Development of the human brain
|33||posterior commissure appears||Ashwell et al. (1996)|
|33||medial forebrain bundle appears||Ashwell et al. (1996)|
|44||mammillothalamic tract appears||Ashwell et al. (1996)|
|44||stria medullaris thalami appears||Ashwell et al. (1996)|
|51||axons in optic stalk||Dunlop et al. (1997)|
|56||external capsule appears||Ashwell et al. (1996)|
|56||stria terminalis appears||Ashwell et al. (1996)|
|60||optic axons invade visual centers||Dunlop et al. (1997)|
|63||internal capsule appears||Ashwell et al. (1996)|
|63||fornix appears||Ashwell et al. (1996)|
|70||anterior commissure appears||Ashwell et al. (1996)|
|77||hippocampal commissure appears||Ashwell et al. (1996)|
|87.5||corpus callosum appears||Ashwell et al. (1996)|
|157.5||eye opening||Clancy et al. (2007)|
|175||ipsi/contra segregation in LGN and SC||Robinson and Dreher (1990)|
Studies report that three primary structures are formed in the sixth gestational week. These are the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain, also known as the prosencephalon, mesencephalon, and the rhombencephalon respectively. Five secondary structures from these in the seventh gestational week. These are the telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, and myelencephalon which later become the lateral ventricles, third ventricles, aqueduct, and upper and lower parts of the fourth ventricle from the telencephalon to the myelencephalon, during adulthood. The appearance of cortical folds first takes place during 24 and 32 weeks of gestation.
Childhood and adolescence
Cortical white matter increases from childhood (~9 years) to adolescence (~14 years), most notably in the frontal and parietal cortices. Cortical grey matter development peaks at ~12 years of age in the frontal and parietal cortices, and 17 years in the temporal lobes (with the superior temporal cortex being last to mature) for women and they have reached full maturity at age 16-17. For men, they become fully mature at age 18. In terms of grey matter loss, the sensory and motor regions mature first, followed by other cortical regions. Human brain maturation continues to around 20 to 25 years of age.
- Brain development timelines
- Development of the nervous system in humans
- Evolution of the brain
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- Robinson, S. R.; Dreher, B (1990). "The visual pathways of eutherian mammals and marsupials develop according to a common timetable". Brain, Behavior and Evolution. 36 (4): 177–195. doi:10.1159/000115306. PMID 2279233.
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- Translating Time — a website providing translation of brain developmental times among different species