Pala empire with neighbours
Devapala (9th century) was the most powerful ruler of the Pala Empire of Bengal region in the Indian Subcontinent. He was the third king in the line, and had succeeded his father Dharamapala. Devapala expanded the frontiers of the empire by conquering the present-day Assam and Orissa. The Pala inscriptions also credit him with several other victories, but these claims are unverified.
Devapala was the third king in the line, and had succeeded his father Dharamapala. His mother was Rannadevi, a Rashtrakuta princess.:178 Earlier historians considered Devapala as a nephew of Dharmapala, based on the Bhagalpur copper plate of Narayanapala, which mentions Devapala as Jayapala's purvajabhrata (interpreted as "elder brother"). Jayapala is mentioned as the son of Dharmapala's brother Vakpala in multiple Pala inscriptions. However, the discovery of the Munger (Monghyr) copper inscription changed this view. This particular inscription clearly describes Devapala as the son of Dharmapala.
Based on the different interpretations of the various epigraphs and historical records, the different historians estimate Devapala's reign as follows::32-37
|Historian||Estimate of reign|
|RC Majumdar (1971)||810-c. 850|
|AM Chowdhury (1967)||821-861|
|BP Sinha (1977)||820-860|
|DC Sircar (1975-76)||812-850|
Expansion of the Pala Empire
Devapala launched military compaigns under his cousin and his general Jayapala, who was the son of Dharmapala's younger brother Vakpala. These expeditions resulted in the invasion of Pragjyotisha (present-day Assam) where the king submitted without giving a fight and the Utkala (present-day Orissa) whose king fled from his capital city.
The highly exaggerated Badal Pilllar inscription of his descendant Narayanapala states that Devpala's empire extended upto the Vindhyas, the Himalayas, and the two oceans (presumably the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal). It also claims that Devpala exterminated the Utkalas (present-day Orissa), conquered the Pragjyotisha (Assam), shattered the pride of the Hunas, humbled the lords of Gurjara and the Dravidas. These claims are exaggerated, but cannot be dismissed entirely: the neighbouring kingdoms of Rashtrakutas and the Gurjara-Pratiharas were weak at the time, and may have been subdued by Devapala.
The "Gurjaras" in the inscription refers to the Gurjara-Pratiharas led by Mihira Bhoja I. The Hunas probably refers to a principality in North-West India. "Dravida" is generally believed to be a reference to the Rashtrakutas (led by Amoghavarsha), but RC Majumdar believes that it may refer to the Pandyan king Sri Mara Sri Vallabha. However, there is no definitive record of any expedition of Devapala to the extreme south. In any case, his victory in the south could only have been a temporary one, and his dominion lay mainly in the north.
While an ancient country with the name Kamboja was located in what is now Afghanistan, there is no evidence that Devapala's empire extended that far. Kamboja, in this inscription, could refer to the Kamboja tribe that had entered North India (see Kamboja Pala dynasty). The Munger copper plate (Monghyr Charter) indicates that the Palas recruited their war horses from the Kambojas, and there might have been a Kamboja cavalry in the Pala armed forces. Viradeva, a scholar appointed by him as the abbot of Nalanda, is believed to be a native of Nagarahara (identified with modern-day Jalalabad). This has led some scholars to speculate if Devapala indeed launched a military expedition to the present-day Afghanistan, during which he met Viradeva.
Devapala was a staunch Buddhist, and is said to have sanctioned the construction of many temples and monasteries in Magadha. He maintained the famous Buddhist monastery at Uddandapura (Odantapuri). Buton Rinchen Drub credits his father Dharmapala for building the monastery, although other Tibetan accounts such as that of Taranatha, state that it was magically built and then entrusted to Devapala.:45
Balaputradeva, the Sailendra king of Java, sent an ambassador to him, asking for a grant of five villages for the construction of a monastery at Nalanda. The request was granted by Devapala. He also patronized the Vikramashila University and the Nalanda University.
The Budhdist poet Vajradatta (the author of Lokesvarashataka), was a member of Devapala's court.
Devapala ruled for about 40 years. Earlier, the historians believed his successor to be Shurapala I and/or Vigrahapala I.:32-37 In the 2000s, a copper-plate grant was discovered at Jagjivanpur: this plate mentions that a hitherto unknown Pala king, Mahendrapala, had issued the grant in 854 CE. Mahendrapala was the son of Devapala and brother of Shurapala I. Both Mahendrapala and Shurapala I were born to Queen Mahata.
- History and Culture of Indian People, The Age of Imperial Kanauj, 1964, p. 50, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar
- George E. Somers (1977). Dynastic History Of Magadha. Abhinav Publications. p. 185. ISBN 978-81-7017-059-4.
- Dilip Kumar Ganguly (1 January 1994). Ancient India, History and Archaeology. Abhinav Publications. pp. 27–28. ISBN 978-81-7017-304-5.
- Susan L. Huntington (1 January 1984). The "Påala-Sena" Schools of Sculpture. Brill Archive. ISBN 90-04-06856-2.
- Badal Pillar Inscription, verse 13, Epigraphia Indica II, p 160; Bhagalpur Charter of Narayanapala, year 17, verse 6, The Indian Antiquary, XV p 304.
- Bhagalpur Charter of Narayanapala, year 17, verse 6, Indian Antiquary, XV p 304.
- Nitish K. Sengupta (1 January 2011). Land of Two Rivers: A History of Bengal from the Mahabharata to Mujib. Penguin Books India. pp. 43–45. ISBN 978-0-14-341678-4.
- History and Culture of Indian People, The Age of Imperial Kanauj, 1964, p. 50, 55, 56, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar.
- Badal Pillar Inscription, verse 5, Epigraphia Indica, II p 160.
- Ronald M. Davidson (1 January 2004). Indian Esoteric Buddhism: Social History of the Tantric Movement. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 53–55. ISBN 978-81-208-1991-7.
- Sailendra Nath Sen (1 January 1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. pp. 280–. ISBN 978-81-224-1198-0.
- Dynastic History of Northern India, I. p 311; Indian Historical Quarterly, XV, p 511; History of Ancient Bengal, 1971, pp 127, 182-83 : "The Palas employed mercenary forces and certainly recruited horses from Kamboja (Ins B.8 V 13).
- Military History of India, 1980, p 88, H. C. Kar.
- Ancient India, 2003, Dr V. D. Mahajan.
- Bengal museum to reconstruct excavated Buddhist site
- Dimensions of Human Cultures in Central India: Professor S.K. Tiwari Felicitation Volume. Sarup & Sons. 2001. p. 239. ISBN 978-81-7625-186-0.