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Virus classification
Group: Group IV ((+)ssRNA)
Order: Picornavirales
Family: Dicistroviridae

Dicistroviridae is a family of viruses in the order Picornavirales. Invertebrates, including aphids, leafhoppers, flies, bees, ants, and silkworms, serve as natural hosts. There are currently 15 species in this family, divided among 2 genera. Diseases associated with this family include: DCV: increased reproductive potential. extremely pathogenic when injected with high associated mortality. CrPV: paralysis and death.[1][2]


Although many dicistroviruses were initially placed in the Picornaviridae, they have since been reclassified into their own family. The name (Dicistro) is derived from the characteristic dicistronic arrangement of the genome.

This family is a member of the Order Picornavirales (Comoviridae, Iflavirus, Picornaviridae, Potyviridae, and Sequiviridae). Within this order, the gene order is the gene order of the nonstructural proteins Hel(helicase)-Pro(protease)-RdRp(polymerase). The Dicistroviridae can be distinguished from the members of the taxa by the location of their structural protein genes at the 3' end rather than the 5' end (as found in Iflavirus, Picornaviridae and Sequiviridae) and by having two genomic segments rather than a single one (as in the Comoviridae).

Group: ssRNA(+)



Viruses in Dicistroviridae are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries, and T=pseudo3 symmetry. The diameter is around 30 nm. Genomes are linear and non-segmented, around 8.5-10.2kb in length. The genome has 2 open reading frames.[1]

Genus Structure Symmetry Capsid Genomic Arrangement Genomic Segmentation
Aparavirus Icosahedral Pseudo T=3 Non-Enveloped Linear
Cripavirus Icosahedral Pseudo T=3 Non-Enveloped Linear Monopartite

Life Cycle[edit]

Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. Translation takes place by viral initiation, and ribosomal skipping. Invertebrates serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are contamination.[1]

Genus Host Details Tissue Tropism Entry Details Release Details Replication Site Assembly Site Transmission
Aparavirus Invertebrates: honeybee, bumblebees None Unknown Unknown Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Unknown
Cripavirus Invertebrates None Cell receptor endocytosis Budding Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Food

RNA structural elements[edit]

Many of the Dicistroviridae genomes contains structured RNA elements. For example, the Cripaviruses have an internal ribosome entry site,[3] which mimics a Met-tRNA and is used in the initiation of translation.[4]


  1. ^ a b c "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. 
  2. ^ a b ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. 
  3. ^ Kanamori, Y; Nakashima N (2001). "A tertiary structure model of the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) for methionine-independent initiation of translation". RNA 7 (2): 266–274. doi:10.1017/S1355838201001741. PMC 1370084. PMID 11233983. 
  4. ^ Malys N, McCarthy JEG (2010). "Translation initiation: variations in the mechanism can be anticipated". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 68 (6): 991–1003. doi:10.1007/s00018-010-0588-z. PMID 21076851. 
  • Hunter, WB, Katsar, CS, Chaparro, JX. 2006. Molecular analysis of capsid protein of Homalodisca coagulata virus-1, a new leafhopper-infecting virus from the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata. Journal of Insect Science 6:31
  • Hunnicutt, LE, Hunter, WB, Cave RD, Powell, CA, Mozoruk, JJ. 2006. Genome sequence and molecular characterization of Homalodisca coagulata virus-1, a novel virus discovered in the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Virology 350: 67–78
  • Valles, SM, Strong, CA, Dang, PM, Hunter, WB, Pereira, RM, Oi, DH, Shapiro, AM, Williams, DF. 2004. A picorna-like virus from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta: initial discovery, genome sequence, and characterization. Virology 328: 151–157
  • de Miranda, J. R., Cordoni, G., Budge. G., 2010a. The Acute bee paralysis virus-Kashmir bee virus-Israeli acute paralysis virus complex. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 103: S30–S47

External links[edit]