Diana Serra Cary
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (June 2014)|
|Diana Serra Cary|
Baby Peggy, circa 1922
October 26, 1918
Merced, California, U.S.
|Other names||Baby Peggy
Baby Peggy Montgomery
|Education||Lawlor Professional School
Fairfax High School
|Occupation||Actress, author, historian|
|Spouse(s)||Gordon Ayres (m. 1938; div. 1948)
Bob Cary (m. 1954; died 2001)
Diana Serra Cary (born October 26, 1918), known as Baby Peggy, was one of the three major American child stars of the Hollywood silent movie era along with Jackie Coogan and Baby Marie. Between 1921 and 1923 she made over 150 shorts for Century Studios. In 1922 she received over 1.2 million fan letters and by 1924, she had been dubbed "The Million Dollar Baby" for her $1.5 million a year salary. Despite her childhood fame and wealth, she found herself poor and working as an extra by the 1930s.
Having an interest in both writing and history since her youth, Cary found a second career as an author and silent film historian in her later years under the name Diana Serra Cary. She is the author of several books and has become an advocate for child actors' rights.
Cary was born on October 29, 1918, in Merced, California, as Peggy-Jean Montgomery, the second daughter of Marian (née Baxter) and Jack Montgomery. While some sources incorrectly give her birth name as Margaret, Cary herself, in her autobiography, notes that she was indeed born as Peggy-Jean. She further explains that although the Roman Catholic nuns at her birth hospital recommended the name Margaret, her parents rejected the suggestion. Her older sister, called Louise or, occasionally, Jackie, was legally named Jack-Louise.
Baby Peggy was "discovered" at the age of 19 months, when she visited Century Studios on Sunset Boulevard, Hollywood with her mother and a film-extra friend. The Montgomery family was already somewhat involved in the motion picture industry: Jack, a former cowboy and park ranger, had done work as a stuntman and stand-in for Tom Mix in a number of his cowboy movies. Impressed by Peggy's well-behaved demeanor and willingness to follow directions from her father, director Fred Fishbach hired her to appear in a series of short films with Century's canine star, Brownie the Wonder Dog. The first film, Playmates in 1921, was a success, and Peggy was signed to a long-term contract with Century.
Between 1921 and 1924, Peggy made close to 150 short comedy films for Century. Her movies often spoofed full-length motion pictures, social issues and stars of the era; in one, Peg O' the Movies, she satirized both Rudolph Valentino and Pola Negri. She also appeared in film adaptations of novels and fairy tales, such as Hansel and Gretel and Jack and the Beanstalk, contemporary comedies, and a few full-length motion pictures.
In 1923, Peggy began working for Universal Studios, appearing in full-length dramatic films. Among her works from this era were The Darling of New York, directed by King Baggot, and the first screen adaptation of Captain January. In line with her status as a star, Peggy's Universal films were produced and marketed as "Universal Jewels," the studio's most prestigious and most expensive classification. During this time she also played in Helen's Babies which featured a young Clara Bow.
The success of the Baby Peggy films brought her into prominence. When she was not filming, she embarked on extensive "In-Person" personal appearance tours across the country to promote her movies. She was also featured in several short skits on major stages in Los Angeles and New York, including Grauman's Million Dollar Theatre and the Hippodrome. Her likeness appeared on magazine covers and was used in advertisements for various businesses and charitable campaigns. She was also named the mascot of the 1924 Democratic Convention in New York, and stood onstage waving a U.S. flag next to Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
By the age of 5, she had her own line of various endorsed items, including dolls in her likeness, sheet music, jewelry, and even milk. As a child, Frances Gumm (later Judy Garland), owned at least one Baby Peggy doll. Cary would later befriend Garland, and wrote in her autobiography that she believed Garland's mother had pursued fame for her children based on Baby Peggy's success.
While under contract with Century and Universal, Peggy commanded an impressive salary. By 1923 she was signed to a $1.5 million a year contract at Universal (equivalent to $20.6 million in 2014 dollars); on her vaudeville tours she made $300 per day. Her parents handled all of the finances; money was spent on expensive cars, homes, and clothing. Nothing was set aside for the welfare or education of Peggy or her sister. Peggy herself was paid one nickel for every vaudeville performance. Through reckless spending and corrupt business partners of her father, her entire fortune was gone before she hit puberty. When fellow child star Jackie Coogan sued his parents in 1938, Peggy's parents asked her if she was going to do the same. Believing it would do no good, Peggy did not pursue legal action. Coogan's case, and cases like Baby Peggy's, eventually inspired the Coogan Act to protect child actors' earnings.
Peggy's working conditions, as described in later interviews and her autobiography, were harsh. As a toddler she worked eight hours a day, six days a week. She was generally required to perform her own stunts, which included being held underwater in the ocean until she fainted (Sea Shore Shapes), escaping alone from a burning room (The Darling of New York), and riding underneath a train car (Miles of Smiles). While at Century she also witnessed several instances of animal cruelty and saw a trainer crushed to death by an elephant.
Schooling for both Peggy and her sister, Louise, was sporadic at best. Neither attended school until the end of the vaudeville era; for their secondary education, they worked to pay for their tuition at Lawlor Professional School, which offered flexible schedules and allowed them to continue performing in films.
Baby Peggy’s career was controlled by her father, who accompanied her to the studio every day and made every decision about her contracts. Mr. Montgomery often claimed that Peggy's success was based not on her own talent, but on her ability to follow orders unquestioningly.
Decline and stage work
Baby Peggy's film career abruptly ended in 1925 when her father had a falling out with producer Sol Lesser over her salary and cancelled her contract. She found herself essentially blacklisted and was able to land only one more part in silent films, a minor role in the 1926 picture April Fool.
From 1925 to 1929, Peggy had a successful career as a vaudeville performer. Although her routine, which included a comedy sketch, singing and a dramatic monologue, was initially met with skepticism, it soon became a popular and respected act. Although she was prohibited from "playing the Palace" because of her young age, she appeared onstage there as a special guest. Peggy and her family toured the United States and Canada, performing in major venues, until the family tired of touring. While on the vaudeville circuit, Peggy was frequently ill with tonsillitis and other ailments; however, she continued working. In Whatever Happened to Baby Peggy?, she wrote, "On several occasions I went onstage so yellow-dog sick they had to put buckets in the wings: I threw up in one before I made my entrance, and in the second when I exited, before changing and going back out for my encore." Her mother feared for her health, another reason for leaving the rough life of touring.
Peggy's father planned to buy a ranch and convert it into a high-end getaway. However, the stock market crash of 1929 put an immediate halt to the plans. Having made a $75,000 deposit on the land and existing property, the Montgomerys were forced to move to rural Wyoming where they lived near the Jelm Mountains. Peggy found the change in pace refreshing and hoped her stage days were over. However, the family struggled to make a living, and as a last-ditch effort returned to Hollywood in the early 1930s, much to the teen-aged Peggy's chagrin.
Peggy posed for publicity photos with Douglas Fairbanks Sr. and signed George Ullman as her manager. Hopes of a comeback were mostly dashed by false rumors of a bad screen test that had never taken place. The entire family was forced to take extra work while Peggy attended Fairfax High School. She loathed screen work and retired soon after appearing in Having Wonderful Time in 1938.
Peggy married Gordon Ayres in 1938 and a few years later adopted the name Diana Ayres in an effort to distance herself from the Baby Peggy image. Working at the time as a writer for radio shows, she found that people who figured out who she was were more interested in her Baby Peggy persona than in her writing abilities. She later changed her name to Diana Serra Cary explaining, "After my divorce [from Gordon Ayres] and when I became a Catholic I took Serra as my confirmation name. When I married Bob I became Mrs. Cary."
Eventually, after years of emotional struggle and open derision from Hollywood insiders and the media, Cary made peace with her Baby Peggy past. She has had successful careers as a publisher, historian, and author on Hollywood subjects, writing, among other works, an autobiography of her life as a child star, What Ever Happened to Baby Peggy: The Autobiography of Hollywood's Pioneer Child Star, and a biography of her contemporary and rival, Jackie Coogan: The World's Boy King: A Biography of Hollywood's Legendary Child Star.
As an adult, Cary has worked on numerous books exposing harsh working conditions for child stars in Hollywood. At the end of her own autobiography, she recounts the fates of numerous child stars, including Judy Garland and Shirley Temple. She has also advocated for reforms in child performer protection laws, most recently as a member of the organization A Minor Consideration.
She has appeared in numerous television documentaries and interviews about her work, and she has made guest appearances at silent film festivals.
At the age of seventeen, trying to escape the film industry and her parents' plans for her life, Cary ran away from home and rented an apartment with her sister Louise. She married actor Gordon Ayres, whom she met on the set of Ah, Wilderness!, in 1938. They divorced in 1948.
In 1954, she married artist Robert "Bob" Cary (sometimes listed as Bob Carey). They had one son, Mark. They remained married until Bob Cary's death in 2001.
On November 8, 2008, Cary's 90th birthday, she was honored at the Edison Theatre in Niles, California, with a screening of two of her feature films, Helen's Babies and Captain January. In 2012 a campaign to get Cary a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame was initiated on crowd-funding site Indiegogo.
On December 3, 2012, Turner Classic Movies presented the 2011 documentary Baby Peggy: The Elephant in the Room.
The vast majority of Cary's Baby Peggy films have not survived and records related to their production have been lost. Century Studios burned down in 1926. In addition, another older actress named Peggy Montgomery was active in Hollywood Western films between 1924 and 1929; her credits are occasionally confused with those of Baby Peggy. Filmographies at major websites are incomplete, and sometimes incorrect, because of these facts.
A handful of Baby Peggy shorts, including Playmates, Miles of Smiles and Sweetie have been discovered and preserved in film archives around the world, including the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. The full-length movies The Family Secret, April Fool, Captain January and Helen's Babies have also survived, are currently in the public domain, and have been restored and made available for sale by several independent film dealers. A full copy of The Law Forbids is also rumored to exist, but it has not surfaced publicly. In addition, fragments of some other works, including The Law Forbids, The Darling of New York and Little Red Riding Hood have surfaced and have been restored.
|1921||Her Circus Man|
|1921||On with the Show|
|1921||The Kid's Pal|
|1921||Playmates||Credited as Peggy Montgomery|
|1921||Third Class Male|
|1921||The Clean Up|
|1921||Brownie's Little Venus|
|1921||A Week Off|
|1921||Brownie's Baby Doll|
|1921||Sea Shore Shapes|
|1921||A Muddy Bride|
|1922||The Little Rascal|
|1922||Fools First||Little girl|
|1922||Little Red Riding Hood||Little Red Riding Hood|
|1923||Peg o' the Movies||Peg|
|1923||The Kid Reporter||Peggy|
|1923||Little Miss Hollywood||Little Miss Hollywood|
|1923||Miles of Smiles||The Twins (Dual role)|
|1924||The Flower Girl|
|1923||Hansel and Gretel|
|1924||Such Is Life|
|1924||Peg o' the Mounted|
|1922||Little Miss Mischief|
|1922||Penrod||Baby Rennsdale||Credited as Peggy Jane|
|1923||Hollywood||Herself (cameo)||Lost film|
|1923||The Darling of New York||Santussa||Credited as Baby Peggy Montgomery|
|1924||The Law Forbids||Peggy|
|1924||Captain January||Captain January|
|1924||Jack and the Beanstalk||Short film|
|1924||The Family Secret||Peggy Holmes|
|1926||April Fool||Irma Goodman|
|1932||Off His Base||Peggy||Credited as Peggy Montgomery|
|1934||Eight Girls in a Boat||Hortense||Credited as Peggy Montgomery|
|1934||The Return of Chandu||Judy Allen, party guest||Uncredited|
|1935||Ah, Wilderness!||Schoolgirl at graduation||Uncredited|
|1936||Girls' Dormitory||Schoolgirl||Credited as Peggy Montgomery|
|1937||Souls at Sea||Bit Role||Uncredited|
|1937||True Confession||Autograph Hunter||Uncredited|
|1938||Having Wonderful Time||Extra||Uncredited
Alternative title: Having a Wonderful Time
- What Ever Happened to Baby Peggy: The Autobiography of Hollywood's Pioneer Child Star, Diana Serra Cary, St. Martins Press, 1996, (ISBN 0-312-14760-0)
- The Hollywood Posse: The Story of a Gallant Band of Horsemen Who Made Movie History, Diana Serra Cary, University of Oklahoma Press, 1996, (ISBN 0-8061-2835-6)
- Hollywood's Children: An Inside Account of the Child Star Era, Diana Serra Cary, Southern Methodist University Press, 1997, (ISBN 0-87074-424-0)
- Jackie Coogan: The World's Boy King: A Biography of Hollywood's Legendary Child Star, Diana Serra Cary, Scarecrow Press, 2003, (ISBN 0-8108-4650-0)
- The Shirley Temple Story, Lester David, Putnam Pub Group, 1983, (ISBN 0-399-12798-4)
- "At 93, a Party Girl Is Silent No More", photographs, interview and article by Bruce Bennett, in the U.S. edition of The Wall Street Journal, September 5, 2012, page A19.
- "The Last Silent Star Standing: An Oral History of 1920s Film With Diana Serra Cary," photographs, interview and article by Jeffrey Crouse, Film International, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2013, pages 6–24.
- "The Star that is Baby Peggy". A Star For Baby Peggy. Retrieved 2012-11-21.
- "Diana Serra Cary’s Bibliography". A Star For Baby Peggy. 2012-03-08. Retrieved 2012-11-21.
- "Hollywood History: Child Star Baby Peggy at UC Merced Jan. 24" January 17, 2007. University News, University of California, Merced. Retrieved 4 Dec 2012.
- "Baby Peggy", The Blue Book of the Screen, 1923, Hollywood, California. p.205
- Cary, Diane Serra (1996). The Hollywood Posse: The Story of a Gallant Band of Horsemen who Made Movie History. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 30. ISBN 0-806-12835-6.
- "Baby Peggy: Hollywood's Tiny Titan | UCLA Film & Television Archive". Cinema.ucla.edu. 2011-03-19. Retrieved 2012-11-21.
- Balducci, Anthony (17 November 2011). The Funny Parts: A History of Film Comedy Routines and Gags. McFarland. p. 40. ISBN 078648893X.
- Lamont, Tom (23 May 2015). "'I spent most of my life as a nobody': the last of the silent movie stars". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
- Goldrup, Tom; Goldrup, Jim (2002). Growing Up on the Set: Interviews With 39 Former Child Actors of Classic Film and Television. McFarland. p. 29. ISBN 0-786-41254-2.
- "Little Girl Lost". Minorcon.org. Retrieved 2012-11-21.
- Goldrup, Tom; Goldrup, Jim (2002). Growing Up on the Set: Interviews with 39 Former Child Actors of Classic Film and Television. McFarland. p. 28. ISBN 0-786-41254-2.
- Tibbetts, John C.; Welsh, James M., ed. (2010). American Classic Screen Profiles. Scarecrow Press. p. 110. ISBN 0-810-87677-9.
- "A Star For Baby Peggy". A Star For Baby Peggy. 2012-02-18. Retrieved 2012-11-21.
- "Baby Peggy interview". Silents Are Golden. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Diana Serra Cary.|
- Diana Serra Cary at the Internet Movie Database
- Diana Serra Cary at AllMovie
- Baby Peggy: The Elephant in the Room
- An interview with Baby Peggy
- Baby Peggy at Virtual History