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Device-to-Device (D2D) communication in cellular networks is defined as direct communication between two mobile users without traversing the Base Station (BS) or core network. D2D communication is generally non-transparent to the cellular network and it can occur on the cellular frequencies (i.e., inband) or unlicensed spectrum (i.e., outband).
In a traditional cellular network, all communications must go through the BS even if communicating parties are in range for D2D (Device to Device) communication. Communication through BS suits conventional low data rate mobile services such as voice call and text messaging in which users are seldom close enough for direct communication. However, mobile users in today's cellular networks use high data rate services (e.g., video sharing, gaming, proximity-aware social networking) in which they could potentially be in range for direct communications (i.e., D2D). Hence, D2D communications in such scenarios can greatly increase the spectral efficiency of the network. The advantages of D2D communications go beyond spectral efficiency; they can potentially improve throughput, energy efficiency, delay, and fairness. 
Data delivery in non-cooperative D2D communication
Existing data delivery protocols in D2D communications mainly assume that mobile nodes willingly participate in data delivery, share their resources with each other, and follow the rules of underlying networking protocols. Nevertheless, rational nodes in real-world scenarios have strategic interactions and may act selfishly for various reasons (such as resource limitations, the lack of interest in data, or social preferences) .
For example, if a node has limited battery resources or the cost of the network bandwidth delivered by mobile network operators is high, it would not willingly relay data for others until appropriate incentives are provided. Meanwhile, malicious nodes may attack the network in different ways to disturb the normal operation of the data transmission process. An adversary, for example, may drop received messages but produce forged routing metrics or false information with the aim of attracting more messages or decreasing its detection probability. This issue becomes more challenging when colluding attackers boost their metrics to deceive the attack detection systems. Dealing with non-cooperative mobile nodes is very challenging because of the distributed network model and intermittent access of nodes to central authorities.
- Asadi, Arash; Wang, Qing; Mancuso, Vincenzo (24 April 2014). "A Survey on Device-to-Device Communication in Cellular Networks". Communications Surveys & Tutorials, IEEE. 16 (4): 1801-1819.
- Zhang, Yanru; Pan, Erte; Song, Lingyang; Saad, Walid; Dawy, Zaher; Han, Zhu (2015). "Social Network Aware Device-to-Device Communication in Wireless Networks". IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications. 14 (1).
- Jedari, Behrouz; Xia, Feng; Ning, Zhaolong (2018). "A Survey on Human-Centric Communications in Non-Cooperative Wireless Relay Networks". IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials. 20 (2): 914 – 944. doi:10.1109/COMST.2018.2791428.
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