This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
A diaspora (/daɪˈæspərə/) is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale. In particular, diaspora has come to refer to involuntary mass dispersions of a population from its indigenous territories, most notably the expulsion of Jews from Israel (known as the Jewish diaspora) and the fleeing of Greeks after the fall of Constantinople. Other examples are the African Trans-Atlantic slave trade, the southern Chinese or Indians during the coolie trade, the Irish during and after the Irish Famine, the Romani from India, the Italian diaspora, the exile and deportation of Circassians, and the emigration of Anglo-Saxon warriors and their families after the Norman Conquest of England.
Recently, scholars have distinguished between different kinds of diaspora, based on its causes such as imperialism, trade or labor migrations, or by the kind of social coherence within the diaspora community and its ties to the ancestral lands. Some diaspora communities maintain strong political ties with their homeland. Other qualities that may be typical of many diasporas are thoughts of return, relationships with other communities in the diaspora, and lack of full integration into the host countries. Diasporas often maintain ties to the country of their historical affiliation and influence the policies of the country where they are located.
- 1 Origins and development of the term
- 2 African diaspora
- 3 Asian diasporas
- 4 European diasporas
- 5 Internal diasporas
- 6 Twentieth century
- 7 21st century
- 8 Diaspora populations on the Internet
- 9 In popular culture
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
Origins and development of the term
The term is derived from the Greek verb διασπείρω (diaspeirō), "I scatter", "I spread about" and that from διά (dia), "between, through, across" and the verb σπείρω (speirō), "I sow, I scatter". In Ancient Greece the term διασπορά (diaspora) hence meant "scattering" and was inter alia used to refer to citizens of a dominant city-state who emigrated to a conquered land with the purpose of colonization, to assimilate the territory into the empire. An example of a diaspora from classical antiquity is the century-long exile of the Messenians under Spartan rule and the Ageanites as described by Thucydides in his "history of the Peloponnesian wars."
- Deuteronomy 28:25, in the phrase ἔσῃ ἐν διασπορᾷ ἐν πάσαις ταῖς βασιλείαις τῆς γῆς, esē en diaspora en pasais tais basileiais tēs gēs, translated to mean "thou shalt be a dispersion in all kingdoms of the earth"
and secondly in
- Psalms 146(147).2, in the phrase οἰκοδομῶν Ἰερουσαλὴμ ὁ Kύριος καὶ τὰς διασπορὰς τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ ἐπισυνάξει, oikodomōn Ierousalēm ho Kyrios kai tas diasporas tou Israēl episynaxē, translated to mean "The Lord doth build up Jerusalem: he gathereth together the outcasts of Israel".
So after the Bible's translation into Greek, the word diaspora would then have been used to refer to the Northern Kingdom exiled between 740–722 BC from Israel by the Assyrians, as well as Jews, Benjaminites, and Levites exiled from the Southern Kingdom in 587 BC by the Babylonians, and from Roman Judea in 70 AD by the Roman Empire. It subsequently came to be used to refer to the historical movements and settlement patterns of the dispersed indigenous population of Israel. In English when capitalized and without modifiers (that is simply, the Diaspora), the term refers specifically to the Jewish diaspora; when uncapitalized the word diaspora may be used to refer to refugee or immigrant populations of other origins or ethnicities living "away from an established or ancestral homeland". The wider application of diaspora evolved from the Assyrian two-way mass deportation policy of conquered populations to deny future territorial claims on their part.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary Online, the first known recorded usage of the word diaspora in the English language was in 1876 referring "extensive diaspora work (as it is termed) of evangelizing among the National Protestant Churches on the continent". The term became more widely assimilated into English by the mid 1950s, with long-term expatriates in significant numbers from other particular countries or regions also being referred to as a diaspora. An academic field, diaspora studies, has become established relating to this sense of the word.
In all cases, the term diaspora carries a sense of displacement the population so described finds itself for whatever reason separated from its national territory, and usually its people have a hope, or at least a desire, to return to their homeland at some point, if the "homeland" still exists in any meaningful sense. Some writers[who?] have noted that diaspora may result in a loss of nostalgia for a single home as people "re-root" in a series of meaningful displacements. In this sense, individuals may have multiple homes throughout their diaspora, with different reasons for maintaining some form of attachment to each. Diasporic cultural development often assumes a different course from that of the population in the original place of settlement. Over time, remotely separated communities tend to vary in culture, traditions, language and other factors. The last vestiges of cultural affiliation in a diaspora is often found in community resistance to language change and in maintenance of traditional religious practice.
William Safran in an article published in 1991, set out six rules to distinguish diasporas from migrant communities. These included criteria that the group maintains a myth or collective memory of their homeland; they regard their ancestral homeland as their true home, to which they will eventually return; being committed to the restoration or maintenance of that homeland; and they relate "personally or vicariously" to the homeland to a point where it shapes their identity. While Safran's definitions were influenced by the idea of the Jewish diaspora, he recognised the expanding use of the term.
Rogers Brubaker (2005) also notes that use of the term diaspora has been widening. He suggests that one element of this expansion in use "involves the application of the term diaspora to an ever-broadening set of cases: essentially to any and every nameable population category that is to some extent dispersed in space". Brubaker has used the WorldCat database to show that 17 out of the 18 books on diaspora published between 1900 and 1910 were on the Jewish diaspora. The majority of works in the 1960s were also about the Jewish diaspora, but in 2002 only two out of 20 books sampled (out of a total of 253) were about the Jewish case, with a total of eight different diasporas covered.
Brubaker outlines the original use of the term diaspora as follows:
Most early discussions of diaspora were firmly rooted in a conceptual 'homeland'; they were concerned with a paradigmatic case, or a small number of core cases. The paradigmatic case was, of course, the Jewish diaspora; some dictionary definitions of diaspora, until recently, did not simply illustrate but defined the word with reference to that case.
Brubaker argues that the initial expansion of the use of the phrase extended it to other, similar cases, such as the Armenian and Greek diasporas. More recently, it has been applied to emigrant groups that continue their involvement in their homeland from overseas, such as the category of long-distance nationalists identified by Benedict Anderson. Brubaker notes that (as examples): Albanians, Basques, Hindu Indians, Irish, Japanese, Kashmiri, Koreans, Kurds, Palestinians, and Tamils have been conceptualised as diasporas in this sense. Furthermore, "labour migrants who maintain (to some degree) emotional and social ties with a homeland" have also been described as diasporas.
In further cases of the use of the term, "the reference to the conceptual homeland – to the 'classical' diasporas – has become more attenuated still, to the point of being lost altogether". Here, Brubaker cites "transethnic and transborder linguistic categories...such as Francophone, Anglophone and Lusophone 'communities'", along with Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Confucian, Huguenot, Muslim and Catholic 'diasporas'. Brubaker notes that, as of 2005[update], there were also academic books or articles on the Dixie, white, liberal, gay, queer and digital diasporas.
Some observers have labeled evacuation from New Orleans and the Gulf Coast in the wake of Hurricane Katrina the New Orleans diaspora, since a significant number of evacuees have not been able to return, yet maintain aspirations to do so. Agnieszka Weinar (2010) notes the widening use of the term, arguing that recently, "a growing body of literature succeeded in reformulating the definition, framing diaspora as almost any population on the move and no longer referring to the specific context of their existence". It has even been noted that as charismatic Christianity becomes increasingly globalized, many Christians conceive of themselves as a diaspora, and form an imaginary that mimics salient features of ethnic diasporas.
Professional communities of individuals no longer in their homeland can also be considered diaspora. For example, science diasporas are communities of scientists who conduct their research away from their homeland. In an article published in 1996, Khachig Tölölyan argues that the media have used the term corporate diaspora in a rather arbitrary and inaccurate fashion, for example as applied to “mid-level, mid-career executives who have been forced to find new places at a time of corporate upheaval” (10) The use of corporate diaspora reflects the increasing popularity of the diaspora notion to describe a wide range of phenomena related to contemporary migration, displacement and transnational mobility. While corporate diaspora seems to avoid or contradict connotations of violence, coercion and unnatural uprooting historically associated to the notion of diaspora, its scholarly use may heuristically describe the ways in which corporations function alongside diasporas. In this way, corporate diaspora might foreground the racial histories of diasporic formations without losing sight of the cultural logic of late capitalism in which corporations orchestrate the transnational circulation of people, images, ideologies and capital.
One of the largest diaspora of modern times is that of Sub-Saharan Africans, which dates back several centuries. During the Atlantic slave trade, 9.4 to 12 million people from West Africa survived transportation to arrive in the Americas as slaves. This population and their descendants were major influences on the culture of British, French, Portuguese, and Spanish New World colonies. Prior to the trans-Atlantic slave trade, millions of Africans had moved and settled as merchants, seamen and slaves in different parts of Europe and Asia. From the 8th through the 19th centuries, an Arab-controlled slave trade dispersed millions of Africans to Asia and the islands of the Indian Ocean.
In Black Europe and the African Diaspora, Alexander Weheliye writes a section and clearly explains diaspora this way: "Diaspora offers pathways that retrace laverings of difference in the aftermath of colonialism and slavery, as well as the effects of other forms of migration and displacement. Thus, diaspora enables the desedimentation of the nation from the ‘interior’ by taking into account the groups that fail to comply with the reigning definition of the people as a cohesive political subject due to sharing one culture, one race, one language, one religion, and so on, and from the 'exterior' by drawing attention to the movements that cannot be contained by the nation’s administrative and ideological borders".
Currently, migrant Africans can only enter 13 African countries without advanced visas. In pursuing a unified future, the African Union (AU) will allow people to move freely between the 54 countries of the AU under a visa free passport and encourage migrants to return to Africa.
The earliest known Asian diaspora of note is the Jewish diaspora, the majority of which can be attributed to the Roman conquest, expulsion, and enslavement of the Jewish population of Judea, and whose descendants became the Ashkenazim, Sephardim, and Mizrahim of today. Similarly, the Romani trace their origins to the Indian subcontinent, and their presence in Europe is first attested to in the Middle Ages.
Chinese emigration (also known as the Chinese Diaspora; see also Overseas Chinese) first occurred thousands of years ago. The mass emigration that occurred from the 19th century to 1949 was caused mainly by wars and starvation in mainland China, as well as political corruption. Most immigrants were illiterate or poorly educated peasants and coolies (Chinese: 苦力, literally "hard labor"), who immigrated to developing countries in need of labor, such as the Americas, Australia, South Africa, Southeast Asia, Malaya and other places.
The largest Asian diaspora outside of Southeast Asia is the Indian diaspora. The overseas Indian community, estimated at over 25 million, is spread across many regions in the world, on every continent. It constitutes a diverse, heterogeneous and eclectic global community representing different regions, languages, cultures, and faiths (see Desi).
At least three waves of Nepalese diaspora can be identified. The earliest wave dates back to hundreds of years as early marriage and high birthrates propelled Hindu settlement eastward across Nepal, then into Sikkim and Bhutan. A backlash developed in the 1980s as Bhutan's political elites realized that Bhutanese Buddhists were at risk of becoming a minority in their own country. At least 60,000 ethnic Nepalese from Bhutan have been resettled in the United States. A second wave was driven by British recruitment of mercenary soldiers beginning around 1815 and resettlement after retirement in the British Isles and southeast Asia. The third wave began in the 1970s as land shortages intensified and the pool of educated labor greatly exceeded job openings in Nepal. Job-related emigration created Nepalese enclaves in India, the wealthier countries of the Middle East, Europe and North America. Current estimates of the number of Nepalese living outside Nepal range well up into the millions.
In Siam, regional power struggles among several kingdoms in the region led to a large diaspora of ethnic Lao between the 1700s–1800s by Siamese rulers to settle large areas of the Siamese kingdom's northeast region, where Lao ethnicity is still a major factor in 2012. During this period, Siam decimated the Lao capital, capturing, torturing and killing the Lao king Anuwongse.
European history contains numerous diaspora-like events. In ancient times, the trading and colonising activities of the Greek tribes from the Balkans and Asia Minor spread people of Greek culture, religion and language around the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, establishing Greek city-states in Magna Graecia (Sicily, southern Italy), northern Libya, eastern Spain, the south of France, and the Black Sea coasts. Greeks founded more than 400 colonies. Tyre and Carthage also colonised the Mediterranean.
Alexander the Great's conquest of the Achaemenid Empire marked the beginning of the Hellenistic period, characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization in Asia and Africa, with Greek ruling-classes established in Egypt, southwest Asia and northwest India. Subsequent waves of colonization and migration during the Middle Ages added to the older settlements, or created new ones, thus replenishing the Greek diaspora and making it one of the most long-standing and widespread in the world.
The Migration-Period relocations, which included several phases, are just one set of many in history. The first phase Migration-Period displacement (between CE 300 and 500) included relocation of the Goths (Ostrogoths and Visigoths), Vandals, Franks, various other Germanic peoples (Burgundians, Lombards, Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Suebi, Alemanni, Varangians and Normans), Alans and numerous Slavic tribes. The second phase, between CE 500 and 900, saw Slavic, Turkic, and other tribes on the move, resettling in Eastern Europe and gradually leaving it predominantly Slavic, and affecting Anatolia and the Caucasus as the first Turkic tribes (Avars, Huns, Khazars, Pechenegs), as well as Bulgars, and possibly Magyars arrived. The last phase of the migrations saw the coming of the Hungarian Magyars. The Viking expansion out of Scandinavia into southern and eastern Europe, Iceland and Greenland.The recent application of the word "diaspora" to the Viking lexicon highlights their cultural profile distinct from their predatory reputation in the regions they settled, especially in the North Atlantic. The more positive connotations associated with the social science term helping to view the movement of the Scandinavian peoples in the Viking Age in a new way.
Such colonizing migrations cannot be considered indefinitely as diasporas; over very long periods, eventually the migrants assimilate into the settled area so completely that it becomes their new mental homeland. Thus the modern Magyars of Hungary do not feel that they belong in the Western Siberia that the Hungarian Magyars left 12 centuries ago; and the English descendants of the Angles, Saxons and Jutes do not yearn to reoccupy the plains of Northwest Germany.
In 1492 a Spanish-financed expedition headed by Christopher Columbus arrived in the Americas, after which European exploration and colonization rapidly expanded. Historian James Axtell estimates that 240,000 people left Europe for the Americas in the 16th century. Emigration continued. In the 19th century alone over 50 million Europeans migrated to North and South America. Other Europeans moved to Siberia, Africa, and Australasia.
A specific 19th-century example is the Irish diaspora, beginning in the mid-19th century and brought about by An Gorta Mór or "the Great Hunger" of the Irish Famine. An estimated 45% to 85% of Ireland's population emigrated to areas including Britain, the United States of America, Canada, Argentina, Australia and New Zealand. The size of the Irish diaspora is demonstrated by the number of people around the world who claim Irish ancestry; some sources put the figure at 80 to 100 million.
From the 1860s the Circassian people, originally from Eastern Europe, were dispersed through Anatolia, Australia, the Balkans, the Levant, North America and West Europe, leaving less than 10% of their population in the homeland - parts of historical Circassia (in the modern-day Russian portion of the Caucasus).
In the United States, approximately 4.3 million people moved outside their home states in 2010, according to IRS tax exemption data. In a 2011 TEDx presentation, Detroit native Garlin Gilchrist referenced the formation of distinct "Detroit diaspora" communities in Seattle and Washington, D.C., while layoffs in the auto industry also led to substantial blue-collar migration from Michigan to Wyoming in the mid 2000s. In response to a statewide exodus of talent, the State of Michigan continues to host "MichAGAIN" career recruiting events in places throughout the United States with significant Michigan diaspora populations.
In Mainland China, millions of migrant workers have sought greater opportunity in the country's booming coastal metropolises, though this trend has slowed with the further development of China's interior. Migrant social structures in these Chinese megacities are often based on place of origin, such as a shared hometown or province, and it is common for recruiters and foremen to select entire work crews from the same village. In two separate June 2011 incidents, Sichuanese migrant workers organized violent protests against alleged police misconduct and migrant labor abuse near the southern manufacturing hub of Guangzhou.
The twentieth century saw huge population movements. Some involved large-scale transfers of people by government action. Some migrations occurred to avoid conflict and warfare. Other diasporas were created as a consequence of political decisions, such as the end of colonialism.
World War II and the end of colonial rule
As World War II unfolded, Nazi Germany deported and killed millions of Jews and many millions of others were likewise enslaved or murdered, including Ukrainians, Russians and other Slavs. Some Jews fled from persecution to unoccupied parts of western Europe and the Americas before borders closed. Later, other eastern European refugees moved west, away from Soviet annexation, and the Iron Curtain regimes after World War II. Hundreds of thousands of these anti-Soviet political refugees and Displaced Persons ended up in western Europe, Australia, Canada and the United States of America.
After World War II, the Soviet Union and Communist-controlled Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Yugoslavia expelled millions of ethnic Germans, most of whom were descendants of immigrants who had settled in those areas nearly two centuries before. This was allegedly in retaliation for the German Nazi invasion and their pan-German attempts at annexation. Most of the refugees moved to the West, including western Europe, and with tens of thousands seeking refuge in the United States.
Prior to World War II and the re-establishment of Israel, a series of anti-Jewish pogroms broke out in the Arab world and caused many to flee, mostly to Israel. The 1948 War of Independence likewise saw several hundred thousand Jews expelled from the West Bank, and at least 750,000 Palestinians expelled or forced to flee from Israel. Many Palestinians continue to live in refugee camps, while others have resettled in other countries.
The 1947 Partition resulted in the migration of millions of people between India and Pakistan. Millions were murdered in the religious violence of the period, with estimates of fatalities up to 2 million people. Thousands of former subjects of the British Raj went to the UK from the Indian subcontinent after India and Pakistan became independent in 1947.
From the late 19th century, and formally from 1910, Japan made Korea a colony. Millions of Chinese fled to western provinces not occupied by Japan (that is, in particular Ssuchuan/Szechwan and Yunnan in the Southwest and Shensi and Kansu in the Northwest) and to Southeast Asia. More than 100,000 Koreans moved across the Amur River into Eastern Russia (then the Soviet Union) away from the Japanese.
The Cold War and the formation of post-colonial states
Upheaval in the Middle East and Central Asia, some of which was related to power struggles between the United States and the Soviet Union, created new refugee populations which developed into global diasporas.
In Southeast Asia, many Vietnamese people emigrated to France and later millions to the United States, Australia and Canada after the Cold War-related Vietnam War. Later, 30,000 French colons from Cambodia were displaced after being expelled by the Khmer Rouge regime under Pol Pot. A small, predominantly Muslim ethnic group, the Cham people long residing in Cambodia, were nearly eradicated. The mass exodus of Vietnamese people from Vietnam coined the term 'Boat people'.
In Southwest China, many Tibetan people emigrated to India, following the 14th Dalai Lama in 1959 after the failure of his Tibetan uprising. This wave lasted until the 1960s, and another wave followed when Tibet was opened up to trade and tourism in the 1980s. It is estimated that about 200,000 Tibetans live now dispersed worldwide, half of whom in are India, Nepal and Bhutan. In lieu of lost citizenship papers, the Central Tibetan Administration offers Green Book identity documents to Tibetan refugees.
Sri Lankan Tamils have historically migrated to find work, notably during the British colonial period. Since the beginning of the civil war in 1983, more than 800,000 Tamils have been displaced within Sri Lanka as local diaspora, and over a half million Tamils living as the Tamil diaspora in destinations such as India, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the UK and Europe.
The Afghan diaspora resulted from the 1979 invasion by the former Soviet Union; both official and unofficial records indicate that the war displaced over 6 million people, resulting in the creation of the largest refugee population worldwide today.
In Africa, a new series of diasporas formed following the end of colonial rule. In some cases as countries became independent, numerous minority descendants of Europeans emigrated; others stayed in the lands which had been family homes for generations. Uganda expelled 80,000 South Asians in 1972 and took over their businesses and properties. The 1990s Civil war in Rwanda between rival ethnic groups Hutu and Tutsi turned deadly and produced a mass efflux of refugees.
There was a Jamaican diaspora around the start of the 21st century. More than 1 million Dominicans live abroad a majority living in the US."Nearly 20 Percent of All Dominicans Live Abroad". Dominican Today. Archived from the original on 8 December 2012
A million Colombian refugees have left Colombia since 1965 to escape the country's violence and civil wars. In South America, thousands of Argentine, Chilean and Uruguayan refugees fled to Europe during periods of military rule in the 1970s and 1980s. In Central America, Nicaraguans, Salvadorans, Guatemalans, and Hondurans fled conflict and poor economic conditions.
Hundreds of thousands of people fled from the Rwandan Genocide in 1994 into neighboring countries. Thousands of refugees from deteriorating conditions in Zimbabwe have gone to South Africa. The long war in Congo, in which numerous nations have been involved, has also created millions of refugees.
The South Korean diaspora during the 1990s caused the fertility rate to drop when a large amount of the middle class emigrated, as the rest of the population continued to age. To counteract the change in these demographics, the South Korean government initiated a diaspora engagement policy in 1997.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2015)
Middle East conflicts
Following the Iraq War, nearly 3 million Iraqis had been displaced as of 2011, with 1.3 million within Iraq and 1.6 million in neighboring countries, mainly Jordan and Syria. The Syrian Civil War has forced further migration, with at least 4 million displaced as per UN estimates.
Venezuela's Bolivarian diaspora
Following the presidency of Hugo Chávez and the establishment of his Bolivarian Revolution, over 1.6 million Venezuelans emigrated from Venezuela in what has been called the Bolivarian diaspora. The analysis of a study by the Central University of Venezuela titled Venezuelan Community Abroad. A New Method of Exile by El Universal states that the Bolivarian diaspora in Venezuela has been caused by the "deterioration of both the economy and the social fabric, rampant crime, uncertainty and lack of hope for a change in leadership in the near future".
Diaspora populations on the Internet
There are numerous web-based news portals and forum sites dedicated to specific diaspora communities, often organized on the basis of an origin characteristic and a current location characteristic. The location-based networking features of mobile applications such as China's WeChat have also created de facto online diaspora communities when used outside of their home markets. Now, large companies from the emerging countries are looking at leveraging diaspora communities to enter the more mature market.
In popular culture
- "diaspora noun - Definition, pictures, pronunciation and usage notes - Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary at OxfordLearnersDictionaries.com". www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com.
- "Diaspora". Merriam Webster. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
- Melvin Ember, Carol R. Ember and Ian Skoggard, ed. (2004). Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Volume I: Overviews and Topics; Volume II: Diaspora Communities. ISBN 978-0-306-48321-9.
- "English Refugees in the Byzantine Armed Forces: The Varangian Guard and Anglo-Saxon Ethnic Consciousness » De Re Militari".
- Nesterovych, Volodymyr (2013). "Impact of ethnic diasporas on the adoption of normative legal acts in the United States". Viche. 8: 19–23.
- διασπορά. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
- pp.1-2, Tetlow
- p.81, Kantor
- Assyrian captivity of Israel
- pp.53, 105-106, Kantor
- p.1, Barclay
- pp.96-97, Galil & Weinfeld
- "diaspora, n." Oxford English Dictionary Online. November 2010. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
- Safran, William. 1991. "Diasporas in Modern Societies: Myths of Homeland and Return." In Diaspora, 1, no. 1: pp. 83-99.
- Brubaker 2005, p. 5.
- Weinar 2010, p. 75.
- Cohen 2008, p. 6.
- Cohen 2008, p. 4.
- Brubaker 2005, p. 3.
- Brubaker 2005, p. 14.
- Brubaker 2005, p. 2.
- Brubaker 2005, pp. 2–3.
- Kennedy, Bruce (31 August 2010). "The Economic Impact of the 'Katrina Diaspora'". Daily Finance. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- Walden, Will (1 September 2005). "Katrina scatters a grim diaspora". BBC News. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- McAlister, Elizabeth. "Listening for Geographies". Routledge. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
- Burns, William (9 December 2013). "The Potential of Science Diasporas". Science & Diplomacy. 2 (4).
- Tölölyan, Khachig (December 1996). "Rethinking Diaspora(s): Stateless Power in the Transnational Moment". Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies. 3 (36).
- ""Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Black History", Encyclopædia Britannica". Britannica.com. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- Jayasuriya, S. and Pankhurst, R. eds. (2003) The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean. Trenton: Africa World Press
- Weheliye, Alexander (2009). Black Europe and the African Diaspora. p. 162. ISBN 9780252076572.
- Monks, Kieron. "African Union launches all-Africa passport". CNN. Retrieved 2016-12-13.
- Josephus War of the Jews 9:2.
- Tubb 1998, pp. 13–14
- Ann E. Killebrew, Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity. An Archaeological Study of Egyptians, Canaanites, Philistines and Early Israel 1300-1100 B.C.E. (Archaeology and Biblical Studies), Society of Biblical Literature, 2005
- Schama, Simon (18 March 2014). The Story of the Jews: Finding the Words 1000 BC-1492 AD. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-233944-7.
- * "In the broader sense of the term, a Jew is any person belonging to the worldwide group that constitutes, through descent or conversion, a continuation of the ancient Jewish people, who were themselves descendants of the Hebrews of the Old Testament."
- "The Jewish people as a whole, initially called Hebrews (ʿIvrim), were known as Israelites (Yisreʾelim) from the time of their entrance into the Holy Land to the end of the Babylonian Exile (538 BC)."
- "Israelite, in the broadest sense, a Jew, or a descendant of the Jewish patriarch Jacob" Israelite at Encyclopædia Britannica
- "Hebrew, any member of an ancient northern Semitic people that were the ancestors of the Jews." Hebrew (People) at Encyclopædia Britannica
- Ostrer, Harry (19 April 2012). Legacy: A Genetic History of the Jewish People. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-970205-3.
- Brenner, Michael (13 June 2010). A Short History of the Jews. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-14351-X.
- Scheindlin, Raymond P. (1998). A Short History of the Jewish People: From Legendary Times to Modern Statehood. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-513941-9.
- Adams, Hannah (1840). The History of the Jews: From the Destruction of Jerusalem to the Present Time. Sold at the London Society House and by Duncan and Malcom, and Wertheim.
- Diamond, Jared (1993). "Who are the Jews?" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2010. Natural History 102:11 (November 1993): 12-19.
- Kenrick, Donald (2007). Historical Dictionary of the Gypsies (Romanies) (2nd ed.). Scarecrow Press. p. xxxvii.
The Gypsies, or Romt it is generally accepted that they did emigrate from northern India some time between the 6th and 11th centuries, then crosanies, are an ethnic group that arrived in Europe around the 14th century. Scholars argue about when and how they left India, bused the Middle East and came into Europe.
- Kalaydjieva, Luba; Gresham, D; Calafell, F (2001). "Genetic studies of the Roma (Gypsies): A review". BMC Medical Genetics. 2: 5. doi:10.1186/1471-2350-2-5. PMC 31389. PMID 11299048. Retrieved 16 June 2008.
- Ma, Laurence J. C.; Cartier, Carolyn L. (2003). The Chinese diaspora: space, place, mobility, and identity. ISBN 978-0-7425-1756-1.
- Bhaumik, Subir (7 November 2007). "Bhutan refugees are 'intimidated'". BBC News. Retrieved 25 April 2008.
- "Early development of Greek society". Highered.mcgraw-hill.com. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- "Hellenistic Civilization". Archived from the original on 5 July 2008.
- Jesch, J. A Viking Diaspora, London, Routledge.
- Adrams, L. "Diaspora and Identity in the Viking Age", Early Medieval Europe, vol.20(1), pp.17-38.
- Axtell, James (September–October 1991). "The Columbian Mosaic in Colonial America". Humanities. 12 (5): 12–18. JSTOR 4636419. Archived from the original on 19 November 2009.
- Eltis, Kingston David (1987). Economic Growth and the Ending of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Oxford University Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-19-536481-1.
- Bruner, Jon (16 November 2011). "Migration in America". Forbes. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
- Gilchrist, Garlin (6 August 2011). "From Detroit. To Detroit". TEDxLansing. TED. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
- Silke Carty, Sharon (5 December 2006). "Wyoming wins over Michigan job seekers". USA Today. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
- Walsh, Tom (10 April 2011). "MichAgain program aims to return talented people, investments to Michigan". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- Kenneth, Rapoza (19 February 2013). "Chinese Migrant Workers Enticed To Stay Home". Forbes. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- "China's migrant workers". Wildcat. Winter 2007/08 (80). Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- Demick, Barbara (13 June 2011). "China tries to restore order after migrant riots". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- "An International Conference on the Baltic Archives Abroad". Kirmus.ee. Archived from the original on 13 February 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- Oh, Chong Jin. "Diaspora nationalism: The case of ethnic Korea minority in Kazakhstan and its lessons from the Crimean Tatars in Turkey". Nationalities Papers. 34:2: 111–129.
- "1959: The Cuban Revolution". Upfront: The Newsmagazine for Teens. Scholastic.
- Song, Changzoo (May 2014). "Engaging the diaspora in an era of transnationalism". IZA World of Labor: 1–10.
- Sengupta, Kim (16 December 2011). "Will Iraq's 1.3 million refugees ever be able to go home?". The Independent. London.
- (UNHCR), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "UNHCR Syria Regional Refugee Response". Retrieved 15 September 2015.
- Olivares, Francisco (13 September 2014). "Best and brightest for export". El Universal. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- "Hugo Chavez is Scaring Away Talent". Newsweek. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- "La emigración venezolana a diferencia de otras "se va con un diploma bajo el brazo"". El Impulso. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 21 December 2014.
- Van Den Bos, Matthijs; Nell, Liza (2006). "Territorial bounds to virtual space: transnational online and offline networks of Iranian and Turkish–Kurdish immigrants in the Netherlands" (PDF). Global Networks: A Journal of Transnational Affairs. 6 (2): 201–220. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0374.2006.00141.x. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
- Chester, Ken (7 August 2013). "How WeChat And Zalo Shine a Light On The Asian American Diaspora". Tech in Asia. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
- "The Globe: Diaspora Marketing, Nirmalya Kumar and Jan-Benedict Steenkamp". Harvard Business Review. October 2013.
- Peterson-de la Cueva, Lisa (24 November 2008). "Gran Torino connects Hmong Minnesotans with Hollywood". Twin Cities Daily Planet. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
- Barclay, John M. G., (ed.), Negotiating Diaspora: Jewish Strategies in the Roman Empire, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004
- Baser, B and Swain, A. “Diasporas as Peacemakers: Third Party Mediation in Homeland Conflicts” with Ashok Swain. International Journal on World Peace 25, 3, September 2008.
- Braziel, Jana Evans. 2008. Diaspora - an introduction. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
- Brubaker, Rogers (2005). "The 'diaspora' diaspora" (PDF). Ethnic and Racial Studies. 28 (1): 1–19. doi:10.1080/0141987042000289997. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
- Bueltmann, Tanja, et al. eds. Locating the English Diaspora, 1500-2010 (Liverpool University Press, 2012)
- Cohen, Robin (2008). Global Diasporas: An Introduction (2nd ed.). Abingdon: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-43550-1.
- Galil, Gershon, & Weinfeld, Moshe, Studies in Historical Geography and Biblical Historiography: Presented to Zekharyah Ḳalai, BRILL, 2000
- Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, People of Palestine (Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books, 2012), ASIN: B0094TU8VY
- Jayasuriya, S. and Pankhurst, R. eds. (2003) The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean. Trenton: Africa World Press
- Kenny, Kevin, Diaspora: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.
- Kantor, Mattis, The Jewish time line encyclopedia: a year-by-year history from Creation to the Present, (New updated edition), Jason Aronson, Northvale NJ, 1992
- Luciuk, Lubomyr, "Searching for Place: Ukrainian Displaced Persons, Canada and the Migration of Memory," University of Toronto Press, 2000.
- Nesterovych, Volodymyr (2013). "Impact of ethnic diasporas on the adoption of normative legal acts in the United States". Viche. 8: 19–23.
- Oonk, G, 'Global Indian Diasporas: trajectories of migration and theory, Amsterdam University Press, 2007Free download: https://web.archive.org/web/20141205054154/http://dare.uva.nl/aup/en/record/260518
- Shain, Yossi, Kinship and Diasporas in International Politics, Michigan University Press, 2007
- Sami Mahroum, Cynthia Eldridge, Abdallah S Daar (2006), Transnational diaspora options: How developing countries could benefit from their emigrant populations. International Journal on Multicultural Societies, 2006.
- S Mahroum, P De Guchteneire (2007), Transnational Knowledge Through Diaspora Networks-Editorial. International Journal of Multicultural Societies 8 (1), 1-3
- Tetlow, Elisabeth Meier, Women, Crime, and Punishment in Ancient Law and Society, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005
- Tubb, Jonathan N. (1998). Canaanites. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3108-X.
- Weinar, Agnieszka (2010). "Instrumentalising diasporas for development: International and European policy discourses". In Bauböck, Rainer; Faist, Thomas. Diaspora and Transnationalism: Concepts, Theories and Methods. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. pp. 73–89. ISBN 90-8964-238-2.
- B. Xharra and M. Wählisch, Beyond Remittances: Public Diplomacy and Kosovo's Diaspora, Foreign Policy Club, Pristina (2012), http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2108317.
- Weheliye, Alexander G. "My Volk to Come: Peoplehood in Recent Diaspora Discourse and Afro-German Popular Music." Black Europe and the African Diaspora. Ed. Darlene Clark. Hine, Trica Danielle. Keaton, and Stephen Small. Urbana: U of Illinois, 2009. 161-79. Print.
- Gewecke, Frauke. "Diaspora" (2012). University Bielefeld - Center for InterAmerican Studies.
|Look up diaspora in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to diasporas.|
- Livius.org: Diaspora
- https://web.archive.org/web/20141205054154/http://dare.uva.nl/aup/en/record/260518 Open access book on Diasporas
- Integration: Building Inclusive Societies (IBIS) UN Alliance of Civilizations online community on Good Practices of Integration of Migrants across the World
- Diasporic Trajectories: Transnational Cultures in the 21st Century Podcast playlist of a seminar series held in 2015 at the University of Edinburgh, School of Literatures, Languages and Cultures