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The diwheel design has the two large outer wheels completely encompassing an inner frame. The inner frame is free to rotate within the wheels, and is typically supported by a common axle or idlers which roll on the wheels (see figure). Diwheels, like their more popular cousins the monowheel, have been around for almost one and a half centuries. All of these platforms suffer from two common issues affecting driver comfort; slosh and tumbling (also known as gerbilling). Sloshing is when the inner frame oscillates, and it occurs in all monowheels and diwheels where the centre of gravity of the inner frame is offset from the centre line of the wheels. It is very prevalent as these platforms typically have low damping between the wheel and the frame, to minimise power consumption during locomotion. In addition, during severe braking or acceleration the inner frame will tumble relative to the earth centred frame, which affects the ability of the driver to control the platform. Both the sloshing and tumbling issue can be controlled through feedback control, and has been demonstrated successfully, and the equations of motion for the diwheel have been published.
- "EDWARD - Electric Diwheel With Active Rotation Damping". University of Adelaid School of Mechanical Engineering. Retrieved 2015-02-05.
- B. Cazzolato, J. Harvey, C. Dyer, K. Fulton, E. Schumann, C. Zhu and Z. Prime (2009). "Control of an electric diwheel" (PDF).