Dicalcium phosphate

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Dicalcium phosphate
Ca(HPO4)(H2O)2 from JCS A Curry, N.A.; Jones, D.W. (1971.jpg
Dicalcium phosphate.png
Names
IUPAC name
Calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate
Other names
Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate
Phosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1)
Identifiers
3D model (Jmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.933
UNII
Properties
CaHPO4
Molar mass 136.06 g/mol (anhydrous)
172.09 (dihydrate)
Appearance white powder
Odor odorless
Density 2.929 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
2.31 g/cm3 (dihydrate)
Melting point decomposes
0.02 g/100 mL (anhydrous)
0.02 g/100 mL (dihydrate)
Structure
triclinic
Hazards
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g., turpentine Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point Non-flammable
Related compounds
Other anions
Calcium pyrophosphate
Other cations
Magnesium phosphate
Monocalcium phosphate
Tricalcium phosphate
Strontium phosphate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Dicalcium phosphate is the calcium phosphate with the formula CaHPO4 and its dihydrate. The "di" prefix in the common name arises because the formation of the HPO42– anion involves the removal of two protons from phosphoric acid, H3PO4. It is also known as dibasic calcium phosphate or calcium monohydrogen phosphate. Dicalcium phosphate is used as a food additive, it is found in some toothpastes as a polishing agent and is a biomaterial.[1][2]

Preparation[edit]

Dibasic calcium phosphate is produced by the neutralization of calcium hydroxide with phosphoric acid, which precipitates the dihydrate as a solid. At 60 °C the anhydrous form is precipitated:[3]

H3PO4 + Ca(OH)2 → CaHPO4

To prevent degradation that would form hydroxyapatite, sodium pyrophosphate or trimagnesium phosphate octahydrate are added when for example, dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate is to be used as a polishing agent in toothpaste.[1]

In a continuous process CaCl2 can be treated with (NH4)2HPO4 to form the dihydrate:

CaCl2 + (NH4)2HPO4 → CaHPO4•2H2O

A slurry of the dihydrate is then heated to around 65–70 °C to form anhydrous CaHPO4 as a crystalline precipitate, typically as flat diamondoid crystals, which are suitable for further processing.[4]

Dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate is formed in "brushite" calcium phosphate cements (CPC's), which have medical applications. An example of the overall setting reaction in the formation of "β-TCP/MCPM" (β-tricalcium phosphate/monocalcium phosphate) calcium phosphate cements is:[5]

Ca3(PO4)2 + Ca(H2PO4)2•H2O + 7 H2O → 4 CaHPO4•2H2O

Structure[edit]

Three forms of dicalcium phosphate are known:

  • dihydrate, CaHPO4•2H2O ('DPCD'), the mineral brushite
  • hemihydrate, CaHPO4•0.5H2O
  • anhydrous CaHPO4, ('DCPA'), the mineral monetite. Below pH 4.8 the dihydrate and anhydrous forms of dicalcium phosphate are the most stable (insoluble) of the calcium phosphates.

The structure of the anhydrous and dihydrated forms have been determined by X-ray crystallography. The dihydrate (shown in table above) adopts a layered structure.[6]

Portion of the lattice of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, highlighting the 8-coordinated Ca2+ center and the location the protons on three ligands (green = Ca, red = oxygen, orange = phosphorus, white = hydrogen).

Uses and occurrence[edit]

Dibasic calcium phosphate is mainly used as a dietary supplement in prepared breakfast cereals, dog treats, enriched flour, and noodle products. It is also used as a tableting agent in some pharmaceutical preparations, including some products meant to eliminate body odor. Dibasic calcium phosphate is also found in some dietary calcium supplements (e.g. Bonexcin). It is used in poultry feed. It is also used in some toothpastes as a tartar control agent.[7]

Heating dicalcium phosphate gives dicalcium diphosphate, a useful polishing agent:

2 CaHPO4 → Ca2P2O7 + H2O

In the dihydrate (brushite) form it is found in some kidney stones and in dental calculi.[8][3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Corbridge, D. (1995). "Chapter 3: Phosphates". Studies in inorganic Chemistry vol. 20. Elsevier Science B.V. pp. 169–305. ISBN 0-444-89307-5. Retrieved January 30, 2015.  – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
  2. ^ Salinas, Antonio J.; Vallet-Regi, Maria (2013). "Bioactive ceramics: from bone grafts to tissue engineering". RSC Advances. Royal Society of Chemistry. 3 (28): 11116–11131. doi:10.1039/C3RA00166K. Retrieved 15 February 2015. (subscription required (help)). 
  3. ^ a b Rey, C.; Combes, C.; Drouet, C.; Grossin, D. (2011). "1.111 - Bioactive Ceramics: Physical Chemistry". In Ducheyne, Paul. Comprehensive Biomaterials. 1. Elsevier. pp. 187–281. doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-055294-1.00178-1. ISBN 978-0-08-055294-1.   – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
  4. ^ Ropp, R.C. (2013). "Chapter 4 - Group 15 (N, P, As, Sb and Bi) Alkaline Earth Compounds". Encyclopedia of the Alkaline Earth Compounds. 1. Elsevier. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-59550-8.00004-1. ISBN 978-0-444-59550-8.  – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
  5. ^ Tamimi, Faleh; Sheikh, Zeeshan; Barralet, Jake (February 2012). "Dicalcium phosphate cements: Brushite and monetite". Acta Biomaterialia. 8 (2): 474–484. doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2011.08.005. ISSN 1742-7061.   – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
  6. ^ Curry, N.A.; Jones, D.W. (1971). "Crystal structure of brushite, calcium hydrogen orthophosphate dihydrate: A neutron-diffraction investigation". of the Chemical Society A: 3725–3729. 
  7. ^ Klaus Schrödter, Gerhard Bettermann, Thomas Staffel, Friedrich Wahl, Thomas Klein, Thomas Hofmann "Phosphoric Acid and Phosphates" in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2008, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_465.pub3
  8. ^ Pak, Charles Y.C, Poindexter, John R, Adams-Huet, Beverley, Pearle, Margaret S (July 2003). "Predictive value of kidney stone composition in the detection of metabolic abnormalities". The American Journal of Medicine. 115 (1): 26– 2. doi:10.1016/S0002-9343(03)00201-8. ISSN 0002-9343.   – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)

See also[edit]