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Day of the Dead

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This article is about the Mexican holiday. For other uses, see Day of the Dead (disambiguation).
Day of the Dead
Altardediademuertos.jpg
Día de Muertos altar commemorating a deceased man in Milpa Alta, México DF.
Observed by Mexico, and regions with large Hispanic populations
Type Cultural
Syncretic Christian
Significance Prayer and remembrance of friends and family members who have died
Celebrations Creation of altars to remember the dead, traditional day of the dead's food
Begins October 31
Ends November 2
Date October 31
Next time 31 October 2017 (2017-10-31)
Frequency Annual
Related to All Saint's Day

Day of the Dead (Spanish: Día de Muertos) is a Mexican holiday celebrated throughout Mexico, in particular the Central and South regions, and by people of Mexican ancestry living in other places, especially the United States. It is acknowledged internationally in many other cultures. The multi-day holiday focuses on gatherings of family and friends to pray for and remember friends and family members who have died, and help support their spiritual journey. In 2008, the tradition was inscribed in the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO.[1]

The holiday is sometimes called Día de los Muertos[2][3] in Anglophone countries, a back-translation of its original name, Día de Muertos. It is particularly celebrated in Mexico where the day is a public holiday. Prior to Spanish colonization in the 16th century, the celebration took place at the beginning of summer. Gradually, it was associated with October 31, November 1 and November 2 to coincide with the Western Christian triduum of Allhallowtide: All Saints' Eve, All Saints' Day, and All Souls' Day.[4][5] Traditions connected with the holiday include building private altars called ofrendas, honoring the deceased using calaveras, aztec marigolds, and the favorite foods and beverages of the departed, and visiting graves with these as gifts.[6] Visitors also leave possessions of the deceased at the graves.

Scholars trace the origins of the modern Mexican holiday to indigenous observances dating back hundreds of years and to an Aztec festival dedicated to the goddess Mictecacihuatl. The holiday has spread throughout the world, being absorbed within other deep traditions for honoring the dead. It has become a national symbol and as such is taught (for educational purposes) in the nation's schools. Many families celebrate a traditional "All Saints' Day" associated with the Catholic Church.

Originally, the Day of the Dead as such was not celebrated in northern Mexico, where it was unknown until the 20th century because its indigenous people had different traditions. The people and the church rejected it as a day related to syncretizing pagan elements with Catholic Christianity. They held the traditional 'All Saints' Day' in the same way as other Christians in the world. There was limited Mesoamerican influence in this region, and relatively few indigenous inhabitants from the regions of Southern Mexico, where the holiday was celebrated. In the early 21st century in northern Mexico, Día de Muertos is observed because the Mexican government made it a national holiday based on educational policies from the 1960s; it has introduced this holiday as a unifying national tradition based on indigenous traditions.[7][8][9]

The Mexican Day of the Dead celebration is similar to other societies' observances of a time to honor the dead. The Spanish tradition, for instance, includes festivals and parades, as well as gatherings of families at cemeteries to pray for their deceased loved ones at the end of the day.[10]

Observance in Mexico

Origins

Woman lighting copal incense at the cemetery during the "Alumbrada" vigil in San Andrés Mixquic

The Day of the Dead celebrations in Mexico developed from ancient traditions among its pre-Columbian cultures. Rituals celebrating the deaths of ancestors had been observed by these civilizations perhaps for as long as 2,500–3,000 years.[11] The festival that developed into the modern Day of the Dead fell in the ninth month of the Aztec calendar, about the beginning of August, and was celebrated for an entire month. The festivities were dedicated to the goddess[12] known as the "Lady of the Dead", corresponding to the modern La Calavera Catrina.

By the late 20th century in most regions of Mexico, practices had developed to honor dead children and infants on November 1, and to honor deceased adults on November 2. November 1 is generally referred to as Día de los Inocentes ("Day of the Innocents") but also as Día de los Angelitos ("Day of the Little Angels"); November 2 is referred to as Día de los Muertos or Día de los Difuntos ("Day of the Dead"). [13]

Day of the Dead parade in Merida, Mexico

Beliefs

Frances Ann Day summarizes the three-day celebration, the Day of the Dead:

People go to cemeteries to be with the souls of the departed and build private altars containing the favorite foods and beverages, as well as photos and memorabilia, of the departed. The intent is to encourage visits by the souls, so the souls will hear the prayers and the comments of the living directed to them. Celebrations can take a humorous tone, as celebrants remember funny events and anecdotes about the departed.[13]

Mexican cempasúchil (marigold) is the traditional flower used to honor the dead
Cempasúchil, alfeñiques and papel picado used to decorate an altar

Plans for the day are made throughout the year, including gathering the goods to be offered to the dead. During the three-day period families usually clean and decorate graves;[12] most visit the cemeteries where their loved ones are buried and decorate their graves with ofrendas (altars), which often include orange Mexican marigolds (Tagetes erecta) called cempasúchil (originally named cempoaxochitl, Nāhuatl for "twenty flowers"). In modern Mexico the marigold is sometimes called Flor de Muerto (Flower of Dead). These flowers are thought to attract souls of the dead to the offerings.

Toys are brought for dead children (los angelitos, or "the little angels"), and bottles of tequila, mezcal or pulque or jars of atole for adults. Families will also offer trinkets or the deceased's favorite candies on the grave. Some families have ofrendas in homes, usually with foods such as candied pumpkin, pan de muerto ("bread of dead"), and sugar skulls; and beverages such as atole. The ofrendas are left out in the homes as a welcoming gesture for the deceased.[12] Some people believe the spirits of the dead eat the "spiritual essence" of the ofrendas food, so though the celebrators eat the food after the festivities, they believe it lacks nutritional value. Pillows and blankets are left out so the deceased can rest after their long journey. In some parts of Mexico, such as the towns of Mixquic, Pátzcuaro and Janitzio, people spend all night beside the graves of their relatives. In many places, people have picnics at the grave site, as well.

Families tidying and decorating graves at a cemetery in Almoloya del Río in the State of Mexico

Some families build altars or small shrines in their homes;[12] these sometimes feature a Christian cross, statues or pictures of the Blessed Virgin Mary, pictures of deceased relatives and other people, scores of candles, and an ofrenda. Traditionally, families spend some time around the altar, praying and telling anecdotes about the deceased. In some locations, celebrants wear shells on their clothing, so when they dance, the noise will wake up the dead; some will also dress up as the deceased.

Public schools at all levels build altars with ofrendas, usually omitting the religious symbols. Government offices usually have at least a small altar, as this holiday is seen as important to the Mexican heritage.

Those with a distinctive talent for writing sometimes create short poems, called calaveras (skulls), mocking epitaphs of friends, describing interesting habits and attitudes or funny anecdotes. This custom originated in the 18th or 19th century after a newspaper published a poem narrating a dream of a cemetery in the future, "and all of us were dead", proceeding to read the tombstones. Newspapers dedicate calaveras to public figures, with cartoons of skeletons in the style of the famous calaveras of José Guadalupe Posada, a Mexican illustrator. Theatrical presentations of Don Juan Tenorio by José Zorrilla (1817–1893) are also traditional on this day.

Modern representations of Catrina

José Guadalupe Posada created a famous print of a figure he called La Calavera Catrina ("The Elegant Skull") as a parody of a Mexican upper-class female. Posada's striking image of a costumed female with a skeleton face has become associated with the Day of the Dead, and Catrina figures often are a prominent part of modern Day of the Dead observances.

A common symbol of the holiday is the skull (in Spanish calavera), which celebrants represent in masks, called calacas (colloquial term for skeleton), and foods such as sugar or chocolate skulls, which are inscribed with the name of the recipient on the forehead. Sugar skulls can be given as gifts to both the living and the dead. Other holiday foods include pan de muerto, a sweet egg bread made in various shapes from plain rounds to skulls and rabbits, often decorated with white frosting to look like twisted bones.

Part of the "megaofrenda" at UNAM for Day of the Dead

The traditions and activities that take place in celebration of the Day of the Dead are not universal, often varying from town to town. For example, in the town of Pátzcuaro on the Lago de Pátzcuaro in Michoacán, the tradition is very different if the deceased is a child rather than an adult. On November 1 of the year after a child's death, the godparents set a table in the parents' home with sweets, fruits, pan de muerto, a cross, a rosary (used to ask the Virgin Mary to pray for them) and candles. This is meant to celebrate the child's life, in respect and appreciation for the parents. There is also dancing with colorful costumes, often with skull-shaped masks and devil masks in the plaza or garden of the town. At midnight on November 2, the people light candles and ride winged boats called mariposas (butterflies) to Janitzio, an island in the middle of the lake where there is a cemetery, to honor and celebrate the lives of the dead there.

In contrast, the town of Ocotepec, north of Cuernavaca in the State of Morelos, opens its doors to visitors in exchange for veladoras (small wax candles) to show respect for the recently deceased. In return the visitors receive tamales and atole. This is done only by the owners of the house where someone in the household has died in the previous year. Many people of the surrounding areas arrive early to eat for free and enjoy the elaborate altars set up to receive the visitors.

Sculpture with skeletons made for Day of the Dead at the Museo de Arte Popular, Mexico City

In some parts of the country (especially the cities, where in recent years other customs have been displaced) children in costumes roam the streets, knocking on people's doors for a calaverita, a small gift of candies or money; they also ask passersby for it. This relatively recent custom is similar to that of Halloween's trick-or-treating in the United States.

Some people believe possessing Day of the Dead items can bring good luck. Many people get tattoos or have dolls of the dead to carry with them. They also clean their houses and prepare the favorite dishes of their deceased loved ones to place upon their altar or ofrenda.

Food

Pan de muerto is a type of sweet roll.[15] It is a sweetened soft bread shaped like a bun, often decorated with bone-shaped phalanges pieces. Pan de muerto is eaten on Día de Muertos, at the gravesite or altar of the deceased. In some regions, it is eaten for months before the official celebration of Dia de Muertos. In Oaxaca, pan de muerto is the same bread that is usually baked, with the addition of decorations. As part of the celebration, loved ones eat pan de muerto as well as the relative's favorite foods. The bones represent the deceased one (difuntos or difuntas) and there is normally a baked tear drop on the bread to represent goddess Chimalma's tears for the living. The bones are represented in a circle to portray the circle of life. The bread is topped with sugar.

Atole is one of the traditional drinks. Traditional methods for producing calaveras have been in use since the 17th century CE.[16] The skulls are created either for children or as offerings to be placed on altars known as ofrendas for the Día de Muertos which has roots in the Aztec, Mayan, and Toltec cultural celebration of the Day of the Dead.[17] Champurrado is traditionally served with churros in the morning as a simple breakfast or as a late afternoon snack. Champurrado is also very popular during Día de Muertos and at Las Posadas (the Christmas Season) where it is served alongside tamales.

Fiambre is a traditional Guatemalan salad, served chilled, and may be made up from over 50 ingredients. Jamaica iced tea is a popular herbal tea made of the flowers and leaves of the Jamaican hibiscus plant (Hibiscus sabdariffa), known as flor de Jamaica in Mexico. It is served cold and quite sweet with a lot of ice. The ruby-red beverage called hibiscus tea in English-speaking countries is called agua de Jamaica (water of Jamaica).[18]

Altars

Observances outside Mexico

Asia

Goa, India

The Catholic traditions were initiated with the arrival of the Portuguese in 1510. The Almacho Dis (Souls Day) is commemorated on Nov. 2, following all Saints Day (Nov. 1). On this day, the forgotten souls are remembered and spiritual charity is done though prayer for the deceased family and ancestral souls. Charity is practiced also by offering food for the poor called beggars lunch (bikareanchem jevonn) where the poor are invited for lunch, from the village and treated with dignity and respect. The invited down throdden are served as guest and usually commences with prayers for the deceased souls. Following mass on all souls day, the deceased visit the graveyard of the deceased souls and pray and also decorate their graves.[19]

The Philippines

While ancestor veneration is an ancient part of Filipino culture, the modern observance is believed to have been imported from Mexico when the islands (as part of the Spanish East Indies) were governed from Mexico City as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain.[citation needed] During the holiday (observed on the 1st day of November), Filipinos customarily visit family tombs and other graves, which they repair and clean. Entire families spend a night or two at their loved ones' tombs, passing time with card games, eating, drinking, singing and dancing. Prayers such as the rosary are often said for the deceased, who are normally offered candles, flowers, food, and even liquor. Some Catholic Chinese Filipino families additionally offer joss sticks to the dead, and observe customs otherwise associated with the Hungry Ghost Festival.

Europe

In Christian Europe, Roman Catholic customs absorbed pagan traditions. All Saints Day and All Souls Day became the autumnal celebration of the dead. Over many centuries, rites which had occurred in cultivated fields, where the souls of the dead were thought to leave after the harvest, to cemeteries.

In many countries with a Roman Catholic heritage, All Saints Day and All Souls Day have evolved traditions in which people take the day off work, go to cemeteries with candles and flowers, and give presents to children, usually sweets and toys.[20] In Portugal and Spain ofrendas ("offerings") are made on this day. In Spain, the play Don Juan Tenorio is traditionally performed. In Belgium, France, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain, people bring flowers (typically chrysanthemums in France and northern Europe) to the graves of dead relatives and say prayers over the dead.

In Eastern Europe holiday is called Dziady and also has pagan origins. In Belarus the ancient tradition involved cooking ritual dishes for supper. Part of each dish was put into a separate plate and left overnight for the dead ancestors. Public meetings are often organized on this day to commemorate the victims of Soviet political repressions.

As part of a promotion by the Mexican embassy in Prague, Czech Republic since the late 20th century, some local citizens join in a Mexican-style Day of the Dead. A theatre group produces events featuring masks, candles, and sugar skulls.[21]

Oceania

Mexican-style Day of the Dead celebrations occur in major cities in Australia, Fiji, and Indonesia. Additionally, prominent celebrations are held in Wellington, New Zealand, complete with altars celebrating the deceased with flowers and gifts.[22]

North America

Belize

In Belize, Day of the Dead is practiced by people of the Yucatec Maya ethnicity. The celebration is known as Hanal Pixan which means "food for the souls" in their language. Altars are constructed and decorated with food, drinks, candies, and candles put on them.

Guatemala

Guatemalan celebrations of the Day of the Dead are highlighted by the construction and flying of giant kites[23] in addition to the traditional visits to grave sites of ancestors. A big event also is the consumption of fiambre, which is made only for this day during the year.

United States

Women with calaveras makeup celebrating Dia de Muertos in Mission District of San Francisco, California

In many American communities with Mexican residents, Day of the Dead celebrations are very similar to those held in Mexico. In some of these communities, in states such as Texas,[24] New Mexico,[25] and Arizona,[26] the celebrations tend to be mostly traditional. The All Souls Procession has been an annual Tucson, Arizona event since 1990. The event combines elements of traditional Day of the Dead celebrations with those of pagan harvest festivals. People wearing masks carry signs honoring the dead and an urn in which people can place slips of paper with prayers on them to be burned.[27] Likewise, Old Town San Diego, California annually hosts a traditional two-day celebration culminating in a candlelight procession to the historic El Campo Santo Cemetery.[28]

In Missoula, Montana, celebrants wearing skeleton costumes and walking on stilts, riding novelty bicycles, and traveling on skis parade through town.[29] The festival also is held annually at historic Forest Hills Cemetery in Boston's Jamaica Plain neighborhood. Sponsored by Forest Hills Educational Trust and the folkloric performance group La Piñata, the Day of the Dead festivities celebrate the cycle of life and death. People bring offerings of flowers, photos, mementos, and food for their departed loved ones, which they place at an elaborately and colorfully decorated altar. A program of traditional music and dance also accompanies the community event.

The Smithsonian Institution, in collaboration with the University of Texas at El Paso and Second Life, have created a Smithsonian Latino Virtual Museum and accompanying multimedia e-book: Día de los Muertos: Day of the Dead. The project's website contains some of the text and images which explain the origins of some of the customary core practices related to the Day of the Dead, such as the background beliefs and the offrenda (the special altar commemorating one's deceased loved one).[30] The Made For iTunes multimedia e-book version provides additional content, such as further details; additional photo galleries; pop-up profiles of influential Latino artists and cultural figures over the decades; and video clips[31] of interviews with artists who make Dia de Muertos-themed artwork, explanations and performances of Aztec and other traditional dances, an animation short that explains the customs to children, virtual poetry readings in English and Spanish.[32][33]

California
A line of vendors
Corazon del Pueblo in Fruitvale, Oakland, CA, US, 2016

Santa Ana, California is said to hold the "largest event in Southern California" honoring Día de Muertos, called the annual Noche de Altares, which began in 2002.[34] The celebration of the Day of the Dead in Santa Ana has grown to two large events with the creation of an event held at the Santa Ana Regional Transportation Center for the first time on November 1, 2015.[35]

In other communities, interactions between Mexican traditions and American culture are resulting in celebrations in which Mexican traditions are being extended to make artistic or sometimes political statements. For example, in Los Angeles, California, the Self Help Graphics & Art Mexican-American cultural center presents an annual Day of the Dead celebration that includes both traditional and political elements, such as altars to honor the victims of the Iraq War, highlighting the high casualty rate among Latino soldiers. An updated, intercultural version of the Day of the Dead is also evolving at Hollywood Forever Cemetery.[36] There, in a mixture of Native Californian art, Mexican traditions and Hollywood hip, conventional altars are set up side-by-side with altars to Jayne Mansfield and Johnny Ramone. Colorful native dancers and music intermix with performance artists, while sly pranksters play on traditional themes.

Similar traditional and intercultural updating of Mexican celebrations are held in San Francisco. For example, the Galería de la Raza, SomArts Cultural Center, Mission Cultural Center, de Young Museum and altars at Garfield Square by the Marigold Project.[37] Oakland is home to Corazon Del Pueblo in the Fruitvale district. Corazon Del Pueblo has a shop offering handcrafted Mexican gifts and a museum devoted to Day of the Dead artifacts. Also, the Fruitvale district in Oakland serves as the hub of the Dia de Muertos annual festival which occurs the last weekend of October. Here, a mix of several Mexican traditions come together with traditional Aztec dancers, regional Mexican music, and other Mexican artisans to celebrate the day.[38]

South America

Bolivia

Dia de los ñatitas ("Day of the Skulls") is a festival celebrated in La Paz, Bolivia, on May 5. In pre-Columbian times indigenous Andeans had a tradition of sharing a day with the bones of their ancestors on the third year after burial. Today families keep only the skulls for such rituals. Traditionally, the skulls of family members are kept at home to watch over the family and protect them during the year. On November 9, the family crowns the skulls with fresh flowers, sometimes also dressing them in various garments, and making offerings of cigarettes, coca leaves, alcohol, and various other items in thanks for the year's protection. The skulls are also sometimes taken to the central cemetery in La Paz for a special Mass and blessing.[39][40][41]

Brazil

The Brazilian public holiday of Finados (Day of the Dead) is celebrated on November 2. Similar to other Day of the Dead celebrations, people go to cemeteries and churches with flowers and candles and offer prayers. The celebration is intended as a positive honoring of the dead. Memorializing the dead draws from indigenous, African and European Catholic origins.

Ecuador

In Ecuador the Day of the Dead is observed to some extent by all parts of society, though it is especially important to the indigenous Kichwa peoples, who make up an estimated quarter of the population. Indigena families gather together in the community cemetery with offerings of food for a day-long remembrance of their ancestors and lost loved ones. Ceremonial foods include colada morada, a spiced fruit porridge that derives its deep purple color from the Andean blackberry and purple maize. This is typically consumed with guagua de pan, a bread shaped like a swaddled infant, though variations include many pigs—the latter being traditional to the city of Loja. The bread, which is wheat flour-based today, but was made with masa in the pre-Columbian era, can be made savory with cheese inside or sweet with a filling of guava paste. These traditions have permeated mainstream society, as well, where food establishments add both colada morada and gaugua de pan to their menus for the season. Many non-indigenous Ecuadorians visit the graves of the deceased, cleaning and bringing flowers, or preparing the traditional foods, too.[42]

Similar traditions

Many other cultures around the world have similar traditions of a day set aside to visit the graves of deceased family members. Often included in these traditions are celebrations, food, and beverages, in addition to prayers and remembrances of the departed.

In some African cultures, visits to ancestors' graves, the leaving of food and gifts, and the asking of protection from them serve as important parts of traditional rituals. One such ritual is held just before the start of the hunting season.[43]

The Qingming Festival (simplified Chinese: 清明节; traditional Chinese: 清明節; pinyin: qīng míng jié) is a traditional Chinese festival usually occurring around April 5 of the Gregorian calendar. Along with Double Ninth Festival on the 9th day of the 9th month in the Chinese calendar, it is a time to tend to the graves of departed ones. In addition, in the Chinese tradition, the seventh month in the Chinese calendar is called the Ghost Month (鬼月), in which ghosts and spirits come out from the underworld to visit earth.

The Bon Festival (O-bon (お盆?), or only Bon (?)), is a Japanese Buddhist holiday held in August to honor the spirits of departed ancestors. It is derived in part from the Chinese observance of the Ghost Month, and was affixed to the solar calendar along with other traditional Japanese holidays.

In Korea, Chuseok (추석, 秋夕; also called Hangawi) is a major traditional holiday. People go where the spirits of their ancestors are enshrined, and perform ancestral worship rituals early in the morning. They visit the tombs of immediate ancestors to trim plants, clean the area around the tomb, and offer food, drink, and crops to their ancestors.

During the Nepal holiday of Gai Jatra ("Cow Pilgrimage"), every family who has lost a member during the previous year creates a tai out of bamboo branches, cloth, and paper decorations, in which are placed portraits of the deceased. As a cow traditionally leads the spirits of the dead into the afterlife, an actual or symbolic cow is used depending on local custom. The festival is also a time to dress up in a costume reminiscent of the western Halloween, with popular subjects including political commentary and satire.[44]

In popular culture

Disneyland Resorts' annual "Halloween Time" celebrates the art and traditions of Dias de los Muertos located at Frontierland.[45][46][47]

The 1998 Grim Fandango video game features Mexican Day of the Dead iconography with Aztec and Egyptian influences.[48]

The 2003 Dead Like Me television series, in the final episode of season one, Joy is told about Day of the Dead celebrations[citation needed] and later Joy and Reggie have a picnic on George's grave, culminating in Reggie actually catching a momentary non-obscured view of George.[citation needed]

The 2014 The Book of Life film, on the Day of the Dead, La Muerte, ruler of the Land of the Remembered, and Xibalba, ruler of the Land of the Forgotten, set a wager for their own worlds.[citation needed]

The 2015 James Bond film, Spectre, the opening sequence featured a Day of the Dead parade in Mexico City. At the time, no such parade took place in Mexico City; one year later, due to the interest in the film and the government desire to promote the pre-Hispanic Mexican culture, the federal and local authorities decided to organize an actual "Día de Muertos" parade through Paseo de la Reforma and Centro Historico on 29 October 2016, which was attended by 250,000 people.[49][50][51]

The 2016 Elena of Avalor season one episode, "A Night to Remember", focused on Dias de Muertos.[52]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ "Indigenous festivity dedicated to the dead". UNESCO. Retrieved October 31, 2014. 
  2. ^ "Dia de los Muertos". El Museo del Barrio. Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  3. ^ "Austin Days of the Dead". Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  4. ^ Latina and Latino Voices in Literature (Frances Ann Day), Greenwood Publishing Group, page 72
  5. ^ The Bread Basket, Rex Bookstore, Inc, page 23
  6. ^ "Dia de los Muertos". National Geographic Society. 
  7. ^ Lee, Stacy (2002). Mexico and the United States. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 0761474021. 
  8. ^ Diariocultura.mx
  9. ^ Mendoza, Gustavo. "Hasta en el velorio, las penas con pan son menos". Milenio. 
  10. ^ Donquijote.org
  11. ^ Miller, Carlos (2005). "History: Indigenous people wouldn't let 'Day of the Dead' die". The Arizona Republic. Day of the Dead — Día De Los Muertos. Retrieved 2007-11-28. 
  12. ^ a b c d Salvador, R. J. (2003). John D. Morgan and Pittu Laungani, ed. Death and Bereavement Around the World: Death and Bereavement in the Americas. Death, Value and Meaning Series, Vol. II. Amityville, New York: Baywood Publishing Company. pp. 75–76. ISBN 0-89503-232-5. 
  13. ^ a b Palfrey, Dale Hoyt (1995). "The Day of the Dead". Día de los Muertos Index. Access Mexico Connect. Retrieved 2007-11-28. 
  14. ^ Latina and Latino Voices in Literature (Frances Ann Day), Greenwood Publishing Group, page 72
  15. ^ Castella, Krystina (October 2010). "Pan de Muerto Recipe". Epicurious. Retrieved 7 July 2015. 
  16. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions about Day of the Dead, Sugar Skulls, Mexican Folk Art, Oilcloth & Papel Picado". www.mexicansugarskull.com. Retrieved 2015-07-01. 
  17. ^ "Day of the Dead Sweets and Treats — Hungry History". Retrieved 2015-07-01. 
  18. ^ "Jamaica iced tea". Cooking in Mexico. Retrieved October 23, 2011. 
  19. ^ http://www.ucanews.com/uploads/2011/11/fffffff.gif
  20. ^ "All Saints Day celebrations in Italy". ITALY Magazine. Retrieved 19 October 2014. 
  21. ^ Day of the Dead in Prague, Radio Czech.
  22. ^ "Day of the Dead in Wellington, New Zealand". Scoop.co.nz. 2007-10-27. Retrieved 2009-08-13. 
  23. ^ Betsy Burlingame, Joshua Wood. "Visit to cemetery in Guatemala". Expatexchange.com. Retrieved 2009-08-13. 
  24. ^ Wise, Danno. "Port Isabel's Day of the Dead Celebration". Texas Travel. About.com. Retrieved 2007-11-28. 
  25. ^ "Dia de los Muertos". visitalbuquerque.org. Retrieved November 1, 2016. 
  26. ^ Hedding, Judy. "Day of the Dead". Phoenix. About.com. Retrieved 2007-11-28. 
  27. ^ White, Erin (2006-11-05). "All Souls Procession". Arizona Daily Star. Retrieved 2007-11-28. 
  28. ^ "Old Town San Diego's Dia de los Muertos". Retrieved 19 October 2014. 
  29. ^ "Photos of Missoula, Montana Day of the Dead parade". Saroff.com. 2006-11-02. Retrieved 2009-08-13. 
  30. ^ Smithsonian Latino Virtual Museum. Día de los Muertos: Day of the Dead (Version 1.2 ed.). 
  31. ^ "Smithsonian Latino Virtual Museum". Ustream. 
  32. ^ Smithsonian Latino Virtual Museum. "Day of the Dead". Theater of the Dead. 
  33. ^ Smithsonian Institution. "Smithsonian-UTEP Día de los Muertos Festival: A 2D and 3D Experience!". Smithsonian Latino Virtual Museum Press Release. Archived from the original on 1970-01-01. 
  34. ^ "Less-scary holiday: Some faith groups offer alternatives to Halloween trick-or-treating". The Orange County Register. 
  35. ^ "Viva la Vida or Noche de Altares? Santa Ana's downtown division fuels dueling Day of the Dead events". The Orange County Register. 
  36. ^ "Making a night of Day of the Dead" Los Angeles Times October 18, 2006. Retrieved November 26, 2006.
  37. ^ "Dia de los Muertos [Day of the Dead] – San Francisco". Retrieved 19 October 2014. 
  38. ^ Elliott, Vicky (October 27, 2000). "Lively Petaluma festival marks Day of the Dead". The San Francisco Chronicle. 
  39. ^ Guidi, Ruxandra (2007-11-09). "Las Natitas". BBC. Archived from the original on 2008-12-06. 
  40. ^ Smith, Fiona (2005-11-08). "Bolivians Honor Skull-Toting Tradition". Associated Press. Retrieved 2007-12-30. 
  41. ^ "All Saints day in Bolivia — "The skull festival"". Bolivia Line (may2005). Retrieved 2007-12-20. 
  42. ^ Ortiz, Gonzalo (2010-10-30). "Diversity in Remembering the Dead". InterPress Service News Agency. Archived from the original on 2010-11-04. Retrieved 2010-10-30. 
  43. ^ "ANCESTORS AS ELDERS IN AFRICA". 
  44. ^ Nepali holiday honoring the dead. Retrieved June 11, 2007.
  45. ^ https://disneyland.disney.go.com/events-tours/disneyland/dia-de-los-muertos/
  46. ^ https://disneyparks.disney.go.com/blog/2012/10/celebrate-dia-de-los-muertos-during-halloween-time-at-disneyland-park/
  47. ^ https://disneyparks.disney.go.com/blog/2014/10/dia-de-los-muertos-at-disneyland-park/
  48. ^ Senior, Tom (January 27, 2015). "GRIM FANDANGO REMASTERED REVIEW". PC Gamer. 
  49. ^ "Mexico City stages first Day of the Dead parade". BBC. 2016-10-29. Retrieved 2016-11-01. 
  50. ^ "Fotogalería: Desfile por Día de Muertos reúne a 250 mil personas". Excélsior (in Spanish). 2016-10-29. Retrieved 2016-11-01. 
  51. ^ Televisa.com
  52. ^ Metcalf, Mitch (October 19, 2016). "Updated: ShowBuzzDaily's Top 150 Friday Cable Originals & Network Finals: 10.16.2016". ShowBuzzDaily. Retrieved October 24, 2016. 

Further reading

  • Brandes, Stanley (2006-12-15). Skulls to the Living, Bread to the Dead. Blackwell Publishing. p. 232. ISBN 1-4051-5247-8. 
  • "The Day of the Dead, Halloween, and the Quest for Mexican National Identity". Journal of American Folklore 442 (1998): 359–80.
  • "Sugar, Colonialism, and Death: On the Origins of Mexico's Day of the Dead". Comparative Studies in Sociology and History 39.2 (1997): 270–299.
  • "Iconography in Mexico's Day of the Dead". Ethnohistory 45.2(1998): 181–218.
  • Cadafalch, Antoni. The Day of the Dead. Korero Books, 2011. ISBN 978-1-907621-01-7
  • Carmichael, Elizabeth; Sayer, Chloe. The Skeleton at the Feast: The Day of the Dead in Mexico. Great Britain: The Bath Press, 1991. ISBN 0-7141-2503-2
  • Conklin, Paul. "Death Takes a Holiday". U.S. Catholic 66 (2001): 38–41.
  • Garcia-Rivera, Alex. "Death Takes a Holiday". U.S. Catholic 62 (1997): 50.
  • Haley, Shawn D.; Fukuda, Curt. Day of the Dead: When Two Worlds Meet in Oaxaca. Berhahn Books, 2004. ISBN 1-84545-083-3
  • Lomnitz, Claudio. Death and the Idea of Mexico. Zone Books, 2005. ISBN 1-890951-53-6
  • Roy, Ann. "A Crack Between the Worlds". Commonwealth 122 (1995) : 13–16.
  • Andrade, Mary J. "Day of the Dead A Passion for Life – Día de los Muertos Pasión por la Vida". La Oferta Publishing, 2007. ISBN 978-0-9791624-04