Diachronics of plural inflection in the Gallo-Italian languages

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The general lines of diachronics of Lombard and Piedmontese plural declension are drawn here:


In the Lombard languages and in Piedmontese, feminine plural is generally derived from Latin first declension accusative -as; nouns from other classes first collapsed there; some concrete realisations are:

  • -as > -a
  • -as > -es > -e
  • -as > -es > -ei > -i
  • -as > -es > -ei > -i> -e
  • -as > -es > -ei > -i>


On the contrary, masculine plural is generally derived from Latin second declension nominative -i; this suffix eventually drops or gives rise to palatalisation or metaphonesis; some concrete realisations are:

  • -li > -lj > -gl > -j
  • -ni > -nj > -gn
  • -ti > -tj > -cc
  • Metaphonesis (in regression) : orti>öört;
  • Neutralisation: -i>

See also[edit]


  • G.Hull: the linguistic unity of Northern Italy and Rhaetia, PhD thesis, University of Sidney West (1982)
  • E.Banfi, G.Bonfadini, P.Cordin, M.Iliescu: Italia Settentrionale: Crocevia di idiomi Romanzi, Atti del convegno internazionale di studi, Trent 21-23 Ottobre 1993 Niemayer, Tübingen, 1995