Detroit Diesel Series 71

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Series 71
ACT206 No. 976 (New Look, 6V71) (11177940814).jpg
Overview
ManufacturerDetroit Diesel
Production1938–1995
Layout
ConfigurationMulti-cylinder,
inline and V-type
Displacement71 cu in (1.2 L)
(per cylinder)
Cylinder bore4 14 in (108 mm)
Piston stroke5 in (127 mm)
Block materialCast iron[1]
ValvetrainPushrod-operated 2 or
4 valves per cyl.
Compression ratio18.7:1 (N/A)
17.0:1 (Turbo)
Combustion
TurbochargerOn some versions
Fuel systemUnit fuel injection
Fuel typeDiesel
Cooling systemWater-cooled
Output
Power output10–1,600 hp (7–1,193 kW)
Torque output299–2,150 lb⋅ft (405–2,915 N⋅m)
Dimensions
Length36–79 in (910–2,010 mm)
Width29–47 in (740–1,190 mm)
Height39–59 in (990–1,500 mm)
Dry weight1,525–4,820 lb (692–2,186 kg)
Chronology
SuccessorSeries 60

The Detroit Diesel Series 71 is a two-stroke diesel engine series, available in both inline and V configurations. The first number in the model series designation refers to the number of cylinders, and the second - 71 - the nominal displacement per cylinder in cubic inches, a rounding off of 70.93 cu in (1.2 L).

Inline models included one, two, three, four and six cylinders, and the V-types six, eight, 12, 16 and 24 cylinders.

The two largest V units used multiple cylinder heads per bank to keep the head size and weight to manageable proportions, the V-16 using four heads from the four-cylinder inline model and the V-24 using four heads from the inline six-cylinder model. This feature also assisted in keeping down the overall cost of these large engines by maintaining parts commonality with the smaller models.

History[edit]

The inline six-cylinder 71 series engine was introduced as the initial flagship product of the Detroit Diesel Engine Division of General Motors in 1938. The V-type first appeared in 1957.

Sales of The 71 Series ceased in the summer of 1995, with the four stroke Detroit Diesel engine introduced as a replacement.

Design[edit]

Bore and stroke are the same across all units, at 4 14 in × 5 in (108 mm × 127 mm). Inline models were famously "symmetrical", meaning that blower, exhaust, water manifold, starter, and other components could be mounted on either side of the basic block to fit a particular application. A number of models could also run with the crankshaft turning either clockwise or counter-clockwise, called "Right Hand" or "Left Hand" rotation engines (as viewed from the front of the engine). The less-common Left Hand engines were typically used in buses, because the rotation matched rear-engined transverse installations. Boats equipped with two engines would typically use one Left Hand and one Right Hand, so that the torque from the propellers would cancel each other out, without the need for a complex reversing gear on one side.

As a two-stroke diesel engine that does not use crankcase aspiration cannot naturally draw in combustion air, the blower is inherently necessary to charge the cylinders with air for combustion. The blower also assists in scavenging spent combustion gasses at the end of the power stroke. All Series 71 engines use uniflow scavenging, in which a gear-driven Roots blower mounted to the exterior of the engine provides intake air through cored passages in the engine block and ports in the cylinder walls at slightly greater than atmospheric pressure. The engine exhausts through pushrod-operated poppet valves in the cylinder head(s), with either two or four valves per cylinder. Unit fuel injection is employed, one injector per cylinder, with no high fuel pressure outside of the injector body. The injectors are cycled from the same camshaft responsible for opening the exhaust valves.

Nomenclature[edit]

The first number refers to the number of cylinders in the engine, followed by a hyphen or "V", indicating inline or vee, respectively, then 71 for the Series designation, referring the nominal displacement per cylinder in cubic inches (rounding up 70.93 cu in (1.2 L)).

Like most Detroit Diesel two-cycle engines, the 71 Series are equipped with a blower yet still referred to as "naturally aspirated" (SAE designation). These do not have a model suffix identifier: 6-71 is an inline 6. When the model number includes a suffix, it denotes additional features. Engines equipped with needle unit[clarification needed] fuel injectors and commonly four exhaust valves per cylinder are indicated by the suffix "N", so for the V8, 8V-71N. Later versions were available with turbochargers, which discharged directly into the Roots blower intake; these have a "T" suffix, and with aftercooling, a "TA", so 8V-71T or 8V-71TA. "TT" indicates Tailored Torque and "TTA" Tailored Torque Aftercooled. These models are designated for economy (Fuel Squeezer) and constant horsepower ratings.

Applications[edit]

Motor Coach Industries MC-9 bus powered by a rear-mounted 8V-71 Detroit Diesel engine.

The most popular incarnations of the series 71 engine as used for highway vehicle applications included the inline 6-71, the V-block 6V-71 (both widely used in transit buses) and the 8V-71 V-8. In addition to motorcoach propulsion, both inline and V types have found extensive usage in trucks, fire apparatus, motor homes, construction and industrial machinery, a few farm tractors, commercial fishing vessels, and military vehicles and equipment.

The 71 series is very popular in marine applications, not only as a propulsion engine in small craft (Gray Marine 6-71) but as auxiliary power to drive generators, winches and other heavy shipboard machinery. The Detroit inline 6-71 engine, in all of its variations, was also available as a 'pancake engine' (here variably called either 6L-71 or 6N-71) for horizontal (underfloor) mount applications, such as on larger Crown and Gillig school buses and articulated puller transit buses (such as the Crown-Ikarus 286). Many 4-71 motors were used in various construction equipment, such as many Galion highway graders.

Variants[edit]

Detroit Diesel (2 cycle) common model and suffix codes
Model codes Description
L Low profile
V V-block
N Needle Unit Injectors, four exhaust valves (per cylinder)
T Turbocharged
TA Turbocharged Aftercooled (JWAC Jacket Water Aftercooled )
TAC Turbocharged Aftercooled California Certification (JWAC Jacket Water Aftercooled )
TT Tailored Torque (Fuel Squeezer)
TTA Tailored Torque Aftercooled (Fuel Squeezer Plus) (JWAC Jacket Water Aftercooled )
TI Turbocharged Intercooled
TIB Turbocharged Intercooled Bypass Blower
Model Displacement Engine configuration Power
1-71 1.2 L (71 cu in) Single-cylinder 10 hp (7 kW)
2-71 2.3 L (142 cu in) I-2 68 hp (51 kW)
3-71 3.5 L (213 cu in) I-3 113 hp (84 kW)
4-71 4.7 L (284 cu in) I-4 160 hp (119 kW)
6-71 7.0 L (426 cu in) I-6 238 hp (177 kW)
6V-71 7.0 L (426 cu in) V-6 238 hp (177 kW)
8V-71 9.3 L (568 cu in) V-8 318 hp (237 kW)[2]
12V-71 14.0 L (852 cu in) V-12 450 hp (336 kW)
16V-71 18.6 L (1,136 cu in) V-16 635 hp (474 kW)
Series 71 specifications for selected models
Family Model Torque Power Length × Width × Height Weight
3-71 3-71[3] 299 lb⋅ft (405 N⋅m)
@ 1400 rpm
109 hp (81 kW)
@ 2100 rpm
36 in × 29 in × 41 in
910 mm × 740 mm × 1,040 mm
1,525 lb
692 kg
4-71 4-71[3][4] 385–400 lb⋅ft (522–542 N⋅m)
@ 1600 rpm
140–152 hp (104–113 kW)
@ 2100 rpm
42 in × 29 in × 42 in
1,070 mm × 740 mm × 1,070 mm
1,780 lb
807 kg
4-71T[5] 525 lb⋅ft (712 N⋅m)
@ 1400 rpm
190 hp (142 kW)
@ 2100 rpm
44 in × 31 in × 44 in
1,120 mm × 790 mm × 1,120 mm
1,830 lb
830 kg
6-71 6-71[3][6] 600–612 lb⋅ft (813–830 N⋅m)
@ 1600 rpm
218–228 hp (163–170 kW)
@ 2100 rpm
54 in × 29 in × 39 in
1,370 mm × 740 mm × 990 mm
2,230 lb
1,012 kg
6-71T[5][7] 762–801 lb⋅ft (1,033–1,086 N⋅m)
@ 1400 rpm
275–285 hp (205–213 kW)
@ 2100 rpm
56 in × 32 in × 50 in
1,420 mm × 810 mm × 1,270 mm
2,195–2,240 lb
996–1,016 kg
6-71TT[8] 853 lb⋅ft (1,157 N⋅m)
@ 1200 rpm
230 hp (172 kW)
@ 1950 rpm
56 in × 32 in × 52 in
1,420 mm × 810 mm × 1,320 mm
2,195 lb
996 kg
6V-71 6V-71[9][10] 600 lb⋅ft (813 N⋅m)
@ 1600 rpm
228 hp (170 kW)
@ 2100 rpm
41 in × 39 in × 48 in
1,040 mm × 990 mm × 1,220 mm
2,380 lb
1,080 kg
6V-71T[10] 725 lb⋅ft (983 N⋅m)
@ 1600 rpm
262 hp (195 kW)
@ 2100 rpm
41 in × 40 in × 53 in
1,000 mm × 1,000 mm × 1,300 mm
2,380 lb
1,080 kg
8V-71 8V-71[9][11] 800 lb⋅ft (1,085 N⋅m)
@ 1600 rpm
304 hp (227 kW)
@ 2100 rpm
47 in × 39 in × 51 in
1,190 mm × 990 mm × 1,300 mm
2,900 lb
1,315 kg
8V-71T[11] 965 lb⋅ft (1,308 N⋅m)
@ 1600 rpm
350 hp (261 kW)
@ 2100 rpm
50 in × 40 in × 53 in
1,300 mm × 1,000 mm × 1,300 mm
2,495 lb
1,132 kg
8V-71TA[12] 1,064 lb⋅ft (1,443 N⋅m)
@ 1200 rpm
360 hp (268 kW)
@ 2100 rpm
50 in × 40 in × 53 in
1,300 mm × 1,000 mm × 1,300 mm
2,415 lb
1,095 kg
8V-71TTA[12]> 1,064 lb⋅ft (1,443 N⋅m)
@ 1600 rpm
305 hp (227 kW)
@ 2100 rpm
43 in × 38 in × 49 in
1,090 mm × 970 mm × 1,240 mm
2,415 lb
1,095 kg
12V-71 12V-71[9][13] 1,200 lb⋅ft (1,627 N⋅m)
@ 1600 rpm
456 hp (340 kW)
@ 2100 rpm
60 in × 46 in × 58 in
1,500 mm × 1,200 mm × 1,500 mm
3,210 lb
1,456 kg
12V-71T[13] 1,450 lb⋅ft (1,966 N⋅m)
@ 1600 rpm
525 hp (391 kW)
@ 2100 rpm
70 in × 46 in × 55 in
1,800 mm × 1,200 mm × 1,400 mm
3,550 lb
1,610 kg
16V-71

(two joined 8V71 engine blocks)

16V-71TI[14] 2,150 lb⋅ft (2,915 N⋅m)
@ 1600 rpm
800 hp (597 kW)
@ 2100 rpm
79 in × 47 in × 59 in
2,000 mm × 1,200 mm × 1,500 mm
4,820 lb
2,186 kg

Further developments[edit]

WWII General Motors 6004/6046 engine [edit]

The inline 6-71 was adapted to British requirements as the power plant for Canadian (and later British) built Valentine tanks where it was known as the GMC 6004, orders being placed in late September 1940.[15]

The 6046 Diesel was a twin engine setup used by US and British tanks and tank destroyers.

Detroit diesel 6051 quad-71[edit]

The Detroit diesel 6051 quad-71 was a Detroit Diesel Series 6-71 side by side tandem engine setup of two banks of four engines each driving two propeller shafts in Landing Craft Infantry LCI(L). The eight engines produced a total of 1,600 bhp (1,193 kW).[16]

Soviet/Russian copies[edit]

In the Soviet Union / Russia, various versions of this engine-type were produced at the Yaroslavl automobile factory (YaAZ).[17] Throughout World War II, the 4-71 engine both in locally assembled form (built by Lend-Lease provided American industrial equipment) and from USA-supplied kits had been used for Ya-12 light artillery tractors[18] and trucks. After 1945, the 4-71 engine entered production in a slightly modified configuration to suit the conditions of the Soviet Union branded "YaAZ-204".[17] After 1947 the factory used a copy of the 6-71 engine branded "YaAZ-206" in the YaAZ 200 / 210 / 214 series of heavy trucks built from 1947 to 1960. Production was transferred to KrAZ in Kremenchug, Ukraine in 1959, where newer versions of the YaAZ-206 stood in production until the appearance of the four-stroke V8-engined KrAZ-255 in 1967.[19][20][21][22][23]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "71 Series Liner and Cylinder Block Bore Measurements". Powerlinecomponents.com. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
  2. ^ Barrington, Steve. "Detroit Diesel 8v-71 manuals and specifications". Barringtondieselclub.co.za. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
  3. ^ a b c "fan-to-flywheel models: 3-71, 4-71, & 6-71" (PDF). Detroit Diesel Engines. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  4. ^ "fan-to-flywheel models: 4-71" (PDF). Detroit Diesel Engines. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  5. ^ a b "fan-to-flywheel models: 4-71T & 6-71T" (PDF). Detroit Diesel Engines. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  6. ^ "fan-to-flywheel models: 6-71" (PDF). Detroit Diesel Engines. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  7. ^ "truck models: 6-71T" (PDF). Detroit Diesel Engines. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  8. ^ "truck models: 6-71TT" (PDF). Detroit Diesel Engines. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  9. ^ a b c "fan-to-flywheel models: 6V-71, 8V-71, & 12V-71" (PDF). Detroit Diesel Engines. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  10. ^ a b "fan-to-flywheel models: 6V-71 & 6V-71T" (PDF). Detroit Diesel Engines. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  11. ^ a b "fan-to-flywheel models: 8V-71 & 8V-71T" (PDF). Detroit Diesel Engines. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  12. ^ a b "8V-71TA & 8V-71TTA" (PDF). Detroit Diesel Engines. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  13. ^ a b "fan-to-flywheel models: 12V-71 & 12V-71T" (PDF). Detroit Diesel Engines. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  14. ^ "fan-to-flywheel models: 16V-71TI" (PDF). Detroit Diesel Engines. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  15. ^ Engines used by British vehicles
  16. ^ http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/ref/ONI/ONI-226/ONI-226.pdf
  17. ^ a b "YaAz-204 Diesel engine" (in Russian). русская-сила.рф. Retrieved 2013-11-21.
  18. ^ "Engines of the Red Army in WW2 - Artillery Tractor Ya-12". Engines of the Red Army in WW2. 2007-03-12. Retrieved 2013-11-22.
  19. ^ Andrei Bogomolov. "Oldtimer picture gallery. Trucks. YaAZ". Retrieved 2013-11-20.
  20. ^ Andrei Bogomolov. "Oldtimer gallery. Trucks. YaAZ-210". Retrieved 2013-11-20.
  21. ^ "KrAZ-219". OldRussianCars.com. 2013-07-21. Retrieved 2013-11-20.
  22. ^ "YaAZ-218". OldRussianCars.com. Retrieved 2013-11-20.
  23. ^ "KrAZ-222". OldRussianCars.com. Retrieved 2013-11-20.

Sources[edit]

  • Shelton, Chris. "Then, Now, and Forever" in Hot Rod, March 2017, pp.16-29.