|Systematic IUPAC name
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||156.61 g·mol−1|
|Melting point||114 to 116 °C (237 to 241 °F; 387 to 389 K)|
|GHS signal word||WARNING|
|H302, H315, H317, H319|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Chloroxylenol, also known as para-chloro-meta-xylenol (PCMX), is an antiseptic and disinfectant which is used for skin disinfection and cleaning surgical instruments. It is also used within a number of household disinfectants and wound cleaner. It is available as a liquid.
Side effects are generally few but can include skin irritation. It may be used mixed with water or alcohol. Chloroxylenol is most effective against Gram-positive bacteria. It works by disruption of the cell wall and stopping the function of enzymes.
Chloroxylenol was first made in 1927. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 2.00 to 6.20 USD per litre of 5% solution. It is sold in a number of formulations and under a number of brand names including Dettol.
Chloroxylenol is used in hospitals and households for disinfection and sanitation. It is also commonly used in antibacterial soaps, wound-cleansing applications and household antiseptics such as Dettol liquid (to which it contributes its distinctive odor), cream and ointments.
Chloroxylenol is not significantly toxic to humans, is practically non-toxic to birds, and is moderately toxic to freshwater invertebrates. It is highly toxic to fish and cats and should not be used around them. It is a mild skin irritant and may trigger allergic reactions in some individuals.
Excessive exposure to chloroxylenol has the potential for causing lethal toxicity. It is poisonous when swallowed and even when it is unintentionally breathed in. A medical study in Hong Kong which analyzed 177 cases of Dettol ingestions that resulted in emergency department treatment (95% of which were intentional), concluded that ″Dettol poisoning resulted in serious complications in 7% of patients, including death".
Chloroxylenol is toxic to many animals, especially cats. Phenols are of particular concern because cats are unable to eliminate the toxins following ingestion. A cat may swallow the product by licking its paws after they have come into contact with it.
In Australia, chloroxylenol spray has been shown to be lethal to cane toads, an invasive species that was introduced from Hawaii as a result of bad judgment in 1935. It had been hoped that the amphibian would control the cane beetle but it became highly destructive within the ecosystem. Spraying the disinfectant at close range has been shown to cause rapid death to toads. It is not known whether the toxins are persistent or whether they harm other Australian flora and fauna.
Owing to concerns over potential harm to other Australian wildlife species, the use of chloroxylenol as an agent for pest control was banned in Western Australia by the Department of Environment and Conservation in 2011.
Soon after it was created 'parachlorometaxylenol' was then called 'PCMX', but this was thought to be a poor name and it was renamed 'Dettol'. Then in 1930s it was marketed in England, and then in 1932 in India. It had a white on green bottle, similar to medicine bottles. Also it had a white sword similar to the Dr's symbol of a cross. It is sold, in the same style bottle, in Argentina and Uruguay to this day.
Society and culture
A number of brand names are available. Chloroxylenol is the active ingredient in Dettol. It comprises 4.8% of Dettol's total admixture, with the rest made up by pine oil, isopropanol, castor oil, soap and water.
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