Development hell

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Development hell or development limbo is media industry jargon for a film or other project that remains in development (often moving between different crews, scripts, or studios) without progressing to production. A film, video game, television program, screenplay, computer program,[1] concept, or idea stranded in development hell takes an especially long time to start production, or never does. Projects in development hell are not officially cancelled, but work on them slows or stops.


Film industry companies often buy the film rights to many popular novels, video games, and comic books, but it may take years for such properties to be successfully brought to the cinema, and often with considerable changes to the plot, characters, and general tone. The original creators of the source material usually have very little to no involvement in the films' creative control, creating a divide among fans.[2] This pre-production process can last for months or years. More often than not, a project trapped in this state for a prolonged period of time will be abandoned by all interested parties or canceled outright. As Hollywood starts ten times as many projects as are those released, many scripts will end up in this limbo state.[3] This happens most often with projects that have multiple interpretations and affect several points of view.[4][5]


In the case of a film or television screenplay, generally the screenwriter has successfully sold a screenplay to producers or studio executives, but then new executives assigned to the project may raise objections to prior decisions, mandating rewrites and recasting. As directors and actors join the project, further rewrites and recasting may be done, to accommodate the needs of the new talents involved in the project.

It may also be the case that the initial concept, such as key action scene or game feature, once being implemented, fails to meet expectations, making the whole premise moot. At any point, a project may be forced to begin again from scratch. In the case of World War Z, when the final edit was presented, the studio bosses rejected the film and the last 40 mins of film had to be remade from scratch.

It may also be the case that the screenwriters have an issue with the final rights agreement after signing an option, requiring research on the chain of title. The project may be stuck until the situation is resolved and project participants are happy with the full terms, or the project is abandoned.

When a film is in development but never receives the necessary production funds, another studio may execute a turnaround deal and produce the film to make it successful. An example of this is when Columbia Pictures developed, but then stopped production of E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial. Universal Pictures then picked up the film and made it a success. If a studio completely abandons a film project, the costs are written off as part of the studio's overhead.[6] Sometimes studios or producers will deliberately halt production in order to stop competition on a different project, or to ensure that people invested will be available for other projects that the studio prefers.

As a potential writer's strike loomed in 2001, major studios wanted to spend less time and energy bidding on longer-term developments, such as film rights to books. Instead they focused more on buying projects that would immediately receive a green-light such as big budget action thrillers, and high concept comedies written by established and credible writers. Studio executives put all uncertain scripts and pitches on the shelves during this time to avoid taking a chance on a long-term development, and only wanted projects that were ready to go into production.[citation needed] Some studios and producers still bought film rights to books, but only ones that had successful sales. Examples of this are Dino De Laurentiis' $9 million acquisition of Thomas Harris' Hannibal and Miramax purchasing Mario Puzo's Omertà for $2–$3 million.[7]

The concept artist and illustrator Sylvain Despretz has suggested that "Development hell doesn't happen with no-name directors. It happens only with famous directors that a studio doesn't dare break up with. And that's how you end up for two years just, you know, polishing a turd. Until, finally, somebody walks away, at great cost."[8]



  • Alien vs. Predator
    Alien vs. Predator was first planned shortly after the 1990 release of Predator 2, to be released sometime in 1993. It was halted for more than a decade, with constant actor changes, restarts, and failed promotions of the film until it was finally released in 2004.[9]
  • Akira
    Warner Bros. has been developing a live-action American version of the animated film for years. As of January 6, 2012, Warners has "shut down" production for the fourth time.[10]
  • Astro Boy
    The film started development in 1997 by Sony Pictures Entertainment and was intended to be a live-action/animatronics/CGI feature film with the animatronics made by Jim Henson Productions but it was changed into an animated film in 2006. The film A.I. Artificial Intelligence also was a factor in the film's development.
  • Atlas Shrugged
    Film and later television adaptations of Ayn Rand's novel were in development hell for nearly 40 years[11] before the novel was finally brought to screen in the first part of a trilogy in 2011. Part II appeared in 2012, and Part III was released in September 2014.[12]
  • Atuk
    A film adaptation of the novel The Incomparable Atuk. Several principals involved in the film have died during the film's development time, now over a decade.[13]
  • Austin Powers 4
    Austin Powers 4 was first announced by Mike Myers. "There is hope!". "We're all circling and talking to each other. I miss doing the characters."[14] In July 2008, Mike Myers stated that he had begun writing Austin Powers 4, and that the plot is "really about Dr. Evil and his son."[15] In September 2013, when asked about the future of Austin Powers, Myers answered "I'm still figuring that out."[16]
  • Beverly Hills Cop III
    Went through multiple script revisions, including a treatment that had Axel Foley teaming up with a Scotland Yard detective to be played by Sean Connery until being finally released.[17][18][19][20]
  • Untitled fifth Batman film
    The failure of Batman & Robin in 1997 also hindered many attempts to produce a fifth Batman movie until Warner Brothers opted to reboot the franchise in 2005, resulting in Batman Begins, which met with far greater success.[21]
  • The Brazilian Job
    A sequel to the 2003 remake of The Italian Job was in development by the summer of 2004, but has faced multiple delays. Principal photography was initially slated to begin in March 2005, with a projected release date in November or December 2005.[22] However, the script was never finalized, and the release date was pushed back to sometime in 2006,[23] and later summer 2007.[24] Writer David Twohy approached Paramount Pictures with an original screenplay entitled The Wrecking Crew, and though the studio reportedly liked the idea, they thought it would work better as a sequel to The Italian Job.[25] Gray was slated to return as director, as well as most, if not all, of the original cast.[24][25] At least two drafts of the script had been written by August 2007, but the project had not been greenlit.[26]
  • Dallas Buyers Club
    The screenplay was written in September 1992 by Craig Borten. Throughout the 1990s, he wrote 10 different scripts, hoping for it to be picked up. It was unable to secure financial backing, going through three different directors, finally being released in 2013, with Jean-Marc Vallée directing.[27]
  • Deadpool
    Deadpool was in development hell for more than 10 years.[28] In May 2000, Artisan Entertainment announced a deal with Marvel Entertainment to coproduce, finance and distribute a film based on Deadpool.[29] In February 2004, New Line Cinema attempted to produce a Deadpool film with writer/director David S. Goyer working on the spin-off and actor Ryan Reynolds in the title role;[30][31] Reynolds himself became interested in the character after finding out that in Cable & Deadpool, Deadpool refers to his own scarred appearance as "Ryan Reynolds crossed with a Shar-Pei".[32][33] By August, Goyer lost interest in favor of other projects.[34] In March 2005, after New Line put Deadpool in turnaround, 20th Century Fox became interested in moving forward on production for the project.[35] Fox considered a Deadpool spin-off early in the development of X-Men Origins: Wolverine, which had Reynolds cast in the role,[30] and after the opening weekend success of that film announced that it was lending Deadpool out to writers, with Lauren Shuler Donner acting as a producer.[36] Donner wanted the film to reboot the character of Deadpool, ignoring the version in X-Men Origins: Wolverine and including attributes that the character has in the comics, such as breaking the fourth wall.[37] Rhett Reese and Paul Wernick were hired to write the script in January 2010,[38] and Robert Rodriguez was sent an early draft of the screenplay that June.[39] After negotiations with Rodriguez fell through, Adam Berg emerged as a top contender to direct.[40] In April 2011, visual effects specialist Tim Miller was hired as director, making the film his directorial debut.[41] In September 2014, Fox gave the film a release date of February 12, 2016.[42] The film was released that day to very positive reviews.
  • Foodfight!
    In 2004, the CGI film Foodfight was announced. Described as "Toy Story in a supermarket", the film promised to bring together over 80 famous advertising characters with voice talent including Charlie Sheen, Christopher Lloyd, Eva Longoria, Hilary and Haylie Duff, and Wayne Brady. Director Lawrence Kasanoff expected it to be a commercial hit and merchandise for the movie appeared on store shelves before the film had a release date. Although, the film ran into many problems.[43] In late 2002/early 2003, Kasanoff reported that hard drives containing unfinished assets from the film had been stolen in what he called an act of "industrial espionage". After several years, a trailer[44] was finally shown at AHM in 2011, a company bought the DVD distribution rights for the film in Europe,[45] and a quiet video-on-demand American release came in 2012, to extremely negative reviews and was a financial failure.
  • ID Forever Part I and II
    The sequels to Independence Day were in development hell from 1997 until 2009, when director Roland Emmerich announced the pre-production of the films to be shot back-to-back.[46] However, ID Forever Part I was renamed to Independence Day: Resurgence for the scheduled June 24, 2016 release.[47]
  • The Jetsons
    A live-action adaptation of The Jetsons was first announced in late 1984 by Paramount Pictures. The film was to be executive produced by Gary Nardino and released in 1985, but failed to do so.[48] In the late 1980s Universal Studios purchased the film rights for The Flintstones and The Jetsons from Hanna-Barbera Productions. The result was the animated film Jetsons: The Movie, which was released in 1990. In May 2007, director Robert Rodriguez entered talks with Universal Studios and Warner Bros. to film a live action film adaptation of The Jetsons for a potential 2009 theatrical release, having at the time discussed directing a film adaptation of Land of the Lost with Universal. Rodriguez was uncertain which project he would pursue next, though the latest script draft for The Jetsons by assigned writer Adam F. Goldberg was further along in development.[49] The film was to be released in 2012. However, in early 2012, Warner Bros. Pictures delayed indefinitely the release of the film. Also in 2012, Warner Bros. hired the screenwriting duo Van Robichaux and Evan Susser to rewrite the script. Producer Denise Di Novi said in 2011 that Rodriguez was off the project as his vision for the movie "wasn’t a mainstream studio version". Kanye West reported via Twitter in February 2012 that he was in talks to be creative director on ‘The Jetsons’.[50]
  • The Keith Moon Movie
    A biopic of The Who drummer Keith Moon was first floated by The Who's singer Roger Daltrey in 1994. A competing movie by Keith Moon's personal manager, Peter "Dougal" Butler, produced by Robert DeNiro and written by Dick Clement and Ian La Frenais, was cancelled in 1998 after Daltrey had Pete Townshend deny the use of music by The Who.[51] Since then, some major names have been attached to the movie (a script by Alex Cox[52] among many written, and a starring role for Robbie Williams[53] or Mike Myers[54]) but no script has yet gotten Roger Daltrey's approval.[55] As of 2013, the movie is attached to Exclusive Media and Da Vinci Media Ventures.[56]
  • Love & Mercy
    Named after the 1988 song, a biopic of the Beach Boys' Brian Wilson was proposed that year with William Hurt as Wilson. Discussions for a feature-length biopic continued over the decades, but production did not take off until 2011 with director Bill Pohlad and screenplay writer Oren Moverman at the helm. The film was eventually released in 2014 starring Paul Dano and John Cusack as Wilson in a dual role.[57]
  • The Man Who Killed Don Quixote
    A loose adaptation of the Don Quixote tale co-written and directed by Terry Gilliam. Production originally started in 1998, but during the shooting in 2000, a significant number of difficulties such as set and equipment destroyed by flooding, the departure of the film's lead due to illness, problems obtaining insurance for the production, and other financial difficulties, led to a sudden suspension of the production and its subsequent cancellation. Seven additional attempts to date have been made by Gilliam to revive the project.[58][59][60][61][62]
  • Me and My Shadow
    A animated fantasy comedy film from DreamWorks Animation that would feature the studio's signature CG animation mixed with traditional hand-drawn animation. Was announced in December 2010 and slated for a release date in March 2013.[63] It would then see two release date changes, first to November 2013[64] and then to March 2014.[65] In February of 2013, it was announced that the film had gone back into development with an unknown release date.[66] After the accession with NBCUniversal, Dreamworks announced they had revived the film's production for a 2019 release.
  • The Postman
    Author David Brin described the ten-year effort to get his novel produced as a film. Production began in 1987, but the final film was not released until 1997. In the process, the screenplay went through so many revisions that the shooting script only loosely resembled the book, and later writers "borrowed" elements from the book to improve the film. The film was a box-office bomb and was negatively reviewed.[67]
  • Sin City: A Dame to Kill For
    Sin City 2, which was announced for a 2008 release, did not enter production until 2012,[68] and was released in 2014.
  • Superman Lives
    The name given to a project begun by producer Jon Peters in 1993 as Superman Reborn. The proposed film would have followed the comic story line known as The Death of Superman. Jonathan Lemkin was hired to write the initial script, but Peters brought on a series of additional screenwriters to overhaul the script, including Gregory Poirier in 1995 and Kevin Smith in 1996. Director Tim Burton became attached to the film, with Nicolas Cage cast as the Man of Steel, and several more screenwriters were brought on board for several more rewrites. Burton backed out in late 1998 citing differences with producer Peters and the studios, additional writers and directors were attached to the project at various times over the next few years and instead to direct on Sleepy Hollow. Peters project went through several more permutations before evolving into Superman Returns, released in 2006, 13 years after initial development began.[69][70]
  • Timeless
    Timeless is a story written by Michael Bartlett (author of The Zombie Diaries).[71] In 2009, a poster and concept art were released.[72] Film production was completely halted with the release of Looper, as Bartlett felt the two were too similar.[73] As of 2013, Boundless Pictures optioned the Timeless script.[74]
  • Warcraft
    A live-action adaptation of the Warcraft series was first announced in 2006.[75] The film spent several years in development hell before the project advanced. It was scheduled for a 2016 release.[76] Warcraft: The Beginning was released in May 2016.[77]
  • The X-Files: I Want To Believe
    The second film based upon the popular American television show The X-Files began pre-production planning in 2001 and was announced for release in 2003 to follow the show's ninth season, but languished in development until it was finally produced for its release in the summer of 2008, six years after the television show had ended.[78][79]


  • The Smile Sessions
    Archival recordings of the Beach Boys unfinished album Smile took nearly 45 years to compile for a dedicated release. Numerous complications contributed to its excessively protracted delay, including bandleader Brian Wilson's irrational fear of the album. Brother and bandmate Carl Wilson compared the album's structuring to editing a film, as compiler Alan Boyd explains, "I think he was right about that. The kind of editing that the project required seemed more like the process of putting a film together than a pop record."[80]
  • Chinese Democracy
    Rock band Guns N' Roses began work on this album in the early 1990s. In the time between its conception and release, nearly the entire lineup of the band had changed numerous times. It was once dubbed by The New York Times "The Most Expensive Album Never Made".[81] Recorded in fourteen separate studios with reported production costs of $13 million, Chinese Democracy was eventually released in November 2008.[82]
  • Time I and II
    In 2006, Finnish melodic death/power metal band Wintersun began work on their second and third albums, Time I and Time II, which were initially intended to be released as a single album. Recording began in May of that year, but the albums would be the recipient of years-long delays for a multitude of reasons, not the least of which was the complexity of each song's mix. Time I was released on 19 October 2012.[83] Time II was expected to be released in early 2014 but ended up getting delayed much further, and it's still in the middle of production.[84]

Video games[edit]

  • Aliens: Colonial Marines
    First announced in 2001, Aliens: Colonial Marines spent over 12 years in development hell. The original game which was announced in 2001 to be in development by Check Six Games, was cancelled and the rights for the Alien franchise were sold in 2006 to Sega.[85] On December 15, 2006 Gearbox Studios announced they were developing Aliens Colonial Marines as a sequel to the 1986 film Aliens.[86] The game spent another 7 years in development hell before it was released in 2013. Aliens: Colonial Marines has received mostly negative reviews. Most complaints in the negative reviews of the game included bugs, bad A.I., unbalanced gameplay, and low quality graphics in the single-player game as well as a crude and poorly implemented multiplayer cooperative mode. The game currently holds a Metacritic score of around 45%.[87][88]
  • Duke Nukem Forever
    The sequel to the 1996 game Duke Nukem 3D, Duke Nukem Forever, was in development hell for 14 years: from 1997[89] to its release date in 2011. Changes of the game engine from the Quake II engine to the Unreal engine,[89] conflict with Take-Two,[90] and the bankruptcy of 3D Realms game studio[91][92] caused the long development of the game. In 2010 Gearbox studios acquired the rights for the development[93] and released Duke Nukem Forever in 2011.[94][95] The game was critically disappointing upon release, with most of the criticism directed towards the game's clunky controls, long loading times, offensive humor, and overall aged and dated design. It holds a Metacritic score of around 50%.[96][97][98]
  • Final Fantasy XV
    Originally titled Final Fantasy Versus XIII, it was announced in 2006 as a spinoff of Final Fantasy XIII exclusively for PlayStation 3. Following a long period with little news on the game, it was re-announced as the next mainline installment of the series on PlayStation 4 and Xbox One which underwent large changes in direction such as making the game a self-contained story and replacing the main heroine.[99][100] The game is now scheduled for a worldwide release date on November 29, 2016, more than 10 years after it was initially announced.[101][102][103]
  • The Last Guardian
    The Last Guardian was announced in 2007 to be in development at Team Ico.[104] A short trailer released in 2007 shows a young boy who befriends a giant bird/cat-like creature. Creative conflicts between the developers and the publisher Sony, cause the game to remain in development hell, particularly after project lead Fumito Ueda left Sony but remained active in the game's development. Further, the development delay caused Sony to switch the target platform from the aging PlayStation 3 to the newer PlayStation 4, further extending the time to rework the game's engine. Sony assured fans that the game was still in development over the next six years, but were sparse on further details, until June 2015 when the game was formally re-introduced as a PlayStation 4 title for release in December 2016.[105]
  • Mother 3
    A sequel to the 1994 Mother 2 (released as EarthBound in 1995 in North America). The game was initially intended to be released on the Super Famicom like its predecessor,[106] before shifting focus to the Nintendo 64 Disk Drive. Following the failure of the Disk Drive, the game was shifted to the standard Nintendo 64,[107] before the development team's inexperience with 3D-oriented video game creation and a large series of delays led to the game being quietly cancelled in 2000. Eventually, assets from the cancelled project were later collected and converted to a 2D format, and the project restarted development on the Game Boy Advance. Nine years after its conception, Mother 3 was finally released on the Game Boy Advance in 2006, but only in Japan, though it received a well-regarded and highly successful fan translation to English.
  • Team Fortress 2
    Was announced in 1999 and took 8 years to be released. With a complete change in gameplay and art direction, the North American release took place on 9 October 2007. Unlike the overwhelming majority of games that became trapped in development hell, Team Fortress 2's development was fairly structured and it received widespread critical acclaim upon release.[108]
  • Prey 2
    The original 2006 Prey was developed by Human Head Studios; considered a success shortly after release, plans for a sequel Prey 2 were made. The rights to Prey were transferred from 3D Realms to ZeniMax Media (owners of Bethesda Softworks) in 2009, and the sequel was fully announced in 2011 for a planned 2012 release. Demonstrated screens showed both gameplay and narrative that were only loosely connected to the original game, a decision made by both Human Head and Bethesda to better met the developers' vision arrived at after the transfer of ownership to ZeniMax. Issues occurred behind-the-scenes that caused Human Head to stop development in late 2011, and in early 2012, Bethesda affirmed a delay in the game's development. Rumors began to circulate that Human Head had been taken off the project with development duties given to Arkane Studios. By October 2014, Prey 2 had been officially canceled by Bethesda. However, rumors persisted that Arkane were still involved with a Prey project. This was revealed in mid-2016 to be a new game titled Prey, a re-imagining of the Prey concepts but having otherwise no connection to the original game or canceled Prey 2; this new title is expected to be released in 2017 for Windows, Xbox One, and PlayStation 4.[109]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Marx, Andy (February 28, 1994). "Interactive development: The new hell". Variety. New York. 354 (4): 1. 
  2. ^ Adler, Warren (October 3, 1999). "How My Novel Was Almost 'Developed' Into Oblivion". New York Times. p. AR11. 
  3. ^ "Cover Story: Writers Paid for Movies Never Made," Spillman, Susan. USA Today. McLean, Va.: January 16, 1991. pg. D1
  4. ^ "Dept. of development hell," Kerrie Mitchell. Premiere. (American edition). New York: February 2005.Vol.18, Iss. 5; pg. 40
  5. ^ "Books Into Movies: Part 2," Warren, Patricia Nell. Lambda Book Report. Washington: April 2000.Vol.8, Iss. 9; pg. 9. (Best selling novel The Front Runner has spent over 25 years in development hell)
  6. ^ McDonald, Paul & Wasko, Janet (2008) Hollywood Film Industry. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. p. 54
  7. ^ Lyons, Charles (2001) Development Hell freezing over? Variety 382(1). 1-71
  8. ^ Schnepp, Jon (director) (2015). The Death of "Superman Lives": What Happened? (Documentary). Event occurs at 1:27:52. 
  9. ^ Paul W. S. Anderson, Lance Henriksen and Sanaa Lathan (2004). Aliens vs. Predator. 20th Century Fox. 
  10. ^ Kit, Borys (2012-01-05). "'Akira' Production Offices Shut Down as Warner Bros. Scrutinizes Budget (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. 
  11. ^ Britting, Jeff (2009). "Bringing Atlas Shrugged to Film". In Mayhew, Robert. Essays on Ayn Rand's Atlas Shrugged. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-7391-2780-3. 
  12. ^ Bond, Paul (January 22, 2014). "'Atlas Shrugged: Who Is John Galt?' Starts Production With New Cast (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved February 3, 2014. 
  13. ^ "Hollywood Curses". Xfinity. Retrieved November 7, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Mike Myers may return to ''Austin Powers''". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2015-04-26. 
  15. ^ "Mike Myers is Writing Austin Powers 4". Slashfilm. Retrieved 2015-04-26. 
  16. ^ "Toronto: Fleming Q&A's Mike Myers On 'Supermensch' Directorial Debut". Deadline. Retrieved 2013-09-16. 
  17. ^ Galbraith, Jane (1993-01-06). "`Costs Force Paramount to Delay Filming 'Beverly Hills Cop III'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-09-29. 
  18. ^ Dutka, Elaine (1991-09-30). "Movies: Don Simpson and Jerry Bruckheimer just say no to Paramount's offer to make a third 'Beverly Hills Cop.'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-09-29. 
  19. ^ Beck, Marilyn (1988-03-16). "Judge Reinhold Still Unsigned For `Beverly Hills Cop Iii`". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2010-09-29. 
  20. ^ "Beverly Hills Cop Iii' Could Finally Get Rolling This Summer". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved 2010-09-29. 
  21. ^ David Hughes (March 2004). "The Dark Knight Strikes Out". Tales From Development Hell. London: Titan Books. pp. 192–211. ISBN 1-84023-691-4. 
  22. ^ Davidson, Paul (2003-07-23). "Sequel to The Italian Job Proposed". IGN. Retrieved 2008-10-08.  Fleming, Michael; McNary, Dave (2004-07-19). "New man for the 'Job'". Variety. Reed Business Information. Retrieved 2008-09-17.  McNary, Dave (2004-09-26). "Par reunites 'Job' crew". Variety. Reed Business Information. Retrieved 2008-09-17.  Keck, William (2004-09-23). "'Huckabees' stars are all 'Heart'". USA Today. Retrieved 2008-10-10.  See also: Davidson, Paul (2004-09-27). "New Italian Job Looks Likely". IGN. Retrieved 2008-09-17. 
  23. ^ McNary, Dave (2004-11-07). "Par: Déjà vu all over again". Variety. Reed Business Information. Retrieved 2008-10-05.  See also: Tecson, Brandee (2005-12-27). "Mark Wahlberg Hits The Gridiron For Role In True–Life Tale 'Invincible'". MTV. Retrieved 2009-03-18. 
  24. ^ a b Davidson, Paul (2005-12-16). "'The Brazilian Job' Targets Summer 2007". IGN. Retrieved 2008-06-17.  Davidson, Paul (2007-05-02). "Brazilian Job Still On". IGN. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  25. ^ a b Fleming, Michael (2005-05-31). "Par puts vet on the 'Job'". Variety. Reed Business Information. Retrieved 2008-09-11. 
  26. ^ Goldman, Eric (2007-08-17). "Exclusive Interview: Seth Green". IGN. Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  27. ^ Corliss, Richard (September 12, 2013). "Dallas Buyers Club: McConaughey Shines as a Homophobe Who Gets AIDS". Time. Retrieved January 7, 2014. 
  28. ^ Boren, Zachary Davies (February 8, 2016). "Deadpool review round up: 'The funniest Ryan Reynolds film since Van Wilder'". The Independent. Retrieved February 8, 2016. 
  29. ^ Fleming, Michael (May 16, 2000). "Artisan deal a real Marvel". Variety. Archived from the original on April 9, 2015. Retrieved April 9, 2015. 
  30. ^ a b Marshall, Rick (December 11, 2008). "Deadpool And Gambit: The Long Road To 'X-Men Origins: Wolverine'... And Beyond?". MTV News. Retrieved October 23, 2010. 
  31. ^ Otto, Jeff (February 2, 2004). "Goyer Confirms Deadpool". IGN. Retrieved July 12, 2009. 
  32. ^ Cable & Deadpool #2, p. 13
  33. ^ "Ryan Reynolds Talks Deadpool & Spinoff Possibilities". Screen Rant. Retrieved February 12, 2016. 
  34. ^ Stax (August 9, 2004). "Goyer Nixes Deadpool". IGN. Retrieved July 12, 2009. 
  35. ^ Stax (March 21, 2005). "The Latest on The Flash & Deadpool". IGN. Retrieved July 12, 2009. 
  36. ^ "'Deadpool' spin-off in works at Fox". The Hollywood Reporter. May 5, 2009. 
  37. ^ De Semlyen, Nick (October 16, 2009). "The Future of the X-Men Franchise: Deadpool". Empire. Retrieved October 23, 2010. 
  38. ^ Siegel, Tatiana (January 5, 2010). "Fox taps Deadpool writers". Variety. Retrieved October 23, 2010. 
  39. ^ Warner, Kara (July 22, 2010). "Comic-Con: Robert Rodriguez Has Read 'Deadpool' Script, Doesn't Know If He'll Direct". MTV News. Retrieved October 23, 2010. 
  40. ^ Zeitchik, Steven (October 26, 2010). "A new entrant into the 'Deadpool'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 28, 2010. 
  41. ^ McClintock, Pamela (April 8, 2011). "Fox Sets Tim Miller to Direct 'Deadpool'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 9, 2011. 
  42. ^ McNary, Dave (September 18, 2014). "X-Men Spinoff 'Deadpool' to Hit Theaters Feb. 12, 2016". Variety. Retrieved September 18, 2014. 
  43. ^ "Whatever Happened to Foodfight?". Cartoon Brew. 
  44. ^ "YouTube". YouTube. Retrieved 2013-09-08. 
  45. ^ ""Foodfight!" Coming To DVD - Cartoon Brew". Cartoon Brew. 
  46. ^ Parfitt, Orlando (October 13, 2009). "Independence Day 2 News". IGN Entertainment. Retrieved October 13, 2009. 
  47. ^ [dead link]"Fox's 'Independence Day 2' Moved From Busy 2015 Summer to 2016". November 12, 2013. Archived from the original on November 13, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-12. 
  48. ^ "Paramount's Future- from 1985". YouTube. Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  49. ^ Borys Kit (2007-05-09). "Future or past for Rodriguez?". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on May 25, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-16. 
  50. ^ West, Scott (February 8, 2012). "Live-Action 'Jetsons' Movie Is Forward Again With New Writers". Retrieved December 30, 2014. 
  51. ^ Tony Fletcher. "Tony Fletcher's iJamming! . . .Keith Moon news, reviews and links". 
  52. ^
  53. ^ Sunday Mirror, 6, Aug. 2000
  54. ^ "The Lost Roles of Mike Myers". Splitsider. 
  55. ^ "Poor Scripts Hold Up Keith Moon Movie -". 
  56. ^ The Deadline Team. "AFM Briefs: 'The Hunted', 'April Apocalypse'; Alvernia & Fu Works in Poland - Deadline". Deadline. 
  57. ^ Marlatt, Benjamin (July 19, 2015). "Who Knew Surf Rock Could Get So Complicated?". MoviePilot. 
  58. ^ "Weekly Ketchup: Disney Announces Toy Story 4 for June, 2017". 
  59. ^ [1]
  60. ^ [2]
  61. ^ [3]
  62. ^ [4]
  63. ^ DreamWorks Animation (December 10, 2010). "DreamWorks Animation Pioneers Groundbreaking Combination of CG and Hand-Drawn Animation Techniques in Me and My Shadow for March 2013". DreamWorks Animation. Retrieved November 2, 2012. 
  64. ^ DreamWorks Animation (March 8, 2011). "DreamWorks Animation Announces Feature Film Release Slate Through 2014". DreamWorks Animation. Retrieved November 2, 2012. 
  65. ^ McClintock, Pamela (June 11, 2012). "Stephen Colbert, Allison Janney Join Voice Cast of 'Mr. Peabody & Sherman' (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 2, 2012. 
  66. ^ "DreamWorks Animation Pushes Back Release for 'Mr. Peabody & Sherman'". The Hollywood Reporter. February 5, 2013. Retrieved February 6, 2013. 
  67. ^ Brin, David (1998), The Postman: An Impression by the Author of the Original Novel, retrieved January 15, 2012 
  68. ^ "Sin City 2 is a go… at last!". Flickering Myth. 
  69. ^ David Hughes (2001). The Greatest Sci-Fi Movies Never Made. Independent Publishers Group. pp. 172–186. ISBN 1-55652-449-8. 
  70. ^ "Kevin Smith's Superman Lives cast". Superman Homepage. 1999-03-02. Retrieved 2008-02-04. 
  71. ^ Webster, Christopher. "Exclusive review of Michael Bartlett's TIMELESS script!". Quiet Earth. Retrieved 13 October 2015. 
  72. ^ Hardawar, Devindra. "Concept Art For Time Travel Thriller Timeless". Slashfilm. Retrieved 13 October 2015. 
  73. ^ Stockman, Tom. "SLIFF 2014 Interview: Michael Bartlett – Director of TREEHOUSE". 
  74. ^ Ford, Rebecca. "Boundless Pictures Options 'Timeless' Script From 'Zombie Diaries' Writer (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 13 October 2015. 
  75. ^ Blizzard Entertainment (9 May 2006). "BLIZZARD ENTERTAINMENT® AND LEGENDARY PICTURES TO PRODUCE LIVE-ACTION WARCRAFT® MOVIE". Archived from the original on 25 Nov 2007. 
  76. ^ Vejvoda, Jim (November 27, 2013). "Warcraft Movie Rescheduled to Avoid Star Wars: Episode VII". IGN. 
  77. ^ "Warcraft: The Beginning - Release Info". IMDB. Retrieved 23 June 2016. 
  78. ^ "Official X-Files 2 Announcement!". IGN. October 31, 2007. Retrieved September 5, 2009. 
  79. ^ Davidson, Paul (January 19, 2005). "Duchovny Hopes for a Couple More X-Files". IGN. Retrieved September 5, 2009. 
  80. ^ Wolk, Douglas (October 31, 2011). "The Smile Sessions: The Story Behind the Box". 
  81. ^ Leeds, Jeff (March 6, 2005). "The Most Expensive Album Never Made". New York Times. Retrieved November 17, 2007. 
  82. ^ Powers, Ann. Review: Chinese Democracy. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved on April 9, 2010.
  83. ^ CROMCarl (pseudonym) (6 September 2012). "Wintersun Announces First North American Tour - in Metal News". Metal Retrieved 7 August 2013. 
  84. ^ "North American Headlining Tour Announced!". (official website). Retrieved 2015-09-18. 
  85. ^ Matt Wales (11 December 2006). "SEGA Hunts Down Alien". IGN. 
  86. ^ Game Informer, March 2008, Issue 79, p. 49
  87. ^ "Aliens: Colonial Marines". Metacritic. 
  88. ^ "Aliens: Colonial Marines". Metacritic. 
  89. ^ a b Wernicke, Brad (June 16, 1998). "George Broussard (06/16/98); on the switch from Quake II to Unreal engine for Duke Nukem Forever". IGN. Planet Duke. Archived from the original on December 16, 2005. 
  90. ^ Morris, Chris (June 11, 2003). "Duke Nukem vs. Take Two". CNN. Retrieved January 17, 2010. 
  91. ^ "Technology | Duke Nukem developer goes bust". BBC News. May 7, 2009. Retrieved July 21, 2009. 
  92. ^ Totilo, Stephen (May 18, 2009). "3D Realms: We're Not Closing, Spent $20 Million On Duke Nukem Forever". Kotaku. Retrieved May 18, 2009. 
  93. ^ Lee, Garnett (10 September 2010). "Talking Duke Nukem Forever With Gearbox Software's Steve Gibson". Shack News. Los Angeles CA. Retrieved 11 January 2013. : "Allen Blum and those guys, they're actually now in the Gearbox Software building on the tenth floor. We brought them in; they're now connected to the Gearbox infrastructure and our central team of animators and modelers and sound engineers."
  94. ^ Cullen, Johnny (24 May 2011). "Hell freezes, pigs fly: Duke Nukem Forever goes gold". VG24/7. Retrieved 11 January 2013. 
  95. ^ Ewalt, David M. (February 11, 2011). "Duke Nukem Forever Balls of Steel Edition". Forbes. 
  96. ^ "Duke Nukem Forever". Metacritic. 
  97. ^ "Duke Nukem Forever". Metacritic. 
  98. ^ "Duke Nukem Forever". Metacritic. 
  99. ^ "Final Fantasy XV: Stella is gone, Episode Duscae 2.0 slated for June 9 - Gematsu". Retrieved 2015-06-14. 
  100. ^ Sinha, Ravi. "Final Fantasy 15: Why Development Hell Can be The Quietest". Gamingbolt. Retrieved 6 January 2015. 
  101. ^ Brown, Peter (2015-08-06). "Final Fantasy 15 Release Date Confirmed for 2016". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2015-08-06. Retrieved 2015-08-06. 
  102. ^ Woek, Kristofer (2015-08-06). "New Final Fantasy XV trailer released for Gamescom, 2016 release confirmed by director". Digital Trends. Retrieved 2015-08-06. 
  103. ^ Fahmy, Albaara (2015-08-11). "Final Fantasy 15 is aiming to release everywhere in the world at the same time". Digital Spy. Retrieved 2015-08-11. 
  104. ^ "New Game From Team ICO Will Be Like 'Ico' [GDC 2009]". MTV News. 
  105. ^ "The Last Guardian: 10 Years in the Making". IGN. May 28, 2016. Retrieved September 26, 2016. 
  106. ^ "lnsgdq R". 
  107. ^ "Vapor Trails: Games that Never Were from". 
  108. ^ "The Top 10 Games Which Went Through Development Hell - GameFAQs". 
  109. ^ Kuchera, Ben (June 13, 2016). "Prey shows the industry is terrified of new names, but not new games". Polygon. Retrieved June 13, 2016.