Diabetic diet

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A diabetic diet is a diet that is used by people with diabetes mellitus or high blood glucose to minimize symptoms and dangerous consequences of the disease.

Since carbohydrate is the macronutrient that raises blood glucose levels most significantly, the greatest debate is how low in carbohydrates the diet should be. This is because although lowering carbohydrate intake will help reduce blood glucose levels, a low-carbohydrate diet conflicts with the traditional establishment view that carbohydrates should be the main source of calories. Recommendations of the fraction of total calories to be obtained from carbohydrate are generally in the range of 20% to 45%,[1] but recommendations can vary as widely as from 16% to 75%.[2]

For overweight and obese people with Type 2 diabetes, any weight-loss diet that the person will adhere to and achieve weight loss on is at least partly effective.[3][4]

The most agreed-upon recommendation is for the diet to be low in sugar and refined carbohydrates, while relatively high in dietary fiber, especially soluble fiber. People with diabetes are also encouraged to eat small frequent meals a day. Likewise, people with diabetes may be encouraged to reduce their intake of carbohydrates that have a high glycemic index (GI), although this is also controversial.[5] (In cases of hypoglycemia, they are advised to have food or drink that can raise blood glucose quickly, such as a sugary sports drink, followed by a long-acting carbohydrate (such as rye bread) to prevent risk of further hypoglycemia.) Others question the usefulness of the glycemic index and recommend high-GI foods like potatoes and rice.[citation needed] It has been claimed that oleic acid has a slight advantage over linoleic acid in reducing plasma glucose.[6]

History[edit]

There has been long history of dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus. Dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus was used in Egypt since 3,500 BC[7][8] and was used in India by Sushruta and Charaka more than 2000 years ago.[7] In the 18th century, John Rollo argued that calorie restriction could reduce glycosuria in diabetes.[7]

More modern history of the diabetic diet may begin with Frederick Madison Allen and Elliott Joslin, who, in the early 20th century, before insulin was discovered, recommended that people with diabetes eat only a low-calorie and nearly zero-carbohydrate diet to prevent ketoacidosis from killing them. While this approach could extend life by a limited period, patients developed a variety of other medical problems.[9]

The introduction of insulin by Frederick Banting in 1922 allowed patients more flexibility in their eating.[9]

Exchange scheme[edit]

In the 1950s, the American Diabetes Association, in conjunction with the U.S. Public Health Service, introduced the "exchange scheme". This allowed people to swap foods of similar nutrition value (e.g., carbohydrate) for another. For example, if wishing to have more than normal carbohydrates for dessert, one could cut back on potatoes in one's first course. The exchange scheme was revised in 1976, 1986, and 1995.[10]

Later developments[edit]

Not all diabetes dietitians today recommend the exchange scheme. Instead, they are likely to recommend a typical healthy diet: one high in fiber, with a variety of fruit and vegetables, and low in both sugar and fat, especially saturated fat.

A diet high in plant fibre was recommended by James Anderson.[11] This may be understood as continuation of the work of Denis Burkitt and Hugh Trowell on dietary fibre,[12] which may be understood as a continuation of the work of Price.[13] It is still recommended that people with diabetes consume a diet that is high in dietary fiber.

In 1976, Nathan Pritikin opened a centre where patients were put on programme of diet and exercise (the Pritikin Program). This diet is high on carbohydrates and fibre, with fresh fruit, vegetables, and whole grains. A study at UCLA in 2005 showed that it brought dramatic improvement to a group of people with diabetes or pre-diabetes in three weeks, so that about half no longer met the criteria for the disease.[14][15][16][17]

On the other hand, in 1983, Richard K. Bernstein began treating people with diabetes and pre-diabetes successfully with a very low-carbohydrate diet, avoiding fruit, added sugar, and starch. Both the Pritikin approach and the Bernstein approach prescribe exercise.

An approach that has been popular with some people with type 1 diabetes mellitus since 2000 is known as DAFNE (Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating). This approach involves estimating the amount of carbohydrates in a meal and modifying the amount of insulin one injects accordingly. An equivalent approach has for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus is known as DESMOND, which stands for Diabetes Education and Self-Management for On-Going and Newly Diagnosed (diabetes). DAFNE has a newsletter and has received recommendation.[18]

Carbohydrates[edit]

The American Diabetes Association in 1994 recommended that 60–70% of caloric intake should be in the form of carbohydrates. As mentioned above, this is controversial, with some researchers claiming that 40%[19] or less is better, while others claim benefits for a high-fiber, 75% carbohydrate diet.[20]

An article summarizing the view of the American Diabetes Association[21] contains the statements:

  • "Sucrose-containing foods can be substituted for other carbohydrates in the meal plan or, if added to the meal plan, covered with insulin or other glucose-lowering medications. Care should be taken to avoid excess energy intake."
  • Sucrose does not increase glycemia more than the same number of calories taken as starch.[21][22][disputed ]
  • It is not recommended to use fructose as a sweetener because it may adversely affect plasma lipids.[22]
  • Benefits may be obtained by consumption of dietary fiber.

Francis (1987) points out, evidence suggests that carbohydrate consumed with dietary fiber will have a lower impact on glycemic rise than the same amount of carbohydrate consumed alone.[citation needed] Due to their high levels of dietary fibre, certain foods are considered particularly beneficial for people with diabetes such as legumes, nuts, fruits, and vegetables.[23][better source needed]

What has not generally been included in diabetic diet recommendations is the variation in effect from different carbohydrates. It has been recommended that carbohydrates eaten by people with diabetes should be complex carbohydrates.[24]

Low-carbohydrate alternatives[edit]

A low-carbohydrate diet or low-glycemic diet can be an effective dietary option for managing type 2 diabetes. These have been promoted as working by reducing spikes in blood sugar levels after eating.[25][26] However, the main contribution may be that overweight and obese people with Type 2 diabetes often lose weight while following these diets.[3][4] Any diet that causes significant weight loss in overweight and obese people with Type 2 diabetes is associated with improvements in blood sugar control.[3][4]

Richard K. Bernstein is critical of the standard American Diabetes Association diet plan. His plan includes very limited carbohydrate intake (30 grams per day) along with frequent blood glucose monitoring, regular strenuous muscle-building exercise and, for people using insulin, frequent small insulin injections if needed. His treatment target is "near normal blood sugars" all the time.[27]

Another critic of the ADA program is futurologist and transhumanist Ray Kurzweil, who with Terry Grossman co-authored Fantastic Voyage: Live Long Enough to Live Forever (published 2004). They describe the ADA guidelines as "completely ineffective". Their observations are that the condition, particularly in its early stages, can be controlled through a diet that sharply reduces carbohydrate consumption. Their guidelines for patients with type 2 diabetes is a diet that includes a reduction of carbohydrates to one sixth of total caloric intake and elimination of high glycemic load carbohydrates. As someone who was diagnosed with diabetes but who no longer has symptoms of the disease, Kurzweil is a firm advocate of this approach. However, Kurzweil's prescription changed somewhat between his 1993 book The 10% Solution for a Healthy Life, in which he recommended that only 10% of calories should come from fat, and Fantastic Voyage, which recommends 25%.

Vegan/vegetarian[edit]

Based on the evidence that well planned vegan diets can be lower in unhealthy processed foods than the standard American diet, some studies have investigated vegan interventions as a possible treatment for Type 2 Diabetes.[28]  These studies have shown that a vegan diet may be effective in managing type 2 diabetes.[29]  Plant-based diets tend to be higher in fiber, which slows the rate sugar is absorbed into the bloodstream.[30]  Additionally, simple carboydrates, abundant in processed foods, which are often not vegan, have the potential to elevate HbA1c levels more than other healthier foods.[31] In multiple clinical trials, participants who were placed on a vegan diet experienced a greater reduction in their Hemoglobin A1c levels than those who followed the diet recommended by the ADA.[29]

An example of a high fiber vegan breakfast, suitable for someone suffering from Type 2 Diabetes.

The American Diabetes Association has released a statement declaring a vegan diet to be a healthful option for all ages.[32] In the ADA's 2018 Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes, a vegan diet was even included as a treatment option.[33] Diabetes UK agrees, and has stated that diabetes should not prevent people from going vegetarian – in fact, it may be beneficial for people with diabetes to go vegetarian, as this will cut down on saturated fats.[34]

In one meta analysis done in 2017, the authors agreed on the possibility of a vegetarian diet having preventative effects on Type 2 Diabetes development; however, they concluded that more research on this field needs to be conducted.[35] Another meta analysis that included twelve cohort studies concluded that red meat consumption is associated with an increased risk of Type 2 Diabetes.[36]  A third meta analysis done in 2013 that compared a variety of different diets' effects on health concluded that a plant based diet high in whole foods, and with limited processed foods can be beneficial for the treatment and prevention of Type 2 Diabetes.[37]

Timing of meals[edit]

For people with diabetes, healthy eating is not simply a matter of "what one eats", but also when one eats. The question of how long before a meal one should inject insulin is asked in Sons Ken, Fox and Judd (1998). It depends upon the type one takes and whether it is long-, medium- or quick-acting insulin. If patients check their blood glucose at bedtime and find that it is low, for example below 6 millimoles per liter (108 mg/dL), it is advisable that they take some long-acting carbohydrate before retiring to bed to prevent night-time hypoglycemia. Night sweats, headaches, restless sleep, and nightmares can be a sign of nocturnal hypoglycemia, and patients should consult their doctor for adjustments to their insulin routine if they find that this is the case.[38] Counterintuitively, another possible sign of nocturnal hypoglycemia is morning hyperglycemia, which actually occurs in response to blood sugar getting too low at night. This is called the Somogyi effect.

In relation to type 2 diabetes, eating most food earlier in the day may be associated with lower levels of overweight and obesity and other factors that reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.[39]

Special diabetes products[edit]

Diabetes UK have warned against purchase of products that are specially made for people with diabetes, on grounds that:[40]

  • They may be expensive
  • They may contain high levels of fat
  • They may confer no special benefits to people who have diabetes

It should be noted that NICE (the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the United Kingdom) advises doctors and other health professionals to "Discourage the use of foods marketed specifically for people with diabetes".[41]

Research has shown the Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa) has a hypoglycemic effect and may be beneficial for the management of diabetes.[42][43][44][45][46][47] Maitake lowers blood sugar because the mushroom naturally acts as an alpha glucosidase inhibitor.[48] Other mushrooms like lingzhi,[49][50] Agaricus blazei,[51][52][53][54] Agrocybe cylindracea[55] and Cordyceps[56][57][58][59][60] have been noted to lower blood sugar levels to a certain extent, although the mechanism is currently unknown.

Alcohol and drugs[edit]

Moderation is advised with regard to consuming alcohol and using some drugs. Alcohol inhibits glycogenesis in the liver and some drugs inhibit hunger symptoms. This, with impaired judgment, memory and concentration caused by some drugs can lead to hypoglycemia. People with diabetes who take insulin or tablets such as sulphonylureas should not, therefore, consume alcohol on an empty stomach but take some starchy food (such as bread or potato crisps) at the same time as consumption of alcohol.[citation needed]

Specific diets[edit]

The Pritikin Diet consists of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and so on, and is high in carbohydrates and roughage. The diet is accompanied by exercise.

G.I. Diet: lowering the glycemic index of one's diet can improve the control of diabetes.[61][62] This includes avoidance of such foods as potatoes cooked in certain ways and white bread. It instead favors multi-grain and sourdough breads, legumes and whole grains that are converted more slowly to glucose in the bloodstream.

Low Carb Diet: It has been suggested that the removal of carbohydrates from the diet and replacement with fatty foods such as nuts, seeds, meats, fish, oils, eggs, avocados, olives, and vegetables may help reverse diabetes. Fats would become the primary calorie source for the body, and complications due to insulin resistance would be minimized.[27]

High fiber diet: It has been shown that a high fiber diet works better than the diet recommended by the American Diabetes Association in controlling diabetes and may control blood sugar levels with the same efficacy as oral diabetes drugs.[63][64][65]

The Paleolithic diet has been shown to improve glucose tolerance in people with diabetes type 2,[66] ischemic heart disease and glucose intolerance,[67] and in healthy pigs.[68]

A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control similar to the ADA diet.[69]

The American Diabetes Association has endorsed a natural foods approach to managing diabetes, advocating “fresh is best” and avoiding artificial sweeteners, instead substituting measured amounts of fresh fruit or raw sugar.[70]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.diabetes.org/mfa-recipes/about-our-meal-plans.html
  2. ^ Katsilambros N, Liatis S, Makrilakis K (2006). "Critical review of the international guidelines: what is agreed upon--what is not?". Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series. Clinical & Performance Programme. 11: 207–18, discussion 218. doi:10.1159/000094453. ISBN 3-8055-8095-9. PMID 16820742.
  3. ^ a b c Emadian A, Andrews RC, England CY, Wallace V, Thompson JL (November 2015). "The effect of macronutrients on glycaemic control: a systematic review of dietary randomised controlled trials in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes in which there was no difference in weight loss between treatment groups". The British Journal of Nutrition. 114 (10): 1656–66. doi:10.1017/S0007114515003475. PMC 4657029. PMID 26411958.
  4. ^ a b c Grams J, Garvey WT (June 2015). "Weight Loss and the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Using Lifestyle Therapy, Pharmacotherapy, and Bariatric Surgery: Mechanisms of Action". Current Obesity Reports. 4 (2): 287–302. doi:10.1007/s13679-015-0155-x. PMID 26627223.
  5. ^ John McDougall Glycemic Index – Not Ready for Prime Time, The McDougall Newsletter, July 2006.
  6. ^ Segal-Isaacson CJ, Carello E, Wylie-Rosett J (October 2001). "Dietary fats and diabetes mellitus: is there a good fat?". Current Diabetes Reports. NLM.NIH.gov. 1 (2): 161–9. doi:10.1007/s11892-001-0029-3. PMID 12643112.
  7. ^ a b c Scaramuzza, de Beaufort & Hanas 2016, p. 91.
  8. ^ "History of Diabetes". Healthline. San Francisco: Healthline Media. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  9. ^ a b Roberts, Jacob (2015). "Sickening sweet". Distillations. 1 (4): 12–15. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  10. ^ Peterson AR, Chalmers KH (1999). 16 Myths of a Diabetic Diet. Alexandria, VA: American Diabetes Association. p. 85. ISBN 1-58040-031-0.
  11. ^ Anderson & Ward, 1979; cited in Murray & Pizzorno, 1990.
  12. ^ Trowell HC, Burkett DP (1981). Western diseases: their emergence and prevention. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. xiii–xvi. ISBN 0-674-95020-8.
  13. ^ Murray & Pizzorno, 1990.
  14. ^ Booth FW, Chakravarthy MV (May 2006). "Physical activity and dietary intervention for chronic diseases: a quick fix after all?". Journal of Applied Physiology. 100 (5): 1439–40. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01586.2005. PMID 16614361.
  15. ^ Roberts CK, Won D, Pruthi S, Kurtovic S, Sindhu RK, Vaziri ND, Barnard RJ (May 2006). "Effect of a short-term diet and exercise intervention on oxidative stress, inflammation, MMP-9, and monocyte chemotactic activity in men with metabolic syndrome factors". Journal of Applied Physiology. 100 (5): 1657–65. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01292.2005. PMID 16357066.
  16. ^ Roberts CK, Barnard RJ (January 2005). "Effects of exercise and diet on chronic disease". Journal of Applied Physiology. 98 (1): 3–30. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00852.2004. PMID 15591300.
  17. ^ Shaoni Bhattacharya "Three-week diet curbs diabetes", New Scientist, 13 January 2006.
  18. ^ "DAFNE Home".
  19. ^ Garg A, Bantle JP, Henry RR, Coulston AM, Griver KA, Raatz SK, Brinkley L, Chen YD, Grundy SM, Huet BA (May 1994). "Effects of varying carbohydrate content of diet in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus". JAMA. 271 (18): 1421–8. doi:10.1001/jama.271.18.1421. PMID 7848401.
  20. ^ Kiehm TG, Anderson JW, Ward K (August 1976). "Beneficial effects of a high carbohydrate, high fiber diet on hyperglycemic diabetic men". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 29 (8): 895–9. doi:10.1093/ajcn/29.8.895. PMID 941870.
  21. ^ a b Bantle JP, Wylie-Rosett J, Albright AL, Apovian CM, Clark NG, Franz MJ, Hoogwerf BJ, Lichtenstein AH, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian AD, Wheeler ML (September 2006). "Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes--2006: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association". Diabetes Care. 29 (9): 2140–57. doi:10.2337/dc06-9914. PMID 16936169.
  22. ^ a b Franz MJ, Bantle JP, Beebe CA, Brunzell JD, Chiasson JL, Garg A, Holzmeister LA, Hoogwerf B, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian AD, Purnell JQ, Wheeler M (January 2002). "Evidence-Based Nutrition Principles and Recommendations for the Treatment and Prevention of Diabetes and Related Complications--2002". Diabetes Care. 25 (1): 148–198. doi:10.2337/diacare.25.1.148. PMID 11772915.
  23. ^ Ashley Henshaw (May 25, 2012). "Diabetes Nutrition Tips: 6 Foods You'll Love". Retrieved January 7, 2013.
  24. ^ Crapo PA (January 1, 1981). "Complex Carbohydrates in the Diabetic Diet". The Diabetes Educator. 7 (3): 37–39. doi:10.1177/014572178400700307.
  25. ^ Nielsen JV, Joensson E (June 2006). "Low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes. Stable improvement of bodyweight and glycemic control during 22 months follow-up". Nutrition & Metabolism. 3: 22. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-3-22. PMC 1526736. PMID 16774674.
  26. ^ "Original Human 'Stone Age' Diet Is Good For People With Diabetes, Study Finds". ScienceDaily. 2007-06-28. Retrieved 2007-07-24.
  27. ^ a b Bernstein RK (2007). Dr Bernstein's Diabetes Solution. New York, NY: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 978-0-316-16716-1.[page needed]
  28. ^ "The Vegan Diet — A Complete Guide for Beginners". Healthline. Retrieved 2018-03-18.
  29. ^ a b "Type 2 Diabetes and Vegan Diets – Vegan Health". veganhealth.org. Retrieved 2018-03-18.
  30. ^ "Fiber in Plant-Based Diets". VegKitchen. 2008-01-07. Retrieved 2018-03-18.
  31. ^ "Type 2 Diabetes and Food Choices - Health Encyclopedia - University of Rochester Medical Center". www.urmc.rochester.edu. Retrieved 2018-03-18.
  32. ^ Craig WJ, Mangels AR (July 2009). "Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 109 (7): 1266–82. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.027. PMID 19562864.
  33. ^ "American Diabetes Association Names Vegan Diet as a Way to Fight Type 2 Diabetes". Mercy For Animals. Retrieved 2018-03-18.
  34. ^ "Vegan Diet for Diabetes". Retrieved 2018-03-18.
  35. ^ Lee Y, Park K (June 2017). "Adherence to a Vegetarian Diet and Diabetes Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies". Nutrients. 9 (6). doi:10.3390/nu9060603. PMC 5490582. PMID 28613258.
  36. ^ Aune D, Ursin G, Veierød MB (November 2009). "Meat consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies". Diabetologia. 52 (11): 2277–87. doi:10.1007/s00125-009-1481-x. PMID 19662376.
  37. ^ McMacken M, Shah S (May 2017). "A plant-based diet for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes". Journal of Geriatric Cardiology. 14 (5): 342–354. doi:10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2017.05.009. PMC 5466941. PMID 28630614.
  38. ^ http://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/diabetes-resources/definitions/nighttime-hypoglycemia/
  39. ^ Beccuti G, Monagheddu C, Evangelista A, Ciccone G, Broglio F, Soldati L, Bo S (November 2017). "Timing of food intake: Sounding the alarm about metabolic impairments? A systematic review". Pharmacological Research. 125 (Pt B): 132–141. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2017.09.005. PMID 28928073.
  40. ^ "Diabetic foods – Joint statement on 'diabetic foods' from the Food Standards Agency and Diabetes UK". Positional statements. Diabetes UK. July 2002. Archived from the original on 2006-11-28. Retrieved 2006-10-22.
  41. ^ NICE Clinical Guideline CG87 Type 2 diabetes: The management of type 2 diabetes. http://publications.nice.org.uk/type-2-diabetes-cg87
  42. ^ Konno S, Tortorelis DG, Fullerton SA, Samadi AA, Hettiarachchi J, Tazaki H (December 2001). "A possible hypoglycaemic effect of maitake mushroom on Type 2 diabetic patients". Diabetic Medicine. 18 (12): 1010. doi:10.1046/j.1464-5491.2001.00532-5.x. PMID 11903406.
  43. ^ Hong L, Xun M, Wutong W (April 2007). "Anti-diabetic effect of an alpha-glucan from fruit body of maitake (Grifola frondosa) on KK-Ay mice". The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 59 (4): 575–82. doi:10.1211/jpp.59.4.0013. PMID 17430642.
  44. ^ Kubo K, Aoki H, Nanba H (August 1994). "Anti-diabetic activity present in the fruit body of Grifola frondosa (Maitake). I". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 17 (8): 1106–10. doi:10.1248/bpb.17.1106. PMID 7820117.
  45. ^ Lo HC, Hsu TH, Chen CY (2008). "Submerged culture mycelium and broth of Grifola frondosa improve glycemic responses in diabetic rats". The American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 36 (2): 265–85. doi:10.1142/S0192415X0800576X. PMID 18457360.
  46. ^ Manohar V, Talpur NA, Echard BW, Lieberman S, Preuss HG (January 2002). "Effects of a water-soluble extract of maitake mushroom on circulating glucose/insulin concentrations in KK mice". Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism. 4 (1): 43–8. doi:10.1046/j.1463-1326.2002.00180.x. PMID 11874441.
  47. ^ Horio H, Ohtsuru M (February 2001). "Maitake (Grifola frondosa) improve glucose tolerance of experimental diabetic rats". Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology. 47 (1): 57–63. doi:10.3177/jnsv.47.57. PMID 11349892.
  48. ^ Matsuur H, Asakawa C, Kurimoto M, Mizutani J (July 2002). "Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor from the seeds of balsam pear (Momordica charantia) and the fruit bodies of Grifola frondosa". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 66 (7): 1576–8. doi:10.1271/bbb.66.1576. PMID 12224646.
  49. ^ Zhang HN, Lin ZB (February 2004). "Hypoglycemic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides". Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. 25 (2): 191–5. PMID 14769208.
  50. ^ Yang BK, Jung YS, Song CH (November 2007). "Hypoglycemic effects of Ganoderma applanatum and Collybia confluens exo-polymers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats". Phytotherapy Research. 21 (11): 1066–9. doi:10.1002/ptr.2214. PMID 17600864.
  51. ^ Liu Y, Fukuwatari Y, Okumura K, Takeda K, Ishibashi K, Furukawa M, Ohno N, Mori K, Gao M, Motoi M (June 2008). "Immunomodulating Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 in Mice and in Human Volunteers". Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 5 (2): 205–19. doi:10.1093/ecam/nem016. PMC 2396466. PMID 18604247.
  52. ^ Kim YW, Kim KH, Choi HJ, Lee DS (April 2005). "Anti-diabetic activity of beta-glucans and their enzymatically hydrolyzed oligosaccharides from Agaricus blazei". Biotechnology Letters. 27 (7): 483–7. doi:10.1007/s10529-005-2225-8. PMID 15928854.
  53. ^ Hsu CH, Liao YL, Lin SC, Hwang KC, Chou P (2007). "The mushroom Agaricus Blazei Murill in combination with metformin and gliclazide improves insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled clinical trial". Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 13 (1): 97–102. doi:10.1089/acm.2006.6054. PMID 17309383.[unreliable medical source?]
  54. ^ Fortes RC, Novaes MR, Recôva VL, Melo AL (January 2009). "Immunological, hematological, and glycemia effects of dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus on patients' colorectal cancer". Experimental Biology and Medicine. 234 (1): 53–62. doi:10.3181/0806-RM-193. PMID 18997106.[unreliable medical source?]
  55. ^ Kiho T, Sobue S, Ukai S (January 1994). "Structural features and hypoglycemic activities of two polysaccharides from a hot-water extract of Agrocybe cylindracea". Carbohydrate Research. 251: 81–7. doi:10.1016/0008-6215(94)84277-9. PMID 8149381.
  56. ^ Kiho T, Hui J, Yamane A, Ukai S (December 1993). "Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXII. Hypoglycemic activity and chemical properties of a polysaccharide from the cultural mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 16 (12): 1291–3. doi:10.1248/bpb.16.1291. PMID 8130781.
  57. ^ Kiho T, Yamane A, Hui J, Usui S, Ukai S (February 1996). "Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXVI. Hypoglycemic activity of a polysaccharide (CS-F30) from the cultural mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis and its effect on glucose metabolism in mouse liver". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 19 (2): 294–6. doi:10.1248/bpb.19.294. PMID 8850325.
  58. ^ Zhao CS, Yin WT, Wang JY, Zhang Y, Yu H, Cooper R, Smidt C, Zhu JS (June 2002). "CordyMax Cs-4 improves glucose metabolism and increases insulin sensitivity in normal rats". Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 8 (3): 309–14. doi:10.1089/10755530260127998. PMID 12165188.
  59. ^ Lo HC, Tu ST, Lin KC, Lin SC (April 2004). "The anti-hyperglycemic activity of the fruiting body of Cordyceps in diabetic rats induced by nicotinamide and streptozotocin". Life Sciences. 74 (23): 2897–908. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2003.11.003. PMID 15050427.
  60. ^ Li SP, Zhang GH, Zeng Q, Huang ZG, Wang YT, Dong TT, Tsim KW (June 2006). "Hypoglycemic activity of polysaccharide, with antioxidation, isolated from cultured Cordyceps mycelia". Phytomedicine. 13 (6): 428–33. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2005.02.002. PMID 16716913.
  61. ^ Brand-Miller J, Foster-Powell K, Nutr M, Brand-Miller J (1999). "Diets with a low glycemic index: from theory to practice". Nutrition today. 34 (2): 64–72. doi:10.1097/00017285-199903000-00002.
  62. ^ Sheard NF, Clark NG, Brand-Miller JC, Franz MJ, Pi-Sunyer FX, Mayer-Davis E, Kulkarni K, Geil P (September 2004). "Dietary carbohydrate (amount and type) in the prevention and management of diabetes: a statement by the american diabetes association". Diabetes Care. 27 (9): 2266–71. doi:10.2337/diacare.27.9.2266. PMID 15333500.
  63. ^ Chandalia M, Garg A, Lutjohann D, von Bergmann K, Grundy SM, Brinkley LJ (May 2000). "Beneficial effects of high dietary fiber intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus". The New England Journal of Medicine. 342 (19): 1392–8. doi:10.1056/NEJM200005113421903. PMID 10805824.
  64. ^ Rodríguez-Morán M, Guerrero-Romero F, Lazcano-Burciaga G (1998). "Lipid- and glucose-lowering efficacy of Plantago Psyllium in type II diabetes". Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications. 12 (5): 273–8. doi:10.1016/S1056-8727(98)00003-8. PMID 9747644.
  65. ^ Schwartz SE, Levine RA, Weinstock RS, Petokas S, Mills CA, Thomas FD (December 1988). "Sustained pectin ingestion: effect on gastric emptying and glucose tolerance in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 48 (6): 1413–7. doi:10.1093/ajcn/48.6.1413. PMID 2849298.
  66. ^ Jönsson T, Granfeldt Y, Ahrén B, Branell UC, Pålsson G, Hansson A, Söderström M, Lindeberg S (July 2009). "Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study". Cardiovascular Diabetology. 8: 35. doi:10.1186/1475-2840-8-35. PMC 2724493. PMID 19604407.
  67. ^ Lindeberg S, Jönsson T, Granfeldt Y, Borgstrand E, Soffman J, Sjöström K, Ahrén B (September 2007). "A Palaeolithic diet improves glucose tolerance more than a Mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischaemic heart disease". Diabetologia. 50 (9): 1795–1807. doi:10.1007/s00125-007-0716-y. PMID 17583796.
  68. ^ Jönsson T, Ahrén B, Pacini G, Sundler F, Wierup N, Steen S, Sjöberg T, Ugander M, Frostegård J, Göransson L, Lindeberg S (November 2006). "A Paleolithic diet confers higher insulin sensitivity, lower C-reactive protein and lower blood pressure than a cereal-based diet in domestic pigs". Nutrition & Metabolism. 3 (39): 39. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-3-39. PMC 1635051. PMID 17081292.
  69. ^ Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, Turner-McGrievy G, Gloede L, Jaster B, Seidl K, Green AA, Talpers S (August 2006). "A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes". Diabetes Care. 29 (8): 1777–83. doi:10.2337/dc06-0606. PMID 16873779. Lay summaryNews-Medical.Net (2006-08-08).
  70. ^ Newgent 2007, pp. 1–5.

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Bowling S (1995). The Everyday Diabetic Cookbook. Grub Street Publishing. ISBN 1-898697-25-6.
  • British Diabetic Association (November 2009). Festive Foods and Easy Entertaining. British Diabetic Association. ISBN 9781899288878.
  • Govindi A, Myers J (1995) [1992]. Recipes for Health: Diabetes. Low fat, low sugar, carbohydrate counted recipes for the management of diabetes. London: Thorsons/Harper Collins. ISBN 0-7225-3139-7. OCLC 33280079.
  • Lindeberg S (2010). Food and Western Disease: Health and Nutrition from an Evolutionary Perspective. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 1-4051-9771-4. OCLC 435728298.
  • Ramachandran A, Viswanathan M (1997). "Dietary management of diabetes mellitus in India and South Asia". In DeFronzo RA, Alberti KG, Zimmet P. International textbook of diabetes mellitus. London: J. Wiley. pp. 773–77. ISBN 0-471-93930-7. OCLC 32628217.
  • Sönsken P, Fox C, Judd S (1998). Diabetes at Your Fingertips (Fourth ed.). London: Class Publishing. ISBN 1-872362-79-6. OCLC 41019837.
  • Thomson W, Ireland JT, Williamson J (1980). Diabetes today: a handbook for the clinical team. New York: Springer. pp. 112–20. ISBN 0-8261-3491-2. OCLC 300560258.