Development of the administrative divisions of Ukraine
|Part of a series on the|
|Subdivisions of Ukraine|
|First level (regions)|
|Second level (districts)|
|Third level (communities)|
|Populated places in Ukraine|
Administrative divisions development in Ukraine reviews the history of changes in the administrative divisions of Ukraine, in chronological order.
- 1 Overview of Soviet Ukraine (1917–91)
- 2 National raions of Ukraine
- 3 Before World War II
- 4 World War II
- 5 Polish-Soviet border changes (1944–51)
- 6 1954
- 7 Oblast changes (1954–1991)
- 8 Independence (1991—)
- 9 See also
Overview of Soviet Ukraine (1917–91)
During the existence of the Ukrainian People's Republic and the Soviet Ukraine its administration division went through three changes.
- Governorates (1919-1925)
- Zemlia (pl. zemli) (1918), not fully realized territorial administrative reform
- Subdistricts (1925-1936)
- Districts (Okruhas)
- Oblasts (1936-1991)
- Raions and Districts (Border okrugs)
Also there existed national raions and national communities (selsoviets). In Ukraine also was established the Moldavian ASSR and later also included Crimean ASSR.
National raions of Ukraine
List of known national raions of Ukraine in the 1920s and ’30s.
- Blahoyeve (Blahoyeve), today part of Ivanivka Raion (Odessa Oblast)
- Kolarivka (Kolarivka), today part of Prymorsk Raion (Zaporizhia Oblast)
- Vilashanka (Vilshanka), today part of same name raion (Kirovohrad Oblast)
- Velykyi Yanisol (Velykyi Yanisol), today part of similar raion Velyka Novosilka Raion (Donetsk Oblast)
- Sartana (Sartana), today part of Illich Raion of Mariupol
- Manhush (Manhush), today part of Pershotraven Raion (Donetsk Oblast)
- Kalindorf (Kalinindorf) (1927-1941), today part of Velyka Oleksandrivka Raion (Kherson Oblast)
- Novozlatopil (Novozlatopil) (1929-1941), today part of Hulyaipole Raion (Zaporizhia Oblast)
- Stalindorf (Stalindorf) (1931-1941), today part of Sofiivka Raion (Dnipropetrovsk Oblast)
- Part of RSFSR then
- Larindorf (Larindorf) (1935-1939), today Pervomayske Raion (Crimea)
- Fraidorf (Fraidorf) (1930-1939), today part of Rozdolne Raion (Crimea)
- Part of RSFSR then
- Alushta municipality (1930-1944)
- Balaklava Raion (1930-1944)
- Bakhchisaray Raion (1930-1944)
- Sudak municipality (1930-1944)
- Yalta municipality (1930-1944)
- Albat (1935-?)
- Part of RSFSR then
- Fritz Heckert (Vysokopillya) (1926-?), today part of Vysokopillya Raion (Kherson Oblast) (see de:Kolonie Kronau)
- Zeltsi (Zeltsi)
- Karl-Liebknecht (Landau)
- Rotfront (Waldheim)
- Spartakivka (Spartakivka) (see de:Welykodolynske)
- Molochansk (Molochansk), today part of Tokmak Raion (Zaporizhia Oblast)
- Part of RSFSR then
- Büyük Onlar (Büyük Onlar) (1930-1938), today part of Krasnohvardiyske Raion (Crimea)
- Thälmann (Qurman-Kemelci) (1935-1938), today part of Krasnohvardiyske Raion (Crimea)
Before World War II
Just before the World War II, Hungary with the help from Poland occupied the Carpatho-Ukraine that was to secede from the falling apart Czechoslovakia after the Munich agreement plus some additional territoroes of Slovakia. Poland in turn also occupied some territories of Silesia.
Some of the newly acquired territories in 1939 were annexed and incorporated as Kárpátalja. Kárpátalja unlike most of the country, however, had a special administrative system with the intention of it being governed by the Ruthenian minority population. In practice, it was not the case. Kárpátalja was divided into three administrative delegations (közigazgatási kirendeltség) which were each divided into four districts (járás). The previously annexed territories of 1938 were divided into Bereg County and Ung County.
World War II
In 1939 and 1940, the Soviet Union launched an offensive into eastern Poland and eastern Romania. During these operations, the Ukrainian SSR acquired the territories of Volhynia, Halychyna, Bukovina, and Budjak. In the territories of Volhynia and Halychyna, six oblasts were created in 1939: Lviv Oblast, Drohobych Oblast, Stanislav Oblast, Ternopil Oblast, Volyn Oblast, and Rivne Oblast. In 1940, Bukovina was organized as Chernivtsi Oblast and Budjak as Izmail Oblast.
After the German invasion of 1941, Ukraine was split between three countries Germany, Romania, and Hungary. Within Germany Ukraine also was divided between General Government (Krakau), Reichskommisariat (centered in Rowno), and Wehrmacht administration closer to the Eastern Front.
The western Ukraine around Lviv was part of the General Government as Distrikt Galizien which was added to already existing four other districts with the start of the Soviet Great Patriotic War. Distrikt Galizien consisted of 13 land-kreis and one stadtkreis (Lemberg). Some other territories that in 1939 were incorporated within Ukrainian SSR were passed to other Distrikts, mostly Krakau.
Most of Ukraine was under a "civil administration" of Reichskommissariat Ukraine with capital in Rowno. Some territories also included former parts of Belarus. Reichskommissariat was divided into five General-bezirke and one Teil-bezirke Taurien (Krim):
- Wolhynien und Podolien (Luzk) - 25 Kreisgebiete,
- Shitomir - 17 Kreisgebiete,
- Kiew - 24 Kreisgebiete,
- Nikolajew - 13 Kreisgebiete,
- Dnjepropetrowsk - 16 Kreisgebiete,
- Krim (Melitopol) - 5 Kreisgebiete.
Each Generalbezirke consisted of several Kreisgebiete which in turn were divided into selsoviets. Krim, however, did not in reality encompass territory of the Crimean peninsula which was under a special jurisdiction of Wehrmacht. Territories of Ukraine (Donets basin and Sloboda Ukraine) also stayed under the Wehrmacht jurisdiction due to a close proximity to front-lines. It was planned to extend the territory of such Ukraine all the way to Volga river adding some other General-bezirke.
Romania occupied the south-western part of Ukraine, more specifically the area which today constitutes Odessa Oblast eastward of the Dniester and southern Vinnytsia Oblast. Those territories were organized into province of Transnistria. Besides Transnistria, Romania also "recovered" Budjak (Izmail Oblast) and Northern Bukovina (Chernivtsi Oblast) which Romania lost in the beginning of the World War II.
- Transnistria - 13 județe ("counties"), while the secondary level divisions were towns and raionul (raions).
- Budjak area was annexed to the Governorate of Bessarabia reorganizing into three județe.
- Northern Bukovina was annexed to the Governorate of Bukovina reorganizing into four județe.
Polish-Soviet border changes (1944–51)
Between 1944 and 1951 the border between Ukrainian SSR and Polish People's Republic changed a lot. There were at least five territorial transfers.
- October 1944 to Poland were transferred Horynets Raion, Lubachiv Raion, Uhniv Raion, Synyava Raion, and Lyashkiv Raion of the Lviv Oblast.
- March 1945 to Poland also were transferred Bircha Raion, Liski Raion, and western part of Peremyshl Raion with the city of Peremyshl from the Drohobych Oblast.
- May 1948 to Poland was also transferred Medyka Raion of Drohobych Oblast.
- In 1951 Drohobych Oblast yielded Nyzhno-Ustritsa Raion to Poland as well.
- February 15, 1951, several Polish localities were transferred to Ukraine as part of the territorial exchange which formed Zabuzk Raion with seat in Belz, including the city of Krystynopil. Later Zabuzk Raion was reassigned under the Sokal Raion of Lviv Oblast.
Other changes (1944–46)
Beside a Ukrainian-Polish border exchange on January 22, 1946, the Zakarpattia Oblast was also created out of newly acquired Czechoslovakia territories, where Carpatho-Ukraine had been proclaimed just before the World War II.
Big changes in the administrative division in Ukraine took place in winter of 1954.
Besides the transfer of the Crimean Oblast from Russia to Ukraine on February 19, a new oblast was created on January 7, the Cherkasy Oblast, mostly out of the southern raions of Kiev Oblast. Cherkasy Oblast also included some raions of Poltava Oblast and Kirovohrad Oblast.
On February 15 of the same year Odessa Oblast was merged with Izmail Oblast into the new Odessa Oblast. Several raions of the previous Odessa Oblast were transferred to the neighboring Kirovohrad Oblast and Mykolaiv Oblast.
Oblast changes (1954–1991)
Before the fall of Soviet Union in 1992 the Ukrainian SSR consisted of 25 oblasts and two cities of republican subordination, Kiev and Sevastopol.
In 1958 Voroshylovhrad Oblast was renamed Luhansk, then in 1970 back to Voroshylovhrad, and in 1990 once again to Luhansk.
In 1991 Crimea became an autonomous republic.
Ukraine grandfathered the whole Soviet system of administrative division. Cities of republican significance were transformed into cities with special status. In 1992 Crimean abolished autonomous status and changed its name from ASSR into Republic of Crimea, starting a process of separation and integration with Russia. In 1998 Crimea transformed into the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.
- Oblast of Ukraine: 24
- Raions of Ukraine
- Cities of regional significance
- Cities with special status: 2
- Raions in city
- Autonomous republic: 1
- Raions of Ukraine
- Cities of republican significance