The Kalyani Inscriptions of Dhammazedi
|King of Hanthawaddy|
|Successor||Binnya Ran II|
November/December 1409 |
Monday, 771 ME
|Issue||Binnya Ran II|
Dhammazedi (Burmese: ဓမ္မစေတီ, pronounced [dəma̰zèdì]; c. 1409–1492) was the 16th king of the Hanthawaddy Kingdom in Burma from 1471 to 1492. Considered one of the most enlightened rulers in Burmese history, by some accounts call him "the greatest" of all Hanthawaddy kings. The former Buddhist monk, educated in the rival kingdom of Ava in his youth, was a trusted adviser and son-in-law of Queen Shin Sawbu. At age 48, he left the monkhood after he was selected by Shin Sawbu as the heir apparent, and was married to one of the queen's daughters. He immediately became the de facto ruler of the kingdom as Shin Sawbu handed over all administrative duties to him.
During Dhammazedi's long reign, the Mon-speaking kingdom reached the peak of its golden age. Under his wise rule, the kingdom, unlike the rival Ava Kingdom, was peaceful, and profited greatly from foreign commerce. His reign was a time of peace and he himself was a mild ruler, famous for his wisdom. A collection of his rulings, Dhammazedi Pyatton, survives. The kingdom also became a famous center of Theravada Buddhism, with strong ties to Ceylon, and resumed the practice of sending missions to Buddhagaya. His religious reforms later spread throughout the country. He maintained friendly relations with Yunnan.
According to DGE Hall, "He was a Buddhist ruler of the best type, deeply solicitous for the purification of religion. Under him civilization flourished, and the condition of the Mon country stands out in sharp contrast with the disorder and savagery which characterized the Ava kingdom."
He died in 1492. He was honored as a saint and a pagoda was erected over his bones. He was succeeded by his eldest son Binnya Ran II.
Various Burmese chronicles report different dates for the key events of his life.
|Chronicles||Birth–Death||Age||Reign||Length of reign||Reference|
|Maha Yazawin and Hmannan Yazawin||not reported||not reported||1470/71–1491/92||21||[note 1]|
|Slapat Rajawan||c. 1420–1491/92||71|||
|Mon Yazawin (Shwe Naw)||c. 1417–1491/92
c. November 1409–1491/92
|1470/71–1491/92||27 [sic]||[note 2]|
- (Maha Yazawin Vol. 2 2006: 140) and (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 185)
- The chronicle is inconsistent. (Shwe Naw 1922: 96) says he reigned for 27 years, and died in his 75th year (at age 74). But the reign period inferred from its own reporting gives about 21 years: (Shwe Naw 1922: 69) says his predecessor Shin Sawbu died in 832 ME (1470/71) and his successor Binnya Ran II died in 888 ME (1526/27) after a reign of 35 years, meaning Ran came to power in 853 ME (1491/92).
(Shwe Naw 1922: 96): He was born in 771 ME in the season of Byeissa (ဗြိစ္ဆာ), which corresponds to Scorpio, implying that he was born around November/December of 1409. But that is in conflict with the chronicle's own reported age of 74 at death in 1491/92.
- Shwe Naw 1922: 96
- Hall 1960: 36–37
- Harvey 1925: 117–120
- Myint-U 2006: 64–65
- Schmidt 1906: 139
- Athwa, Sayadaw (1766). Translated by P.W. Schmidt. "Slapat des Ragawan der Königsgeschichte". Die äthiopischen Handschriften der K.K. Hofbibliothek zu Wien (in German) (1906 ed.). Vienna: Alfred Hölder. 151.
- Hall, D.G.E. (1960). Burma (3rd ed.). Hutchinson University Library. ISBN 978-1-4067-3503-1.
- Harvey, G. E. (1925). History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd.
- Kala, U (1724). Maha Yazawin (in Burmese). 1–3 (2006, 4th printing ed.). Yangon: Ya-Pyei Publishing.
- Myint-U, Thant (2006). The River of Lost Footsteps—Histories of Burma. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0-374-16342-6.
- Royal Historical Commission of Burma (1832). Hmannan Yazawin (in Burmese). 1–3 (2003 ed.). Yangon: Ministry of Information, Myanmar.
- Shwe Naw, ed. (1785). Mon Yazawin (Shwe Naw) (in Burmese). Translated by Shwe Naw (1922 ed.). Yangon: Burma Publishing Workers Association Press.
DhammazediBorn: 1409 Died: 1492
| King of Hanthawaddy
Binnya Ran II
| Heir to the Hanthawaddy Throne
Binnya Ran II