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For Dictyochophyceae sensu van den Hoek et al., 1995, see Dictyochales.
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): Sar
Phylum: Heterokontophyta
Class: Actinochrysea
Cavalier-Smith et al. 1995[1]

   Actinosphaerium Rhizochromulinales    Rhizochromulina
Florenciellales    Pseudochattonella

  • Actinochrysophyceae Mikrjukov & Patterson, 2001
  • Axodines Patterson, 1994
  • Dictyochophyceae Silva, 1982

The axodines (Actinochrysea, Actinochrysophyceae or Dictyochophyceae)[2] are a group of unicellular heterokont algae, previously classified in the Chrysophyceae.[3]

They include pedinellids, silicoflagellates, and Rhizochromulinales.[2]


They characteristically have a single emergent flagellum, which lacks the root structure found in related groups, and is extended into a wing-like form supported by an internal rod. They also have tentacles or axopods supported by triads of microtubules, arising from the surface of the nucleus.

Classification and history[edit]

Order Dictyochales[edit]

Main article: Dictyochales

The most notable group is the silicoflagellates, marine plankton that form siliceous skeletons and are well known as fossils.

Order Pedinellales[edit]

Main article: Pedinellales

Most other axodines form a group variously called the pedinellids or actinodines.

Order Rhizochromulinales[edit]

In addition to the silicoflagellates and actinodines, the marine amoeboid Rhizochromulina marina is included here based on the structure of its zoospores. It is considered closer to the latter group than the former.


  1. ^ Cavalier-Smith T., Chao E. E., Allsopp M. T. E. P. (1995) Ribosomal RNA evidence for chloroplast loss within Heterokonta: pedinellid relationships and a revised classification of ochristan algae. Arch. Protistenkd. 145: 209-220.
  2. ^ a b Mikrjukov K.A., Patterson D.J. (2001) Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Heliozoa. III. Actinophryids. Acta Protozoologica 40: 3-25
  3. ^ Sandgren, C.D.; Smol, J.P.; Kristiansen, J. (1995). Chrysophyte Algae: Ecology, Phylogeny and Development. Cambridge University Press. p. 49. ISBN 9780521462600. Retrieved 2014-12-12.