition established by Pope Paul III 1542
Robert Bellarmine born - became a Cardinal Inquisitor under Pope Clement VIII 1543
Parliament of England bans Tyndale's translation as a "crafty, false and untrue translation" 1545-1563 Catholic
Council of Trent: Counter-Reformation against Protestantism, clearly defined an official theology and biblical canon 1549 Original
Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England written by Thomas Cranmer 1551 The
Stoglav Church Council (One Hundred Chapters) Moscow, Russia 1552
Joachim Westphal starts controversy against Calvinists, defending Lutheran doctrine of Real Presence 1552
Francis Xavier, Jesuit missionary, "Apostle of the Indies" 1553
Pontifical Gregorian University founded at Vatican City 1553
Michael Servetus founder of Unitarianism, burned at the stake in Geneva 1553-1558 Queen
Mary I of England persecutes reformers: John Rogers, Hugh Latimer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Cranmer; of 238 burned at the stake 1555
Peace of Augsburg gives religious freedom in Germany only to Lutheran Protestants 1558 Church of England permanently reestablished after
Mary I of England deposed 1559 Military
Order of the Golden Spur founded by Pope Paul IV 1560
Geneva Bible, NT a revision of Matthew's version of Tyndale with use of Theodore Beza's NT (1556), OT a thorough revision of Great Bible, appointed to be read in Scotland (but not England), at least 140 editions, first Bible with chapter and verse numbers 1560
Scots Confession, Church of Scotland, Scottish Reformation 1560-1598
French Wars of Religion 1560-1812
Goa Inquisition, persecution of Hindus and Jews in India, see also Christianity in India 1561
Menno Simons, founder of Mennonites 1563
Thirty-Nine Articles of Church of England, also decreed Biblical canon 1563
Heidelberg Catechism of Reformed churches 1565-73
by Examination of the Council of Trent Martin Chemnitz 1566
Roman Catechism and Index of Prohibited Books published 1569
Metropolitan Philip of Moscow strangled by Malyuta Skuratov 1571
Dutch Reformed Church established 1571
Battle of Lepanto saves Christian Europe; Pope Pius V organizes the Holy League led by Don Juan de Austria to defend Europe from the larger Islamic Ottoman forces (230 galleys and 56 galliots) 1572
John Knox founds Scottish Presbyterian Church, due to disagreement with Lutherans over sacraments and church government 1572-1606
Bishops' Bible, a revision of the Great Bible checked against the Hebrew text, 1st to be published in England by episcopal authority 1572
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre: Thousands of Protestants murdered in France 1577
Formula of Concord adopted by German Lutherans 1579 Discovery of the holiest Russian icon,
Our Lady of Kazan 1580
Book of Concord of Lutheranism 1582
St Teresa of Avila dies 1582
Gregorian calendar of Pope Gregory XIII adopted at different times in different regions of the world 1582 Rheims New Testament published - it later became part of the 1610
Douay–Rheims Bible 1585 Jesuit scholar Francisco Ribera publishes first futurist interpretation, of the Biblical books of Daniel and Revelation
Toyotomi Hideyoshi expels Jesuits from Kyūshū 1587? Mission Nombre De Dios in
St. Augustine, Florida, considered first Catholic mission to North America [37 ] 1588 Spanish Armada defeated in its efforts to reconquer England for Catholicism
Metropolitan Jove is elected the first Patriarch of Moscow 1590 Michelangelo's dome in St Peter's Basilica completed
St John of the Cross 1592 The
Clementine Vulgate of Pope Clement VIII, replaced the Sistine Vulgate of 1590, the standard Latin Catholic Bible until the Second Vatican Council 1596
Ukrainian Catholic Church forms when Ukrainian subjects of the king of Poland are reunited with Rome, largest Byzantine Catholic Church 1598 Edict of Nantes grants toleration to French Protestants (Huguenots)
Giordano Bruno, Dominican priest, burned at the stake
17th century [ edit ]
Fausto Paolo Sozzini Socinianism 1606 Carlo Maderno redesigns St Peter's Basilica into a Latin cross
Jamestown, Virginia founded 1608
Quebec City founded by Samuel de Champlain 1609
Baptist Church founded by John Smyth, due to objections to infant baptism and demands for church-state separation 1609-1610
Douay-Rheims Bible, 1st Catholic English translation, OT published in two volumes, based on an unofficial Louvain text corrected by Sistine Vulgate, NT is Rheims text of 1582 1611
King James Version (Authorised Version) is published, based primarily on Tyndale's work and Bishop's Bible of 1572, first printings included separate Apocrypha between the testaments 1614
Fama Fraternitatis, the first Rosicrucian manifesto (may have been in circulation ca. 1610) presenting the "The Fraternity of the Rose Cross" 1615
Confessio Fraternitatis, the second Rosicrucian manifesto describing the "Most Honorable Order" as Christian [38 ] 1616
Chemical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz, the third Rosicrucian manifesto (an hermetic allegory presenting alchemical and Christian elements) 1618-1648
Thirty Years' War 1620
Plymouth Colony founded by Puritans 1622-1642
Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu 1630
City upon a Hill, sermon by John Winthrop 1634-37
by Lutheran theologian Confessio catholica Johann Gerhard 1635
Roger Williams banished from Massachusetts Bay Colony, for advocating separation of church and state 1636 Founding of what was later known as
Harvard University as a training school for ministers - the first of thousands of institutions of Christian higher education founded in the USA 1636-1638
Cornelius Jansen, bishop of Ypres, founder of Jansenism 1637-1638
Shimabara Rebellion 1638
Anne Hutchinson banished as a heretic from Massachusetts 1641
John Cotton, advocate of theonomy, helps to establish the social constitution of the Massachusetts Bay Colony 1643
Acta Sanctorum 1643
John Campanius arrives in New Sweden 1644
Rhode Island founded by Roger Williams as first colony to establish complete religious liberty 1644
Long Parliament directs that only Hebrew canon be read in the Church of England (effectively removing the Apocrypha) 1646
Westminster Standards produced by the Assembly, one of the first and undoubtedly the most important and lasting religious document drafted after the reconvention of the Parliament, also decrees Biblical canon 1648
George Fox founds the Quaker movement 1648 Treaty of Westphalia ends
Thirty Year's War, extends religious toleration to Calvinists 1650 Bishop
James Ussher calculates date of creation as October 23, 4004 BC 1653-56
Raskol of the Russian Orthodox Church 1655-1677,
Abraham Calovius publishes Systema Iocorum theologicorum, height of Lutheran scholasticism 1660-1685 King
Charles II of England, restoration of monarchy, continuing through James II, reversed decision of Long Parliament of 1644, reinstating the Apocrypha, reversal not heeded by non-conformists 1666
Paul Gerhardt, Lutheran pastor and hymnwriter, is removed from his position as a pastor in Nikolaikirche in Berlin, when he refuses to accept "syncretistic" edict of the Elector Friedrich Wilhelm I of Brandenburg 1672
Greek Orthodox Synod of Jerusalem: decreed Biblical canon 1675
Philipp Jakob Spener publishes Pia Desideria, which becomes a manifesto for Pietism 1678
John Bunyan publishes Pilgrim's Progress 1682
Avvakum, leader of the Old Believers, burned at the stake in the Far North of Russia 1683
Roger Williams, advocate of Separation of church and state, founder of Providence, Rhode Island, dies 1685
Edict of Fontainebleau outlaws Protestantism in France 1685
James II of England baptizes his son as a Catholic 1685 Orthodoxy introduced to Beijing by
Russian Orthodox Church 1688 'Glorious Revolution' overthrows
James II of England over fears of Catholic restoration; William of Orange takes English throne 1689 English Bill of Rights establishes religious liberty
Salem witch trials held in Colonial America 1692-1721
Chinese Rites controversy 1693
Jacob Amman founds Amish sect
18th century [ edit ]
Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands splits with Roman Catholicism 1706
Bartholomäus Ziegenbalg, missionary, arrives in Tranquebar 1707
Examen theologicum acroamaticum by David Hollatz: the last great Lutheran doctrinal work before the Age of Enlightenment 1718-22 Orthodox Lutheran
Valentin Ernst Löscher publishes The Complete Timotheus Verinus against Pietism 1721
Peter the Great substitutes Moscow Patriarchate with the Holy Synod 1722
Hans Egede, missionary, arrives in Greenland 1728
The Vicar of Bray (song) 1730-1749
First Great Awakening in U.S. 1735
Welsh Methodist revival 1738
Methodist movement, led by John Wesley and his hymn-writing brother Charles, begins 1740
Johann Phillip Fabricius, missionary, arrives in South India 1741
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, famous Fire and brimstone sermon 1741
George Frederick Handel performs his classic gospel oratorio "Messiah" for the first time 1754
An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture, by Isaac Newton, published 1767-1815
Suppression of the Jesuits 1768
New Smyrna, Florida, Greek Orthodox colony, founded 1768
Reimarus dies without publishing his radical critic work distinguishing Historical Jesus versus Christ of Faith 1769
Mission San Diego de Alcala, first California mission 1771
Emanuel Swedenborg publishes his "Universal Theology of the True Christian Religion", later used by others to found Swedenborgianism 1774
Ann Lee, leader of American Shakers, emigrates to New York from England 1774
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing starts publishing Reimarus' works on historical Jesus as Anonymous Fragments, starting Liberal Theology Era (in Christology) 1776-1788
Gibbon's The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, critical of Christianity 1776
Mission Dolores, San Francisco 1779
Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom: "Jesus never coerced anyone to follow him, and the imposition of a religion by government officials is impious" 1780
Robert Raikes begins Sunday schools to reach poor and uneducated children in England 1784 American Methodists form
Methodist Episcopal Church at so-called "Christmas Conference", led by bishops Thomas Coke and Francis Asbury 1784 Roman Catholicism is re-introduced in Korea, and disseminates after almost 200 years since its first introduction in 1593
John Carroll, Archdiocese of Baltimore, first Roman Catholic US bishop 1789-1801
Dechristianisation of France during the French Revolution 1791
First Amendment to the United States Constitution: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof" 1793
Herman of Alaska brings Orthodoxy to Alaska 1795
The Age of Reason, written by Thomas Paine, advocates Deism 1796
Treaty with Tripoli (1796), article 11: "the Government of the United States of America is not, in any sense, founded on the Christian religion" 1800
Friedrich Schleiermacher publishes his first book, beginning Liberal Christianity movement
19th century [ edit ]
Cane Ridge Revival in Cane Ridge, Kentucky initiates the Christians (Stone Movement) wing of the Restoration Movement 1809
Disciples of Christ (Campbell Movement) wing of the Restoration Movement initiated with the publication of the Declaration and Address of the Christian Association of Washington 1815
Peter the Aleut, orthodox Christian, tortured and martyred in Catholic San Francisco, California 1816 Bishop
Richard Allen, a former slave, founds the African Methodist Episcopal Church, the first African-American denomination 1817
Claus Harms publishes 95 theses against rationalism and the Prussian Union of churches 1819
Thomas Jefferson produces the Jefferson Bible 1824 English translation of
Wilhelm Gesenius' ...Handwörterbuch...: Hebrew-English Lexicon, Hendrickson Publishers 1827
Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg takes on the editorship of the Evangelische Kirchenzeitung, the chief literary organ of the Neo-Lutheranism 1828
Plymouth Brethren founded; promotes Dispensationalism 1830
Catherine Laboure receives Miraculous Medal from the Blessed Mother in Paris, France 1830
Charles Finney's revivals lead to Second Great Awakening in America 1830, April 6
Church of Christ ( Mormonism, Latter Day Saint Movement) founded by Joseph Smith as a result of reported visitations and commandment by God the Father, Jesus Christ, and later the Angel Moroni. Book of Mormon also published in 1830 1831
William Miller begins the Advent Movement, by preaching his first sermon on the Biblical books of Daniel and Revelation 1832
Christians (Stone Movement) and Disciples of Christ (Campbell Movement) merge to form the Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement 1832, February 28- Persecution of
Old Lutherans: by a royal decree all Lutheran worship is declared illegal in Prussia in favour of the Prussian Union agenda [39 ] 1833 John Keble's sermon "
National Apostasy" initiates the Oxford Movement in England 1838-1839 Saxon Lutherans objecting to
theological rationalism emigrate from Germany to the United States; settle in Perry County, Missouri. Leads to formation of the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod 1843
Disruption of: schism within the established Church of Scotland 1844
Hans Paludan Smith Schreuder, missionary, arrives in Port Natal, South Africa 1844
Lars Levi Laestadius experiences awakening—beginning of Laestadianism 1844, October 22
Great Disappointment: false prediction of Second Coming of Christ by Millerites 1844, December
Ellen G. White, co-founder and prophetess of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, has her first vision 1845
Southern Baptist Convention formed in Augusta, Georgia 1846
Bernadette Soubirous receives the first of 18 apparitions of in Lourdes, France. Six million a year visit Lourdes Shrine Our Lady of Lourdes 1847
Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod founded in Chicago, Illinois 1847
John Christian Frederick Heyer, missionary, arrives in Andhra Pradesh, India 1848
Epistle to the Easterners and Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs response 1848
Perfectionist movement in western New York state 1849
Johann Konrad Wilhelm Löhe founds the first deaconess house in Neuendettelsau, Bavaria 1850
Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod founded in Milwaukee 1853
Synod of the Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran Church in America founded outside Madison, Wisconsin 1854 Missionary
Hudson Taylor arrives in China 1854
Immaculate Conception defined as Catholic dogma 1855
Søren Kierkegaard, founder of Christian existentialism 1855
Samuel Simon Schmucker begins attempt to replace the with the Definite Platform in the Augsburg Confession General Synod, leading to schism in 1866 1859
Ashbel Green Simonton, missionary, arrives in Brazil and founds Igreja Presbiteriana do Brasil, the oldest Brazilian Protestant denomination 1863
Seventh-day Adventist Church officially formed 19 years after the Great Disappointment 1865 Methodist preacher
William Booth founds the Salvation Army, vowing to bring the gospel into the streets to the most desperate and needy 1866
General Council (Lutheran) formed by ten Lutheran synods in the United States 1869-1870 Catholic
First Vatican Council asserts doctrine of Papal Infallibility (rejected by Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland) 1870 Italy declares war on the
Papal States; Italian Army enters Rome; Papal States cease to exist 1871 Pontmain, France is saved from advancing German troops with the appearing of
Our Lady of Hope 1871-1878 German
Kulturkampf against Roman Catholicism
Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America organized 1876
Evangelical Lutheran Free Church (Germany) founded 1878 First translation of the New Testament into
Batak by Ludwig Ingwer Nommensen 1879
Knock, Ireland is location of apparition of Our Lady, Queen of Ireland 1879
Church of Christ, Scientist founded in Boston by Mary Baker Eddy 1881-1894
Revised Version, called for by Church of England, uses Greek based on Septuagint (B) and (S), Hebrew Masoretic Text used in OT, follows Greek order of words, greater accuracy than AV, includes Apocrypha, scholarship never disputed 1884
Charles Taze Russell founds Bible Student movement 1885-1887
Uganda Martyrs 1885
Baltimore Catechism published 1886
Moody Bible Institute founded 1886
Onesimos Nesib begins translation of the entire Bible into the Oromo language 1886
Johann Flierl, missionary, arrives in New Guinea 1891
Albert Maclaren and Copland King, Anglican missionaries, arrive in New Guinea 1893
Heresy trial of Luther Alexander Gotwald 1894
The Kingdom of God is Within You, by Leo Tolstoy, start of Christian anarchism 1897
Christian flag conceived in Brooklyn, New York 1899
Gideons International founded
20th century [ edit ]
1903 First group baptism at Sattelberg Mission Station under
Christian Keyser in New Guinea paves way for mass conversions during the following years 1904
Welsh revival 1904 Evangelical Lutheran Church of Brazil -
Igreja Evangélica Luterana do Brasil - is founded in Juni 24, in São Pedro do Sul city, State Rio Grande do Sul
1905 French law on the separation of Church and State 1906
Albert Schweitzer publishes The Quest of the Historical Jesus (English translation 1910) 1906
Biblia Hebraica 1906-1909
Azusa Street Revival in Los Angeles, CA begins modern Pentecostal movement 1907 The
Church of God in Christ is formed as a Pentecostal body 1907-1912
Nicholas of Japan, Archbishop of Japanese Orthodox Church 1908
Church of the Nazarene founded in Pilot Point, Texas 1909
Scofield Reference Bible published 1909-1911
The Rosicrucian Fellowship, an international association of Esoteric Christian mystics, founded at Mount Ecclesia 1910
Christian Congregation in Brazil founded in Santo Antônio da Platina, Brazil by Italo-American Louis Francescon. It begins Pentecostalism in Brazil and South America 1910
Edinburgh Missionary Conference launches modern missions movement and modern ecumenical movement; 5-point statement of the Presbyterian General Assembly also used by Fundamentalists 1910-1915
The Fundamentals, a 12-volume collection of essays by 64 British and American scholars and preachers, forms foundation of Fundamentalism 1913
Catholic Encyclopedia 1914
Welsh Church Act 1914 1914
Iglesia ni Cristo incorporated in the Philippines 1914
Paul Olaf Bodding completes his translation of the Bible into the Santali language 1915
Ellen G. White, co-founder and prophetess of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, dies 1915-1923 The
Armenian Genocide occurs 1916
Father Divine founds International Peace Mission movement 1916
And did those feet in ancient time 1917
Heinrich Hansen publishes Lutheran Evangelical Catholic theses Stimuli et Clavi 1917
appears Our Lady of Fatima Marian apparitions to 3 young people, in Fatima, Portugal - Jacinta Marto, Francisco Marto and Lúcia Santos (" Sister Lucia") 1917 - 13 October
Miracle of the Sun is witnessed by as many as 100,000 people in the Cova da Iria fields near Fátima, Portugal ("How the Sun Danced at Midday at Fátima") 1917 Restitution of the
Moscow Patriarchy with Tikhon as patriarch 1917
True Jesus Church founded in Beijing 1918 Execution of Holy Martyrs of Russia, including the last tsar,
Nicholas II, and his wife, Alexandra Feodorovna, by the Communists 1918
United Lutheran Church in America founded 1919
Karl Barth's Commentary on Romans is published, critiquing Liberal Christianity and beginning the neo-orthodox movement 1920
The Ecclesia, an Esoteric Christian Temple, is erected and dedicated on Christmas Day (December 25) 1921
Oxford Group founded at Oxford 1923
Aimee Semple McPherson builds Angelus Temple 1924 First religious radio station in the U.S.,
KFUO (AM), founded 1925
Scopes Trial causes division among Fundamentalists 1925
United Church of Canada formed 1925
St. Therese of Lisieux canonized 1925 The
is held in World Conference of Life and Work Stockholm, Sweden 1926 Father
Charles Coughlin's first radio broadcast 1926-1929
Cristero War in Mexico: The Constitution of 1917 brings persecution of Christian practices and anti-clerical laws - approximately 4,000 Catholic priests are expelled, assassinated or executed 1927
Varghese Payyappilly Palakkappilly founds the Congregation of Sisters of the Destitute 1927
Pope Pius XI decrees Comma Johanneum open to dispute 1929
Lateran Treaty signed, containing three agreements between kingdom of Italy and the papacy 1929
Varghese Payyappilly Palakkappilly dies 1929
Voice of Prophecy radio ministry founded by Seventh-day Adventist pastor H.M.S. Richards Sr. 1930
Rastafari movement founded 1930 Old
American Lutheran Church founded 1930
The Lutheran Hour begins with Walter A. Maier as speaker 1931
Jehovah's Witnesses formally separate from the Bible Student movement 1931
Christ the Redeemer (statue) built in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 1932
Franz Pieper's A Brief Statement of the Doctrinal Position of the Missouri Synod adopted by the LCMS 1932
Marian apparitions to five school children in Beauraing, Belgium as Lady Virgin of the Poor [40 ] 1933
Catholic Worker Movement founded 1934
Herbert W. Armstrong founds Radio Church of God 1935
Gunnar Rosendal publishes Lutheran High Church manifesto Kyrklig förnyelse 1935 Dr.
Frank C. Laubach, known as "The Apostle to the Illiterates", working in the Philippines, develops a literacy program that continues to teach millions of people to read 1935 Rahlf's critical edition of the
Koine Greek Septuagint published 1935
Billy Sunday, early U.S. radio evangelist, dies 1938 First
Debbarma Christian, Manindra Debbarma, is baptized at Agartala 1938
Tripura Baptist Christian Union established at Laxmilunga, Tripura 1939 Southern and Northern US branches of the Methodist Episcopal Church, along with the Methodist Protestant Church, reunite to form
The Methodist Church (slavery had divided the church in the 19th century) 1940
Monumento Nacional de Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caidos, world's largest cross, 152.4 meters high 1942
National Association of Evangelicals founded 1945 On the
Feast of the Annunciation, "Our Lady" appears to a simple woman, Ida Peerdeman, in Amsterdam. This is the first of 56 appearances as "Our Lady of All Nations", which took place between 1945 and 1959. [41 ] 1945
Dietrich Bonhoeffer is executed by the Nazis 1945
Ludwig Müller 1945 The
Nag Hammadi library is discovered 1946-1952
Revised Standard Version, revision of AV "based on consonantal Hebrew text" for OT and best available texts for NT, done in response to changes in English usage 1947
Uneasy Conscience of Modern Fundamentalism by Carl F. H. Henry, a landmark of Evangelicalism versus Fundamentalism in US 1947
Oral Roberts founds Evangelistic Association 1947
Dead Sea scrolls discovered 1947
Lutheran World Federation founded 1948
World Council of Churches is founded 1948
Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, see also Christian Zionism 1949 evangelist
Billy Graham preaches his first Los Angeles crusade 1949 - October 2 Saint John Evangelical Lutheran Community -
Comunidade Evangélica Luterana São João da Igreja Evangélica Luterana do Brasil - is founded in Passo Fundo city, State Rio Grande do Sul 1950 First part of the
Common Confession between the American Lutheran Church and the LCMS is adopted, resulting in the schism of the Orthodox Lutheran Conference 1950
New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures released 1950
Assumption of Mary decreed by Pope Pius XII 1950
Missionaries of Charity founded by Mother Teresa 1951 Bishop
Fulton Sheen (1919–1979) debuts his television program on the Life is Worth Living DuMont Network. His half hour lecture program on Roman Catholic theology remained the number one show on U.S. television for its time slot, winning several Emmys until Sheen ended the program in 1957 1951
The Last Temptation, a fictional account of the life of Jesus written by Nikos Kazantzakis, wherein Christ's divinity is juxtaposed with his humanity, is published, and promptly banned in many countries 1951
Campus Crusade for Christ founded at UCLA 1952
Novum Testamentum Graece, critical edition of Greek NT, basis of modern translations 1952
C. S. Lewis' Mere Christianity published 1952
This Is the Life TV series begins 1954
Unification Church founded by Reverend Sun Myung Moon, under the name Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity (acronym HSA-UWC) 1954 U.S.
Pledge of Allegiance modified by act of Congress from "one nation, indivisible" to "one nation under God, indivisible" 1956
In God We Trust designated U.S. national motto 1956
Anchor Bible Series 1956
The Ten Commandments (1956 film) 1956
It Is Written television ministry founded by Seventh-day Adventist pastor George Vandeman 1957
United Church of Christ founded by ecumenical union of Congregationalists and Evangelical & Reformed, representing Calvinists and Lutherans 1957 English translation of
Walter Bauer's Wörterbuch ...: A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, University of Chicago Press 1958
Family Radio founded by Harold Camping 1959
Franz Pieper's A Brief Statement of the Doctrinal Position of the Missouri Synod reaffirmed by the LCMS 1960 Merger creates the "new"
American Lutheran Church 1960
John F. Kennedy becomes the first Roman Catholic to be elected President of the United States 1961
New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures published 1961
Christian Broadcasting Network founded by Pat Robertson 1962
Engel v. Vitale, first U.S. Supreme Court decision against School prayer 1962
Karl Rahner, Joseph Ratzinger, Yves Congar, John Courtney Murray, Hans Küng among others appointed "periti" for upcoming Second Vatican Council. Rahner famous for paraphrasing Augustine's axiom: "Many whom God has the Church does not have; and many whom the Church has, God does not have." 1962-1965 Catholic
Second Vatican Council, announced by Pope John XXIII in 1959, produces 16 documents which become official Roman Catholic teaching after approval by the Pope, purpose to renew "ourselves and the flocks committed to us" 1963
Martin Luther King leads a civil rights march in Washington, D.C. 1963 A campaign by atheist
Madalyn Murray O'Hair results in U.S. Supreme Court ruling prohibiting reading of Bible in public schools 1963
Oral Roberts University founded 1963
Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America dissolves in schism 1963 New Testament of
Beck's American Translation completed, thousands of copies distributed through The Lutheran Hour 1965 Reginald H. Fuller's
The Foundations of New Testament Christology 1965
Rousas John Rushdoony founds Chalcedon Foundation 1965
declaration promulgated at Vatican II that repudiates the charge of deicide against Jews Nostra aetate 1966 Roman Catholic Index of Prohibited Books abolished
Raymond E. Brown's Commentary on the Gospel of John 1967
Lutheran Council in the United States of America organized 1968 Zeitoun, Egypt, a bright image of the Virgin Mary as
was seen over the Coptic Orthodox Church of Saint Demiana for over a 3-year period. Over six million Egyptians and foreigners saw the image, including Copts, Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Protestants, Muslims, Jews and people of no particular faith Our Lady of Zeitoun 1968
United Methodist Church formed with union of Methodist Church & Evangelical United Brethren Church, becoming the largest Methodist/Wesleyan church in the world 1970s The
Jesus movement takes hold in the U.S. One-way.org 1970
Mass of Paul VI replaces Tridentine Mass 1970
The Late, Great Planet Earth, futurist book by Hal Lindsey, published 1970?
Chick Publications 1971
New American Standard Bible 1971
, a novel of The Exorcist demonic possession and the mysteries of the Catholic faith, is published 1971
Liberty University founded by Jerry Falwell 1972 Most Lutheran free churches in Germany merge, forming the
Independent Evangelical-Lutheran Church 1973, June 12- Near the city of
Akita, "Our Lady" appeared to Agnes Katsuko Sasagawa. Three messages were given to her over a period 5 months Our Lady of Akita. [42 ] 1973 The Apostle in the End-Time called
Arsenio Tan Ferriol (Pentecostal Missionary Church of Christ in the 4th WATCH) Philippines [43 ] 1973
Trinity Broadcasting Network founded by Paul and Jan Crouch 1973
New International Version of the Bible is first published (revised in 1978, 1984), using a variety of Greek texts, Masoretic Hebrew texts, and current English style 1973 Walkout at
Concordia Seminary begins the Seminex controversy in the LCMS 1974
Jim Bakker founds PTL television ministry 1975
Bruce Metzger's Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament 1976
Anneliese Michel, Bavarian woman, undergoes exorcism against demon possession 1976 Suicide by self-immolation of East German pastor
Oskar Brüsewitz, leads to mass protests against communism 1977
New Perspective on Paul 1977
Focus on the Family founded by James Dobson 1978
Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy 1978-2005
Pope John Paul II: reaffirmed moral traditions ( The Splendor of Truth) 1979
Moral Majority founded by Jerry Falwell 1979
Jesus (1979 film), most watched movie of all time according to New York Times 1979-1982?
New King James Version, complete revision of 1611 AV, updates archaisms while retaining style 1980 Glacier View Conference: Seventh-day Adventist pastor and professor Desmond Ford is defrocked for questioning the sanctuary doctrine of the church, in a 1979 lecture at Pacific Union College
Kibeho, Rwanda reported that "Our Lady" appeared to several teenagers telling them to pray to avoid "rivers of blood" (Marian apparitions) [44 ] 1981
Mother Angelica launches EWTN; it grows to become one of the largest television networks in the world; the operation expands to radio in 1992 1981
Institute on Religion and Democracy is founded 1981
Pope John Paul II shot by Mehmet Ali Agca; survives and later forgives him 1982 Chicago Statement on Biblical Hermeneutics
Jesus Seminar founded 1985
E. P. Sanders' Jesus and Judaism published 1986 Chicago Statement on Biblical Application
Desmond Tutu becomes Anglican Archbishop of South Africa; joins anti-apartheid movement 1987 Danver's Statement - Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America founded 1988
Lutheran Council in the United States of America dissolved 1988
Christian Coalition founded by Pat Robertson 1988
The Last Temptation of Christ, directed by Martin Scorsese, is released by Universal Pictures, and promptly attacked as heretical by organized Christian and Catholic groups 1988 The celebration of 1,000 years since the
baptism of Kievan Rus throughout the R.O.C. 1988 Assemblies of God pastor Jimmy Swaggart caught in sex scandal
New Revised Standard Version 1990
American Center for Law and Justice founded 1991 John P. Meier's series
, v. 1 A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus 1992 New
Catechism of the Catholic Church published 1993
Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference founded 1993
International Lutheran Council founded 1994 "Evangelicals & Catholics Together"
[45 ] 1994
Porvoo Communion 1994
Answers In Genesis founded by Ken Ham 1994, July 3- Glorification of St. John of Shanghai and San Francisco
1996 Cambridge Declaration - Alliance of Confessing Evangelicals
[46 ] 1997, March 5–10-
World Council of Churches: Towards a Common Date for Easter, see also Reform of the date of Easter 1998, April 6
PBS Frontline: From Jesus to Christ 1999
International House of Prayer in Kansas City begins non-stop 24/7 continual prayer 1999, October 31- signing of the
Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification between the Lutheran World Federation and the Catholic Church 1999 Gospel of Jesus Christ - An Evangelical Celebration; a consensus Gospel endorsed by various evangelical leaders including J.I. Packer, John Ankerberg, Jerry Falwell, Thomas C. Oden, R.C. Sproul, Wayne Grudem, Charles Swindoll, et al.
Radical Orthodoxy Christian theological movement begins, critiquing modern secularism and emphasizing the return to traditional doctrine; similar to the Paleo-orthodoxy Christian theological movement of the late 20th and early 21st centuries, which sees the consensual understanding of the faith among the Church Fathers as the basis of Biblical interpretation and the foundation of the Church 2000
Lutheran Congregations in Mission for Christ founded in schism from Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) over fellowship with the Episcopal Church (TEC) 2000 Visions of the Virgin Mary are reported in
Assiut, Upper Egypt; phenomena associated to Mary is reported again in 2006, in a church at the same location during the [47 ] Mass. Local Coptic priests and then the [48 ] Coptic Orthodox Church of Assiut issue statements in 2000 and 2006 respectively
21st century [ edit ]
The Way of the Master founded 2001
Armenia marks 1,700th anniversary of Christianity as its state religion (First country to adopt Christianity as its state religion - Kingdom of Armenia - 301 AD) 2003 the
Mission Province is established in Church of Sweden: new era for confessional Lutheranism in Scandinavia 2005 Death of
Pope John Paul II, election of Pope Benedict XVI 2006
World Methodist Council votes unanimously to adopt the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification (July 18). [49 ] [50 ] 2006 The
Jerusalem Declaration on Christian Zionism, signed by several Christian denominations in the Middle East, criticizes the doctrine as associating the Gospel with imperialism and militarism 2006 A film of the
Gospel of Judas, a 2nd-century Gnostic account of Judas discovered in the 1970s, is shown on TV 2007 The
Creation Museum opens in Kentucky, United States 2007 The
American Association of Lutheran Churches and LCMS declare pulpit and altar fellowship 2007, May 17- The
Russian Orthodox Church is reunified after 80 years of schism 2008 Conservative
Anglicans indicate that they plan to split from liberal Anglicans in "The Jerusalem Declaration" [51 ] 2009
Damien of Molokai canonized; apostle to lepers 2009, August 21- The
Minneapolis Churchwide Assembly of the ELCA passes four ministry policy resolutions that will permit clergy in committed homosexual partnerships to be rostered leaders within the ELCA 2009
The Rosicrucian Fellowship, an international association of Esoteric Christian mystics, celebrates the centennial anniversary -- [52 ] The Fraternity should remain secret one hundred years; the celebration ceremonies, on August 8 and November 13 [53 ] at [54 ] Mount Ecclesia, serve the purpose of heralding the revival of the Christian mystic path of the Rose Cross. [55 ] [56 ] 2009
Mar Varghese Payyappilly Palakkappilly declared Servant of God 2009
is issued, signed by over 150 American religious leaders Manhattan Declaration: A Call of Christian Conscience 2009 Dr. Frederick Eikerenkoetter (Reverend Ike), a pioneering prosperity preacher, dies
Lutheran CORE creates North American Lutheran Church in schism from the ELCA 2010, October 31- Attack on Baghdad church results in 52 deaths
[57 ] 2011, January 1- A church in
Alexandria, Egypt is bombed, killing 21 people, mostly Christians 2011 Martyrdom of
Shahbaz Bhatti, Pakistani politician and the only Christian elected member of the National Assembly, who was an outspoken critic of Pakistan's blasphemy laws 2013, March-
Pope Francis, an Argentinean, becomes the first non-European pope in modern times
Sources [ edit ]
World Almanac and Book of Facts
Academic American Encyclopedia (on Compuserve)
Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary
English Versions of the Bible by John Berchmans Dockery O.F.M.
Catholic Encyclopedia: Biblical Chronology
See also [ edit ]
External links [ edit ]
^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2, page 246: "When Archelaus was deposed from the ethnarchy in 6 CE, Judea proper, Samaria and Idumea were converted into a Roman province under the name Iudaea."
^ John P. Meier's , v. 1, ch. 11; also H.H. Ben-Sasson, A Marginal Jew A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2, page 251: "But after the first agitation (which occurred in the wake of the first Roman census) had faded out, we no longer hear of bloodshed in Judea until the days of Pilate."
Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Tiberius 36;
Jewish Encyclopedia: Rome: Expelled Under Tiberius: "The Jewish deputation which petitioned for the deposition of the royal house of the Idumeans was joined by 8,000 Jewish residents of Rome. Several Romans adopted Jewish customs, and some, as the rhetor Cilicius of Kalakte, a friend of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, even embraced Judaism ( Müller, "Fragmenta Historicorum Græcorum," iii. 331). The reign of Tiberius (until the removal of his minister Sejanus) was fraught with misfortune for the Jews. When the cult of Isis was driven out of Rome (19 CE.) the Jews also were expelled, because a Roman lady who inclined toward Judaism had been deceived by Jewish swindlers. The synagogues were closed, the vessels burned, and 4,000 Jewish youths were sent upon military service to Sardinia. After the death of Sejanus (31) the emperor allowed the Jews to return.";
Haim Hillel Ben-Sasson (and Abraham Malamat contributor) , Harvard University Press, 1976, A History of the Jewish People ISBN 978-0674397316, page 288 quote: "Explicit evidence of a systematic attempt to propagate the Jewish faith in the city of Rome is found as early as 139 BCE. With the increase of the Jewish population of Rome, the Jews intensified their efforts to make converts among the Romans. Although the activity of Jewish missionaries in Roman society caused Tiberius to expel them from that city in 19 CE, they soon returned, and Jewish religious propaganda was resumed and maintained even after the destruction of the Temple. Tacitus mentions it regretfully ( ), and Juvenal, in his Fourteenth Satire (11. 96ff.), describes how Roman families 'degenerated' into Judaism: the fathers permitted themselves to adopt some of its customs and the sons became Jews in every respect." ... Histories 5.5 [last sentence of next paragraph:] "In addition, the Bible provided the apostles of Judaism with a literature unparalleled in any other religion."
^ G. J. Goldberg. "John the Baptist and Josephus" . Retrieved . 2006-08-16
^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2, The Crisis Under Gaius Caligula, pages 254-256: "The reign of Gaius Caligula (37-41) witnessed the first open break between the Jews and the Julio-Claudian empire. Until then — if one accepts Sejanus' heyday and the trouble caused by the census after Archelaus' banishment — there was usually an atmosphere of understanding between the Jews and the empire ... These relations deteriorated seriously during Caligula's reign, and, though after his death the peace was outwardly re-established, considerable bitterness remained on both sides. ... Caligula ordered that a golden statue of himself be set up in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Only Caligula's death, at the hands of Roman conspirators (41), prevented the outbreak of a Jewish-Roman war that might well have spread to the entire East."
^ A. J. MAAS (2003). Origin of the Name of Jesus Christ. Retrieved January 23, 2006. Walter Bauer's et al. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, 1979, under Christos notes: "as a personal name; the Gentiles must have understood Christos in this way to them it seemed very much like Chrestos [even in pronunciation ...], a name that is found in lit."
^ Suetonius, Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Claudius XXV.4; Jewish Encyclopedia: Rome: Expelled Under Tiberius: "... in 49-50, in consequence of dissensions among them regarding the advent of the Messiah, they were forbidden to hold religious services. The leaders in the controversy, and many others of the Jewish citizens, left the city."
^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Judaizers see section titled: "THE INCIDENT AT ANTIOCH"
^ Cumming, John (1998). Butler's Lives of the Saints. Collgeville, MN: The Liturgical Press. p. 24
^ Pauline Chronology: His Life and Missionary Work, from Catholic Resources by Felix Just, S.J.
^ Staff Reporter. "‘More studies needed at Pattanam’". The Hindu . Retrieved . 14 March 2015
^ "stthoma.com" . Retrieved . 14 March 2015
^ In the earliest extant manuscript containing Annales 15:44, the second Medicean, the e in "Chrestianos", Chrestians, has been changed into an i; cf. Gerd Theißen, Annette Merz, Der historische Jesus: ein Lehrbuch, 2001, p. 89. The reading Christianos, Christians, is therefore doubtful.
^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Fiscus Iudaicus, Suetonius's Domitian XII: "Besides other taxes, that on the Jews [A tax of two drachmas a head, imposed by Titus in return for free permission to practice their religion; see Josephus, Bell. Jud. 7.6.6] was levied with the utmost rigor, and those were prosecuted who, without publicly acknowledging that faith, yet lived as Jews, as well as those who concealed their origin and did not pay the tribute levied upon their people [These may have been Christians, whom the Romans commonly assumed were Jews]. I recall being present in my youth when the person of a man ninety years old was examined before the procurator and a very crowded court, to see whether he was circumcised."
^ Wylen, Stephen M., The Jews in the Time of Jesus: An Introduction, Paulist Press (1995), ISBN 0-8091-3610-4, Pp 190-192.; Dunn, James D.G., Jews and Christians: The Parting of the Ways, A.D. 70 to 135, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing (1999), ISBN 0-8028-4498-7, Pp 33-34.; Boatwright, Mary Taliaferro & Gargola, Daniel J & Talbert, Richard John Alexander, The Romans: From Village to Empire, Oxford University Press (2004), ISBN 0-19-511875-8, p. 426.;
^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Tarfon: "R. Ṭarfon was extremely bitter against those Jews who had been converted to the new faith; and he swore that he would burn every book of theirs which should fall into his hands (Shab. 116a), his feeling being so intense that he had no scruples against destroying the Gospels, although the name of God occurred frequently in them."
^ "ANTITHESIS" . Retrieved . 14 March 2015
^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Dionysius" . Retrieved . 14 March 2015
^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Caius (3rd Century)" . Retrieved . 14 March 2015
^ "ANF05. Fathers of the Third Century: Hippolytus, Cyprian, Caius, Novatian, Appendix" . Retrieved . 14 March 2015
^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Monarchians" . Retrieved . 14 March 2015
^ Richard McBrien The Church (New York: HarperOne, 2008) 390
^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lapsi" . Retrieved . 14 March 2015
^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Pope St. Eusebius" . Retrieved . 14 March 2015
^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Synods of Arles" . Retrieved . 14 March 2015
^ "NPNF2-01. Eusebius Pamphilius: Church History, Life of Constantine, Oration in Praise of Constantine" . Retrieved . 14 March 2015
^ The Canon Debate, McDonald & Sanders editors, 2002, pages 414-415
^ Rapp, Stephen H., Jr (2007). "7 - Georgian Christianity". . John Wiley & Sons. p. 138. The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity ISBN 978-1-4443-3361-9 . Retrieved . 11 May 2012
^ "The Seventh Arian Confession" . Retrieved . 14 March 2015
^ Theodosian Code XVI.1.2 Medieval Sourcebook: Banning of Other Religions by Paul Halsall, June 1997, Fordham University, retrieved September 25, 2006; Theodosian Code XVI.1.2; Catholic Encyclopedia: Theodosius I: "In February, 380, he and Gratian published the famous edict that all their subjects should profess the faith of the Bishops of Rome and Alexandria ( Cod. Theod., XVI, I, 2; Sozomen, VII, 4)."
^ "Evagrius Scholasticus, Ecclesiastical History (AD431-594), translated by E. Walford (1846). Introduction" . Retrieved . 14 March 2015
^ Paul Moses, "Mission Improbable: St. Francis and the Sultan" Commonweal 25 September 2009, 16.
^ The Rosicrucian Fellowship: The Rosicrucian Interpretation of Christianity
^ Albert Pike, , p. 822, 1872 Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, XXX: Knight Kadosh
^ René Guénon, , p. 5-6, 14, 15-16, 18-23, 1925 El Esoterismo de Dante
^ Manly Palmer Hall, , p. 139, 1928 The Secret Teachings of All Ages: The Fraternity of The Rose Cross
^ "NOMBRE DE DIOS Mission in Spanish La Florida" . Retrieved . 14 March 2015
^ ("What think you, loving people, and how seem you affected, seeing that you now understand and know, that we acknowledge ourselves truly and sincerely to profess Christ, condemn the Pope, addict ourselves to the true Philosophy, lead a Christian life (...)".
^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Evangelical Church" . Retrieved . 14 March 2015
^ "Beauraing 1932" . Retrieved . 14 March 2015
^ "The Lady of All Nations - Family of Mary" . Retrieved . 14 March 2015
^ "Messages of Our Lady at Akita Japan" . Retrieved . 14 March 2015
^ "PMCC 4th Watch - Pentecostal Missionary CHURCH OF CHRIST (4th Watch)". PMCC (4th Watch) . Retrieved . 14 March 2015
^ APPROVED APPARITIONS: Our Lady of Kibeho This was an ominious foreshadowing of the Rwanda Genocide of 1994.
^ "Evangelicals and Catholics Together" . Retrieved . 14 March 2015
^ "Alliance of Confessing Evangelicals, Inc" . Retrieved . 14 March 2015
^ Independent Online - South Africa, Virgin Mary 'appears over Egyptian church', August 31, 2000
^ Holy Lights in Assiut: Apparition in Assiut: Eyewitness Account, Upper Egypt March/April 2006
^ Joan G. LaBarr, United Methodist Church, World Methodists approve further ecumenical dialogue
^ "CNS STORY: Methodists adopt Catholic-Lutheran declaration on justification" . Retrieved . 14 March 2015
^ Schism - By Travis Kavulla - The Corner - National Review Online
^ Cf. years 1909-1911 and 1920 in the 20th century section
^ Cf. Fama Fraternitatis. 1614
^ Note: Centennial anniversary (on November 13, 2009) of the publication of The Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception or Mystic Christianity
^ Cf. year 1313 in the Renaissance section and years 1614 to 1616 in the 17th century section
^ . Rosicrucian revival The San Diego Union-Tribune. August 2009
^ "Eyewitness: Baghdad church siege".