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Dhakeshwari Temple

Coordinates: 23°43′21.38″N 90°23′24.08″E / 23.7226056°N 90.3900222°E / 23.7226056; 90.3900222
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Dhakeshwari National Temple
ঢাকেশ্বরী রাষ্ট্রীয় মন্দির
Dhakeshwari Temple
DistrictDhaka District
LocationBakshi Bazar, Dhakeshwari Road, Dhaka
StateDhaka Division
Dhakeshwari Temple is located in Bangladesh
Dhakeshwari Temple
Shown within Bangladesh
Geographic coordinates23°43′21.38″N 90°23′24.08″E / 23.7226056°N 90.3900222°E / 23.7226056; 90.3900222
CreatorBallal Sen
Completed12th century CE

Dhakeshwari National Temple (Bengali: ঢাকেশ্বরী রাষ্ট্রীয় মন্দির, romanizedÐhakeshshori Rashtriyo Mondir) is a Hindu temple in Old Dhaka (inhabited since 7th century, 600 A.D.), Dhaka, Bangladesh. It is state-owned, giving it the distinction of being Bangladesh's 'National Temple'. The name "Dhakeshwari" (ঢাকেশ্বরী Ðhakeshshori) means "Goddess of Dhaka". Bangladesh is the only country (only Muslim majority country) in the World to have a National Hindu Temple.

Since the destruction of Ramna Kali Mandir in 1971 by the Pakistan Army during the Bangladesh Liberation War, the Dhakeshwari Temple has assumed status as the most important Hindu place of worship in Bangladesh.[1] It is also the largest Hindu temple in Bangladesh.[2] It is one of the Shakti Pithas, the goddess-centric shrines of the Indian Subcontinent.


The main temple

The Dhakeshwari (Durga) temple was built in the 12th century, 1100 A.D. by Ballal Sen, a king of the Sena dynasty, and it is said that the city Dhaka was named after the Goddess.[3] The current architectural style of the temple cannot be dated to that period because of the numerous repairs, renovations, and rebuilding which have taken place over time. It is considered an essential part of Dhaka's cultural heritage. It is one of the Shakti Peethas, where the jewel from the crown of the Goddess Sati had fallen. For ages, the temple has been held in great importance. The original 900-year-old murti was taken to Kumartuli, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. During the partition of India, she was brought to Kolkata from Dhaka with millions of Bengali Hindu refugees from East Bengal (now Bangladesh) of Pakistan. The Partition of Bengal in 1947 was a part of the Partition of India in 1947. In 1947, the Bengal Legislative Assembly claimed separate East Bengal (joined Pakistan in 1947) and West Bengal (joined India in 1947) as the home state for the Bengali Muslims and the Bengali Hindus respectively. In 1971, the East Pakistan (East Bengal) Provincial Assembly claimed separate Bangladesh (Bengalination) as the home country for the Bengali Muslims (East Pakistan Provincial Assembly was against the imposition of Urdu language as the national language of Pakistan), and then East Pakistan (East Bengal) became Bangladesh.

By 1950, the businessman Debendranath Chaudhary built the temple of Goddess in Kumortuli area and established some of the Goddess' property for her daily services. The idol is 1.5 feet tall, has ten arms, mounted on her lion in the form of Katyani Mahishasurmardini 'Durga'. On her two sides are Laxmi, Saraswati, Kartik and Ganesh. A Tiwari family from Azamgarh was appointed by the royal family for daily worship of the deity. In 1946, the descendants of that family came to Calcutta and were re-appointed, where they still serve the Goddess continuously.

Current presiding deity here in Dhakeshwari Temple is the replica of the original idol.

Original: The Goddess statue at the Dhakeshwari Mata Temple in Kolkata
Replica: The Goddess statue at the Dhakeshwari Temple in Dhaka
Dhakeswori Mata Idol in Kolkata and Dhaka

It is widely believed that the Queen, wife of King Bijoy Sen went to Langolbond for bathing. On her way back she gave birth to a son, known to historians as Ballal Sen.[4] After ascending to the throne, Ballal Sen built this temple to glorify his birthplace. Legends say that Ballal Sen once dreamt of the deity covered under the jungle. Ballal Sen uncovered the deity from there and built a temple, named for Dhakeswari. Whatever the legends describe, Hindus consider Dhakeswari to be the presiding deity of Dhaka, which is an incarnation or form of Goddess Durga the Adi Shakti. The idol of Durga is called Dhakeswari .



Exterior view

Main temple structure
Entrance to the main temple compound
Main temple structure from the west side

Within the premises of the Dhakeswari there are temples of two types of architecture. The ancient one is of the Poncharotna Goddess Durga's which lost its actual look after the renovation work. Bradly Bird wrote this at the beginning of this century. Other than this there are four Shiv Temples. According to hearsay, in the 16th century King Mansing built these temples by laying four Shiv Lingas there. But this information seems to be unreliable. The fusion of Bangla chowchala and shikor temple is notice in the architecture of Dhakeshawri. Ratan Lal Chakraborti in an article mentioned that " the structure and architecture of it is like a Buddhist Pagoda". From this he assumed that the temple was probably built in the 10th century.

How did Dhakeshari temple look like in the 19th century? Ridoynath Majumder described about the temple. At that time the temple was covered by jungle and in its north the Urdu road went westward towards Pilkhana and at its south west was Mirpur road. At its south there was a wood and Urdu bazar was at the east.

Interior view


The temple was panchoratno, at its front Natamandir and around it there is a row of rooms and a big pond and nahobottola gate through which elephants used to pass. To the east there are tombs of some saints who used to pray or meditate at the temple. Outside the temple there are 5–6 pagodas with a shib linga. The priest of Dhakeshawri temple used pray every day. The deity is doshvuja. It is believed that the representation of the deity is made of gold. At the left and right side of the deity there are some other murti. Like many ancient temples its inside is dark. To see the deity light is to be arranged. The temple is owned by many because it is bought by the new caretaker from the old caretakers. Jotindramohan bought it in 1901. Dhakeshawri is crowded but it is an abode of peace. The low sound of the tongue mixes with the evening light and tune of temple bell and make the peaceful environment a happy event.

Declaration as National Temple of Bangladesh

Shiva temples in Dhakeshwari Mandir

In 1996, Dhakeshwari Temple was renamed Dhakeshwari Jatiya Mandir (National Temple) reflecting its position as the centre of Hindu culture and worship in Bangladesh.[5] This was the culmination of a major campaign by Bangladeshi Hindu groups who had been demanding official recognition for the primary Hindu place of worship following the declaration of Islam as the state religion in 1988. As a result, the flag of Bangladesh is hoisted every morning outside the main temple premises, and it follows the National Flag Code rules such as rendering half-mast on nationally declared days of mourning.

As is the practice in other leading religious places of worship in Bangladesh, day-long prayers are common practice during important national holidays such as Independence Day, Language Martyrs' Day, Victory Day and birth and death anniversaries of former leaders such as Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and Ziaur Rahman.

Threats to temple security


Historically, several of the temple custodians were tortured and killed by the Army though most, including the Head Priest, fled to their ancestral villages then to India and therefore escaped death.[6]

A significant portion of the temple land has been lost due to the Vested Property Act and confiscation by the Bangladesh Government, and the current premises are considerably lower than the historic reach of the property. Muslim mobs have attacked the temple complex many times,[7] with the last major attack taking place in December 1992 (likely in retaliation for the destruction of the Babri Masjid in India).

Religious and socio-cultural activities

Durga puja celebrations in Dhakeshwari Temple
Dhakeshwari Temple (1904), Photograph taken by Fritz Kapp.

Dhakeshwari Temple is a hub of socio-cultural as well as religious activity. Each year, the largest celebration of Durga Puja (the most important event in the Bengali Hindu calendar) in Dhaka is held at the National Temple, and a stream of dignitaries (such as the Bangladeshi President, Prime Minister, Leader of Opposition, Members of Parliament and media celebrities) come to felicitate the Bangladeshi Hindu community from the temple premises. A Bijaya Sammelani (cultural program following Durga Puja) takes place in the adjoining parade ground a few days after Durga Puja is complete, and is also a major cultural event in the Dhaka calendar, regularly attracting some of the top performers from the Dhaka music and film industry.

One of the most important events of the year is the Janmashthami procession which starts from Dhakeshwari temple and then proceeds through the streets of Old Dhaka;[8] this occurs on the day of Lord Krishna's birthday, which is also a public holiday in Bangladesh and second only to Durga Puja in importance in the Bengali calendar. The procession dates back to 1902 but was stopped in 1948 following the establishment of Pakistan and subsequent attacks by Muslim mobs in Dhaka. The procession was resumed in 1989.

Concerts and charity drives (such as flood relief) are also a regular fixture within the temple throughout the year. Each year, Dhakeshwari Temple hosts major blood drives and inoculation programs which are open to all residents of Dhaka city.

At the old time, festivals happened on the month of Chaitra in temple complex of Dhakeswari. This place was crowded by various coloured shops. Virtous people used to visit the temple to gather religious merit and get back to their home. Millions of Hindu religious people would take bath at Langolbondon on the month of Choitra on Sukla Ostomi time to get rid of their sins. People in huge numbers used to come to Dhakeswari temple on foot from different roads to be blessed by the deity Durga. It was the best [peacock prose] moment of their whole year. With great hope they would come out from their home, and it was reflected on their faces, to get rid of their sins by worshiping the Deity with exclusive devotion and bowing their head to meditation of Bhagaban. They forget about everything- hunger, sleep, restlessness – and they just believe that they will be blessed and they step up for the temple. All those people were divided into small groups with each group having ten to twenty people. The groups consisted of mainly women, only one man, who is the oldest of the village, was there for taking care of them. They came from very long distance by forming groups. People of different ages, including the oldest and skinniest, were also gathered with these groups. Young people from the nearest city to the temple volunteering for the people would come from long distance to be blessed by the Deity, with a great concentration, eagerness to the worship of the Deity and often bowing by shouting "Oom Dhaka eswari".

In present days, each year, the largest celebration of Durga puja (the most important event in the Bengali Hindu calendar) in Dhaka is held at the National Temple, and a stream of dignitaries come to felicitate the Bangladeshi Hindu community from the temple premises. Several thousand worshippers and onlookers stream through the premises where they are offered prasad (food – usually rice and lentils). A Bijaya Sammilan (a cultural program following Durga Puja) takes place in the adjoining parade ground a few days after Durga Puja is complete, and is also a major cultural event in the Dhaka calendar. Durga Puja comes to an end after five days, through the celebration of Bijoya Dashami after performing the sacred rituals of Sashthi, Saptami, Ashtami and Navami. Bijoya Dashami will end with the idols of Durga and her four children Lakshmi, Saraswati, Kartik and Ganesha taken in processions for immersion in river or sea. A processions starts from the temple.[9]

Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi prayed at the temple during his official visit to Bangladesh on 7 June 2015. He was given a model of the goddess Dhakeshwari by the temple authorities.[10]

Present condition


It was severely damaged during the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War, and over half of the temple's buildings were destroyed. The main worship hall was taken over by the Pakistan Army and used as an ammunitions storage area.[6]

In 2018, the Bangladesh prime minister Sheikh Hasina visited the Dhakeshwari Temple and announced gifting of adjacent land to the temple authorities. Previously, the temple lost a lot of its property to land grabbing.

Dhakeshwari National Temple complex, 360-degree view in May 2015

See also



  1. ^ "Dhakeshwari Temple". Banglapedia. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
  2. ^ Chaudhury, Dipanjan Roy (18 October 2018). "Sheikh Hasina gifts 1.5 bigha land to biggest hindu temple in Bangladesh". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 20 November 2020. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  3. ^ "Modi visits Dhakeshwari temple, Indian chancery in Dhaka". Zee News. Archived from the original on 15 November 2016. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  4. ^ "TEMPLE AND A CITY". The Daily Star. 22 April 2016. Archived from the original on 5 October 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
  5. ^ "Modi visits Dhakeshwari temple, Ramakrishna Mission in Dhaka". The Hindu. Chennai, India. IANS. 7 June 2015. Archived from the original on 4 April 2024. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  6. ^ a b Ali, M Mahmud (18 May 2017). "Dhakeshwari Temple". The Independent. Dhaka. Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  7. ^ Hamill, Jim (30 April 2015). "72 Hours in Dhaka". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 14 June 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  8. ^ "Janmashtami today". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 14 June 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  9. ^ "Bijoya Dashami today". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 14 June 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  10. ^ "PM Narendra Modi visits Dhakeshwari temple in Bangladesh". Economic Times. PTI. Archived from the original on 5 December 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2015.