Dexmethylphenidate

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Dexmethylphenidate
Dexmethylphenidate structure.svg
Dextromethylphenidate-based-on-hydrochloride-xtal-1995-3D-balls.png
Clinical data
Trade namesFocalin, Focalin XR, others
Other namesd-threo-methylphenidate (D-TMP)
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
MedlinePlusa603014
License data
Dependence
liability
Physical: None Psychological: High
Routes of
administration
By mouth
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability11–52%
Protein binding30%
MetabolismLiver
Elimination half-life4 hours
ExcretionKidney
Identifiers
  • (R,R)-(+)-Methyl 2-phenyl-2-(2-piperidyl)acetate
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC14H19NO2
Molar mass233.311 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • O=C([C@@H]([C@@H]1NCCCC1)C2=CC=CC=C2)OC

  • as HCl: Cl.[H][C@@](C(=O)OC)(C1=CC=CC=C1)[C@@]1([H])CCCCN1
  • InChI=1S/C14H19NO2/c1-17-14(16)13(11-7-3-2-4-8-11)12-9-5-6-10-15-12/h2-4,7-8,12-13,15H,5-6,9-10H2,1H3/t12-,13-/m1/s1 checkY
  • Key:DUGOZIWVEXMGBE-CHWSQXEVSA-N checkY

  • as HCl: InChI=1S/C14H19NO2.ClH/c1-17-14(16)13(11-7-3-2-4-8-11)12-9-5-6-10-15-12;/h2-4,7-8,12-13,15H,5-6,9-10H2,1H3;1H/t12-,13-;/m1./s1
  • Key:JUMYIBMBTDDLNG-OJERSXHUSA-N
 ☒NcheckY (what is this?)  (verify)

Dexmethylphenidate, sold under the brand name Focalin among others, is a medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in those over the age of five years.[3] If no benefit is seen after four weeks it is reasonable to discontinue its use.[3] It is taken by mouth.[3] The immediate release formulation lasts up to five hours while the extended release formulation lasts up to twelve hours.[4]

Common side effects include abdominal pain, loss of appetite, and fever.[3] Serious side effects may include abuse, psychosis, sudden cardiac death, mania, anaphylaxis, seizures, and dangerously prolonged erection.[3] Safety during pregnancy and breastfeeding is unclear.[5] Dexmethylphenidate is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant.[6][3] How it works in ADHD is unclear.[3] It is the more active enantiomer of methylphenidate.[3]

Dexmethylphenidate was approved for medical use in the United States in 2001.[1] It is available as a generic medication.[3] In 2019, it was the 131st most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 5 million prescriptions.[7][8] It is also available in Switzerland.[9]

Medical uses[edit]

Dexmethylphenidate is used as a treatment for ADHD, usually along with psychological, educational, behavioral or other forms of treatment. It is proposed that stimulants help ameliorate the symptoms of ADHD by making it easier for the user to concentrate, avoid distraction, and control behavior. Placebo-controlled trials have shown that once-daily dexmethylphenidate XR was effective and generally well tolerated.[6]

Improvements in ADHD symptoms in children were significantly greater for dexmethylphenidate XR versus placebo.[6] It also showed greater efficacy than osmotic controlled-release oral delivery system (OROS) methylphenidate over the first half of the laboratory classroom day but assessments late in the day favoured OROS methylphenidate.[6]

Contraindications[edit]

Methylphenidate is contraindicated for individuals using monoamine oxidase inhibitors (e.g., phenelzine, and tranylcypromine), or individuals with agitation, tics, glaucoma, or a hypersensitivity to any ingredients contained in methylphenidate pharmaceuticals.[10]

Pregnant women are advised to only use the medication if the benefits outweigh the potential risks.[11] Not enough human studies have been conducted to conclusively demonstrate an effect of methylphenidate on fetal development.[12] In 2018, a review concluded that it has not been teratogenic in rats and rabbits, and that it "is not a major human teratogen".[13]

Adverse effects[edit]

Products containing dexmethylphenidate have a side effect profile comparable to those containing methylphenidate.[14]

Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Methylphenidate was ranked 13th in dependence, 12th in physical harm, and 18th in social harm.[15]

Overall, adverse events associated with long-acting MPH formulations are similar with[16] the most common adverse effects including appetite loss, dry mouth, anxiety/nervousness, nausea, and insomnia. Gastrointestinal adverse effects may include abdominal pain and weight loss. Nervous system adverse effects may include akathisia (agitation/restlessness), irritability, dyskinesia (tics), oromandibular dystonia,[17] lethargy (drowsiness/fatigue), and dizziness. Cardiac adverse effects may include palpitations, changes in blood pressure and heart rate (typically mild), and tachycardia (rapid heart rate).[18] Smokers with ADHD who take methylphenidate may increase their nicotine dependence, and smoke more often than before they began using methylphenidate, with increased nicotine cravings and an average increase of 1.3 cigarettes per day.[19] Ophthalmologic adverse effects may include blurred vision caused by pupil dilatation and dry eyes, with less frequent reports of diplopia and mydriasis.[20][21]

There is some evidence of mild reductions in height with prolonged treatment in children.[22] This has been estimated at 1 centimetre (0.4 in) or less per year during the first three years with a total decrease of 3 centimetres (1.2 in) over 10 years.[23][24]

Hypersensitivity (including skin rash, urticaria, and fever) is sometimes reported when using transdermal methylphenidate. The Daytrana patch has a much higher rate of skin reactions than oral methylphenidate.[25]

Methylphenidate can worsen psychosis in people who are psychotic, and in very rare cases it has been associated with the emergence of new psychotic symptoms.[26] It should be used with extreme caution in people with bipolar disorder due to the potential induction of mania or hypomania.[27] There have been very rare reports of suicidal ideation, but some authors claim that evidence does not support a link.[22] Logorrhea is occasionally reported. Libido disorders, disorientation, and visual hallucinations are very rarely reported.[20] Priapism is a very rare adverse event that can be potentially serious.[28]

US Food and Drug Administration-commissioned studies in 2011, indicate that in children, young adults, and adults there is no association between serious adverse cardiovascular events (sudden death, heart attack, and stroke) and the medical use of methylphenidate or other ADHD stimulants.[29]

Because some adverse effects may only emerge during chronic use of methylphenidate, a constant watch for adverse effects is recommended.[30]

A 2018 Cochrane review found that methylphenidate might be associated with serious side effects such as heart problems, psychosis, and death. The certainty of the evidence was stated as very low.[31]

A 2018 review found tentative evidence that it may cause both serious and non-serious adverse effects in children.[32]

Overdose[edit]

The symptoms of a moderate acute overdose on methylphenidate primarily arise from central nervous system overstimulation; these symptoms include: vomiting, nausea, agitation, tremors, hyperreflexia, muscle twitching, euphoria, confusion, hallucinations, delirium, hyperthermia, sweating, flushing, headache, tachycardia, heart palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, mydriasis, and dryness of mucous membranes.[10][33] A severe overdose may involve symptoms such as hyperpyrexia, sympathomimetic toxidrome, convulsions, paranoia, stereotypy (a repetitive movement disorder), rhabdomyolysis, coma, and circulatory collapse.[10][33][34] A methylphenidate overdose is rarely fatal with appropriate care.[34] Following injection of methylphenidate tablets into an artery, severe toxic reactions involving abscess formation and necrosis have been reported.[35]

Treatment of a methylphenidate overdose typically involves the administration of benzodiazepines, with antipsychotics, α-adrenoceptor agonists and propofol serving as second-line therapies.[34]

Packaging of a formulation of methylphenidate advises against crushing the tablets. It is placed under Schedule X of the Indian drug scheduling system. Schedule X medications typically hold abusable medications such as barbiturates or stimulants such as amphetamines.

Addiction and dependence[edit]

ΔFosB accumulation from excessive drug use
ΔFosB accumulation graph
Top: this depicts the initial effects of high dose exposure to an addictive drug on gene expression in the nucleus accumbens for various Fos family proteins (i.e., c-Fos, FosB, ΔFosB, Fra1, and Fra2).
Bottom: this illustrates the progressive increase in ΔFosB expression in the nucleus accumbens following repeated twice daily drug binges, where these phosphorylated (35–37 kilodalton) ΔFosB isoforms persist in the D1-type medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens for up to 2 months.[36][37]

Methylphenidate is a stimulant with an addiction liability and dependence liability similar to amphetamine. It has moderate liability among addictive drugs;[38][39] accordingly, addiction and psychological dependence are possible and likely when methylphenidate is used at high doses as a recreational drug.[39][40] When used above the medical dose range, stimulants are associated with the development of stimulant psychosis.[41] As with all addictive drugs, the overexpression of ΔFosB in D1-type medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens is implicated in methylphenidate addiction.[40][42]

Biomolecular mechanisms[edit]

Methylphenidate has the potential to induce euphoria due to its pharmacodynamic effect (i.e., dopamine reuptake inhibition) in the brain's reward system.[42] At therapeutic doses, ADHD stimulants do not sufficiently activate the reward system, or the reward pathway in particular, to the extent necessary to cause persistent increases in ΔFosB gene expression in the D1-type medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens;[39][42][43] consequently, when taken as directed in doses that are commonly prescribed for the treatment of ADHD, methylphenidate use lacks the capacity to cause an addiction.[39][42][43] However, when methylphenidate is used at sufficiently high recreational doses through a bioavailable route of administration (e.g., insufflation or intravenous administration), particularly for use of the drug as a euphoriant, ΔFosB accumulates in the nucleus accumbens.[39][42] Hence, like any other addictive drug, regular recreational use of methylphenidate at high doses eventually gives rise to ΔFosB overexpression in D1-type neurons which subsequently triggers a series of gene transcription-mediated signaling cascades that induce an addiction.[42][43][44]

Overdose[edit]

The symptoms of a moderate acute overdose on methylphenidate primarily arise from central nervous system overstimulation; these symptoms include: vomiting, nausea, agitation, tremors, hyperreflexia, muscle twitching, euphoria, confusion, hallucinations, delirium, hyperthermia, sweating, flushing, headache, tachycardia, heart palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, mydriasis, and dryness of mucous membranes.[10][33] A severe overdose may involve symptoms such as hyperpyrexia, sympathomimetic toxidrome, convulsions, paranoia, stereotypy (a repetitive movement disorder), rhabdomyolysis, coma, and circulatory collapse.[10][33][34] A methylphenidate overdose is rarely fatal with appropriate care.[34] Following injection of methylphenidate tablets into an artery, severe toxic reactions involving abscess formation and necrosis have been reported.[35]

Treatment of a methylphenidate overdose typically involves the administration of benzodiazepines, with antipsychotics, α-adrenoceptor agonists and propofol serving as second-line therapies.[34]

Packaging of a formulation of methylphenidate advises against crushing the tablets. It is placed under Schedule X of the Indian drug scheduling system. Schedule X medications typically hold abusable medications such as barbiturates or stimulants such as amphetamines.

Interactions[edit]

Methylphenidate may inhibit the metabolism of vitamin K anticoagulants, certain anticonvulsants, and some antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). Concomitant administration may require dose adjustments, possibly assisted by monitoring of plasma drug concentrations.[45] There are several case reports of methylphenidate inducing serotonin syndrome with concomitant administration of antidepressants.[46][47][48][49]

When methylphenidate is coingested with ethanol, a metabolite called ethylphenidate is formed via hepatic transesterification,[50][51] not unlike the hepatic formation of cocaethylene from cocaine and ethanol. The reduced potency of ethylphenidate and its minor formation means it does not contribute to the pharmacological profile at therapeutic doses and even in overdose cases ethylphenidate concentrations remain negligible.[52][51]

Coingestion of alcohol (ethanol) also increases the blood plasma levels of d-methylphenidate by up to 40%.[53]

Liver toxicity from methylphenidate is extremely rare, but limited evidence suggests that intake of β-adrenergic agonists with methylphenidate may increase the risk of liver toxicity.[54]

Mode of activity[edit]

Methylphenidate is a catecholamine reuptake inhibitor that indirectly increases catecholaminergic neurotransmission by inhibiting the dopamine transporter (DAT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET),[55] which are responsible for clearing catecholamines from the synapse, particularly in the striatum and meso-limbic system.[56] Moreover, it is thought to "increase the release of these monoamines into the extraneuronal space."[2]

Although four stereoisomers of methylphenidate (MPH) are possible, only the threo diastereoisomers are used in modern practice. There is a high eudysmic ratio between the SS and RR enantiomers of MPH. Dexmethylphenidate (d-threo-methylphenidate) is a preparation of the RR enantiomer of methylphenidate.[57][58] In theory, D-TMP (d-threo-methylphenidate) can be anticipated to be twice the strength of the racemic product.[55][59]

Compd[60] DAT (Ki) DA (IC50) NET (Ki) NE (IC50)
D-TMP 161 23 206 39
L-TMP 2250 1600 >10K 980
DL-TMP 121 20 788 51

Pharmacology[edit]

Dexmethylphenidate has a 4–6 hour duration of effect (a long-acting formulation, Focalin XR, which spans 12 hours is also available and has been shown to be as effective as DL (dextro-, levo-)-TMP (threo-methylphenidate) XR (extended release) (Concerta, Ritalin LA), with flexible dosing and good tolerability.[61][62] It has also been demonstrated to reduce ADHD symptoms in both children[63] and adults.[64] d-MPH has a similar side-effect profile to MPH[14] and can be administered without regard to food intake.[65]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  32. ^ Storebø OJ, Pedersen N, Ramstad E, Kielsholm ML, Nielsen SS, Krogh HB, et al. (May 2018). "Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents - assessment of adverse events in non-randomised studies". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Systematic Review). 5: CD012069. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD012069.pub2. PMC 6494554. PMID 29744873. Our findings suggest that methylphenidate may be associated with a number of serious adverse events as well as a large number of non-serious adverse events in children. Concerning adverse events associated with the treatment, our systematic review of randomised clinical trials (RCTs) demonstrated no increase in serious adverse events, but a high proportion of participants suffered a range of non-serious adverse events.
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  36. ^ Nestler EJ, Barrot M, Self DW (September 2001). "DeltaFosB: a sustained molecular switch for addiction". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 98 (20): 11042–11046. Bibcode:2001PNAS...9811042N. doi:10.1073/pnas.191352698. PMC 58680. PMID 11572966. Although the ΔFosB signal is relatively long-lived, it is not permanent. ΔFosB degrades gradually and can no longer be detected in brain after 1–2 months of drug withdrawal ... Indeed, ΔFosB is the longest-lived adaptation known to occur in adult brain, not only in response to drugs of abuse, but to any other perturbation (that does not involve lesions) as well.
  37. ^ Nestler EJ (December 2012). "Transcriptional mechanisms of drug addiction". Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience. 10 (3): 136–143. doi:10.9758/cpn.2012.10.3.136. PMC 3569166. PMID 23430970. The 35–37 kD ΔFosB isoforms accumulate with chronic drug exposure due to their extraordinarily long half-lives. ... As a result of its stability, the ΔFosB protein persists in neurons for at least several weeks after cessation of drug exposure. ... ΔFosB overexpression in nucleus accumbens induces NFκB
  38. ^ Morton WA, Stockton GG (October 2000). "Methylphenidate Abuse and Psychiatric Side Effects". Primary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2 (5): 159–164. doi:10.4088/PCC.v02n0502. PMC 181133. PMID 15014637.
  39. ^ a b c d e Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders". In Sydor A, Brown RY (eds.). Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 368. ISBN 9780071481274. Cocaine, [amphetamine], and methamphetamine are the major psychostimulants of abuse. The related drug methylphenidate is also abused, although it is far less potent. These drugs elicit similar initial subjective effects ; differences generally reflect the route of administration and other pharmacokinetic factors. Such agents also have important therapeutic uses; cocaine, for example, is used as a local anesthetic (Chapter 2), and amphetamines and methylphenidate are used in low doses to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and in higher doses to treat narcolepsy (Chapter 12). Despite their clinical uses, these drugs are strongly reinforcing, and their long-term use at high doses is linked with potential addiction, especially when they are rapidly administered or when high-potency forms are given.
  40. ^ a b Steiner H, Van Waes V (January 2013). "Addiction-related gene regulation: risks of exposure to cognitive enhancers vs. other psychostimulants". Progress in Neurobiology. 100: 60–80. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2012.10.001. PMC 3525776. PMID 23085425.
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