Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters
Official logo of the DTM
|Tyre suppliers||Hankook (2011–present)|
|Drivers' champion||Pascal Wehrlein|
|Teams' champion||HWA AG|
The Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters (DTM, German Touring Car Masters) is a silhouette racing car series based in Germany, but also with rounds elsewhere in Europe.
From 2000 onwards, this new DTM continued the former Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft (German Touring Car Championship) and ITC (International Touring Car Championship) which had been discontinued after 1996 due to high costs.
- 1 History
- 2 International expansion
- 3 Race format
- 4 DTM drivers
- 5 Cars and specifications
- 6 Scoring systems
- 7 Manufacturer representation
- 8 Champions
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The new DTM 2000
During the ITC era a large proportion of the revenue generated by the championship went to the FIA, with the result that less went to the teams who subsequently complained of little return on their increasingly large investment in the high-tech series. Since 1997 many ideas have been discussed in order to find a compromise for rules of a new DTM. Opel put the primary emphasis on cost control, Mercedes-Benz supported expensive competitiveness in development, BMW wanted an international series rather than one focused on Germany only, while Audi insisted on allowing their trademark quattro four-wheel drive (despite running the rear wheel drive Audi R8) in sports car racing.
The DTM returned in 2000 as Mercedes and Opel had agreed to use cars that were based on the concept car that was shown by Opel on various occasions, e.g. the 1999 24 Hours Nürburgring where Opel celebrated its 100th anniversary. The series adopted the format of the 1995 championship, with most rounds held in Germany with occasional rounds throughout Europe, but having learnt the lessons of the ITC disaster, the ITR constantly strived to keep costs in the series from exploding to unreasonable levels, and to keep the championship firmly tied to its German roots. As too many races were planned outside Germany, no Championship (Meisterschaft) status was granted by the DMSB, and the DTM initials now stand for Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters (German Touring Car Masters).
Alfa Romeo, who at the time were mounting successful campaigns in the European Touring Car Championship, did not return to the series. BMW was also involved in the ETCC and was not satisfied with a championship only for Germany. Audi did not enter as they insisted on using their signature quattro 4WD.
Unlike the previous incarnation which primarily used sedan models like the Mercedes-Benz W201, the new DTM featured only 2-door coupés. Opel used the upcoming Coupé version of the Astra as in the concept car, and Mercedes the CLK model which already was used as a pattern for the Mercedes-Benz CLK-GTR.
Attempts of Zakspeed to enter with a car looking like a Volvo C70 were not approved, but the motorsport arm of the Bavarian tuning company Abt Sportsline was allowed to enter on short notice. The 1999 STW-Supertouring-champion Christian Abt could not defend his STW title as this series was also discontinued, with Opel moving into DTM. Abt used the Audi TT as a basis, as Audi had no suitable 2-door coupé, even though the dimensions of this car did not fit into the rules.
In May 2000, the new DTM started with the traditional Hockenheimring short track version. Some cars still had no or few sponsorship decals. While Opel could match the speed of most Mercedes in the 2000 season, the hastily developed Abt-Audis were mainly outclassed. As the TT shape had rather poor aerodynamic properties, Abt was allowed to use a stretched form later. Further benefits like a higher rear wing helped the Abt-Audi TT-R win the DTM championship in 2002 with Laurent Aïello.
Ups and downs for Opel
In 2000, Manuel Reuter came second in the championship. After that year, no Opel driver was among the top three, with few podium finishes and no victory for the disappointing "lightnings". On the other hand, it was Opel team boss Volker Strycek who brought a new highlight to the fans, by racing a modified DTM car on the traditional old version of the Nürburgring in 2002, 20 years after the top classes had moved to the modern Grand Prix track, and 10 years after the old DTM stopped racing there. The Opels did not win in most of their entries in the VLN endurance races as they were mainly testing, but the speed was impressive, and the fans loved it. They won however the 2003 Nürburgring 24 Hours against factory efforts by Audi (Who also ran a DTM-spec TT) and BMW (Who ran an ALMS-spec M3).
Audi joins DTM in 2004
After their successes with the Audi R8 and the official support of the Abt-TTRs at the Nürburgring, Audi finally joined the DTM as a factory entry in 2004. The three constructors involved decided to switch to saloon bodies. The road models used as patterns since 2004 are the Audi A4, Opel Vectra GTS and the Mercedes-Benz C-Class. All dimensions, like wheelbase, are identical in order to provide equal opportunities without the actual design of the road cars having any influence.
DTM in 2005–2007
The championship suffered a setback in 2004 when long-time also-ran Opel decided to pull out of the series at the end of the 2005 season, as part of a large cost-cutting operation in General Motors' European division. Initially the gap looked set to be filled by MG Rover, however their plans to enter the series were cancelled after the company collapsed in April 2005. Audi and Mercedes fielded 10 cars each in 2006, but the important television deal with the major television station ARD required three marques in 2007. Rumours surfaced that Alfa Romeo would return to the DTM in 2007. These rumors were helped by Alfa Romeo Sport boss Claudio Berro being seen in the Barcelona paddock. It was also thought that Alfa's possible return could be the reason why the 2007 DTM calendar started one month later than normal, to give Alfa Romeo extra time to make a DTM car. However, this did not happen.
DTM in 2008–2013
The DTM carried on with only two manufacturers. There were some rumours regarding entries by various manufacturers (e.g. Citroen, Lancia, Renault or Jaguar), but they never materialized. The years 2008 and 2009 were marked by the dominance of Audi. Timo Scheider took the driver's championship in these years, giving Mercedes the runner-up position (Paul di Resta in 2008 and Gary Paffett in 2009). As of 2010, Mercedes have finally bridged the gap to Audi, as Paul di Resta has won the 2010 championship driving for AMG Mercedes.
In March 2010, GT Association (the governing body in Super GT series in Japan) reported the ITR are starting to unite the mechanical regulation with Japan's GT500 (Super GT's upper class), and NASCAR's Grand American Road Racing Association Grand Touring division to form a new Grand Touring specification. In October 2012 a cooperation deal between DTM and Super GT was signed in Tokyo. The agreement regarding the use of the 'New DTM' regulations by Japan's Super GT begins in 2014 and runs – for the time being – for four years. DTM is set to ditch V8 engines in favour of two-litre turbos by 2016 at the latest, which Super GT had implemented in 2014.
NASCAR Holdings / United SportsCar Racing
On 27 March 2013, the ITR and NASCAR Holdings' road racing division, United SportsCar Racing, announced after years of planning, a North American DTM is scheduled to start between 2015 and 2016 based on the 2014 DTM regulations.
When the series returned, it used a similar format to 1996: two races of 100 kilometres, with a short break between them. In 2001 and 2002 there was a short race of 35 kilometres as well as a long race of 100 kilometres, which included one pit stop and gave points for the top 10 as in earlier seasons. From 2003 to 2014 there was only one race, which had a distance of about 170 kilometres, and two mandatory pit stops.
For 2015 season a new race format has been introduced. Race weekend consists of 40-minute (Saturday) and 60-minute (Sunday) races. On Saturday's race pit stop is optional. While on Sunday's race pit stop is mandatory and all the four tyres must be changed. Both races have the same scoring system.
The drivers have been a mixture of young and older drivers, including well known former Formula One drivers David Coulthard, Bernd Schneider, Allan McNish, Jean Alesi, Heinz-Harald Frentzen, Ralf Schumacher, JJ Lehto, Pedro Lamy, Karl Wendlinger, Emanuele Pirro, Stefano Modena and two-time F1 world champion Mika Häkkinen. Others, such as Laurent Aïello, Tom Kristensen, Dindo Capello, Frank Biela, Marco Werner, Lucas Luhr, Alexandre Prémat, Jaroslav Janiš, and Alain Menu have made their career racing in sports cars and touring cars.
Increasingly, the DTM is being used by young guns such as Robert Wickens and Gary Paffett to jump-start their racing career in single-seaters. Wickens was in the 2012 Mercedes young driver program and in his first year of DTM. This strategy appears to have worked well for Christijan Albers, who built a reputation by finishing second and third in the 2003 and 2004 championships with Mercedes-Benz and then graduated to Formula One in 2005. He came back in 2008, but this time driving for Audi. After winning the championship in 2010, Paul di Resta raced from 2011 until 2013 for Mercedes-engined Formula One team Force India. He has now returned to the Mercedes DTM team.
Gary Paffett has also used his championship win to gain a test with McLaren, and they signed him as permanent test driver for 2006. This prevented Paffett from defending his title in 2006, however he thought that it will be a springboard for a race seat during the 2007 Formula One season. The plan failed however, and Paffett returned to DTM in 2007, but in a 2006 specification car.
Four female drivers have taken part in the championship. In 2006 Vanina Ickx started racing for Audi and Susie Wolff for Mercedes. In 2008 Ickx was replaced by Katherine Legge, who was subsequently replaced for the 2011 season by Rahel Frey. In 2014 there were no female drivers in DTM.
Cars and specifications
The cars are supposed to be fast and spectacular, while still rather cheap to build and run. All DTM race cars have RWD and 4.0 L V8 engines which are air-restricted to 500 hp, no matter if similar layouts or engines are available in the road cars. Instead of the road car bodies, unrelated purpose-built chassis are used, which are closer to prototype racing. Many drivers have in fact described the handling of the cars as closer to single seater racing cars than road cars. Only the roof sections of the road cars are put on top of the roll cages, and lights and other distinctive design features are used in order to provide a resemblance to the road cars. Also, in order to save money and provide close racing, many common parts from third party specialist are used, like transmission (from Hewland and Xtrac), brakes, and Dunlop Tyres, of which the latter was replaced by Hankook tyres from 2011 and on. The all-important aerodynamic configurations are tested in wind tunnels before the season, brought to an equal level, and kept that way throughout the season.
DTM cars adhere to a front engine rear-wheel-drive design. A roll cage serves as a space frame chassis, covered by a CFRP crash elements on the side, front and rear and covered by metallic bodywork. They have a closed cockpit, a rear wing, and an aerodynamic such as rear wing: mono-wing with laminated gurney. Inclination adjustable from 0 to 20°. Special diffusors, front and rear. Underfloor with 30 mm high skid block. Two permissible areas for flaps at the vehicle’s front end. DTM cars have included a Drag Reduction Systems since the 2013 season (similar to Formula One).
The cars are powered by EFI V8 engines, with cast iron blocks, and a 2xDOHC valvetrain actuating four-valves per cylinder, and limited to 4,000 cc (4 l) displacement. DTM car's engines are powered 500 hp (373 kW; 507 PS).
DTM engines are rev-limited to 9,000 rpm. The valve train is a dual overhead camshaft configuration with four valves per cylinder. The crankshaft is made of alloy steel, with five main bearing caps. The pistons are forged aluminum alloy, while the connecting rods are machined alloy steel. The electronic engine management system is supplied by Bosch, firing a CDI ignition system. The engine lubrication is a dry sump type, cooled by a single water pump.
- Chassis: Directly connected to the carbon fibre monocoque is a roll cage of high-strength steel, CFRP monocoque with integrated fuel tank, CFRP crash elements on the side, front and rear
- Gearbox: 6-speed semi-automatic sport gearbox
- Weight: 1,110 kg (2,447 lb) including driver
- Fuel Capacity: 26.4 imperial gallons (120 litres; 32 US gallons)
- Length: 4,650 mm (183 in) excluding rear wing; 5,010 mm (197 in) including rear wing
- Width: 1,950 mm (77 in)
- Height: 1,150 mm (45 in) measured from identical reference plane
- Wheelbase: 2,750 mm (108 in)
- Steering: Servo-assisted rack and pinion steering
- Drivetrain: Rear-Wheel drive
- Aerodynamics: Specification rear wing: mono-wing with laminated gurney. Inclination adjustable from 0 to 20°. Special diffusors, front and rear. Underfloor with 30 mm high skid block. Two permissible areas for flaps at the vehicle’s front end
- Brakes: AP Racing Hydraulic dual-circuit braking system, light alloy brake callipers, ventilated carbon fibre brake discs front and rear, brake force distribution continually variable by the driver
- Suspension: Eibach Springs, H&R Springs and ZF Sachs Independent suspension front and rear, doublewishbone suspension, pushrod system with spring-damper unit, adjustable gas pressure dampers
- Wheel rims: Forged aluminium wheels
- Front wheel size: 12 x 18 inches
- Rear wheel size: 13 x 18 inches, two different rubber compounds: Standard tyres and option tyres
- Tyres: Hankook Ventus Radial slick dry and treaded rain tyres
- Front tyre: 300/680 – 18
- Rear tyre: 320/710 – 18
- Safety equipment: Sabelt 6-point Seat belt, rear view mirror, HANS device, helmet, headsock, race suit, NOMEX firesuit, racing gloves, racing socks, racing boots
- Pistons: Mahle
- Configuration: V8 engine, 90-degree cylinder angle, 32-valve, air restricted to 2 x 28 mm by regulations
- Displacement: 4,000 cc (4.0 L; 244.1 cu in)
- Valvetrain: 2xDOHC, four-valves per cylinder
- Fuel: Aral Ultimate 102 Unleaded
- Fuel Delivery: Fuel injection
- Aspiration: Naturally aspirated (Turbocharging and Supercharging are not allowed)
- Power Output: 500 hp (373 kW; 507 PS) @ 7500 rpm
- Torque: Approx. 500 N·m (369 ft·lb)
- Lubrication: Dry sump
- Maximum Revs: 9000 rpm
- Engine management: Bosch Motronic MS 5.1
- Max Speed: 168 mph (270 km/h)
- Cooling: Single water pump
- Ignition: CDI
|Points for short race|
|Points for long race|
|Points for short race|
|Points for long race|
- 2003 – 2011
- 2012 – 2014
- 2015 – present
|Points for both races|
|Season||Champion||Champion's Car||Constructor Champion|
|See Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft|
|2010||Paul di Resta||Mercedes-Benz||Mercedes-Benz|
- "DTM-Präsentation in Wiesbaden | News | Ergebnisse | Live | Bundesliga | SPORT1 | Video | Motorsport". Sport1.de. 27 January 2012.
-  Archived 18 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- "Driver Championship, Team championship, Manufacturer championship". DTM.
- "German Racers: New BMW M3, Audi A5 DTM Cars Previewed for 2012 Season – Motor Trend WOT". Wot.motortrend.com. 15 July 2011.
- "Audi RS5 DTM Racecar Revealed at Geneva". Autoevolution.com. 6 March 2013.
- Super GT moves closer to DTM regulations Touring Car Times. 15 December 2011.
-  Archived 18 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- Gary Watkins (3 May 2013). "DTM set to switch to turbo engines by 2016". Autosport. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- IMSA, Grand-Am, DTM Agreement NASCAR Holdings press release. 27 March 2013.
- "Sporting regulations". DTM. May 2, 2015. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
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