Diesel exhaust

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Class 55 Deltic diesel locomotive with their characteristic dense exhaust when starting a train

Diesel exhaust is the gaseous exhaust produced by a diesel type of internal combustion engine, plus any contained particulates. Its composition may vary with the fuel type or rate of consumption, or speed of engine operation (e.g., idling or at speed), and whether the engine is in an on-road vehicle, farm vehicle, locomotive, marine vessel, or stationary generator or other application.[not verified in body] The physical and chemical conditions that exist inside any such diesel engines under any conditions differ considerably from spark-ignition engines, because, by design, diesel engine power is not controlled by the air/fuel mixture (as in most gasoline engines), but rather it is directly controlled by the fuel supply.[1] For instance, diesel engines generally produce 28 times less carbon monoxide than gasoline engines, as diesels burn their fuel in excess air even at full load.[2][3]

However, the lean-burning nature of diesel engines and the high temperatures and pressures of the combustion process result in significant production of gaseous nitrogen oxides (NOx), an air pollutant that constitutes a unique challenge with regard to their reduction.[not verified in body] Total nitrogen oxides from petrol cars have decreased by around 96% through adoption of exhaust catalytic converters as of 2012, while diesel cars still produce nitrogen oxides at a similar level to those bought a decade and a half ago under real world tests; hence, diesel cars emit around 20 times more nitrogen oxides than petrol cars. Modern on-road diesel engines typically use selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) systems to meet emissions laws, as other methods such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cannot adequately reduce NOx to meet the newer standards applicable in many jurisdictions.[not verified in body]

Moreover, the fine particles (fine particulate matter) in diesel exhaust (e.g., soot, sometimes visible as opaque dark-colored smoke) has traditionally been of greater concern, as it presents different health concerns and is rarely produced in significant quantities by spark-ignition engines.[not verified in body] Diesel engines produce significant amounts of especially harmful particulate contaminants when running without enough oxygen to fully combust the fuel; when a diesel engine runs at idle, enough oxygen is usually present to burn the fuel completely. As a result of the particulate emissions, exhaust from diesel vehicles has been reported to be significantly more harmful than those from petrol vehicles.

Diesel exhausts have been known for their characteristic and originally strong smells, which changed and became less when the sulfur content of diesel fuel was reduced, and again when catalytic converters were introduced in exhaust systems.[not verified in body] Even so, diesel exhausts have always contained an array of inorganic and organic contaminants, varying in degree and concentration depending on fuel composition and engine running conditions. Moreover, diesel exhaust contaminants include substances listed as human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the U.N.'s World Health Organization.

Diesel exhaust pollution is thought[by whom?] to account for around one quarter of the pollution in the air in previous decades,[when?] and a high share of sickness caused by automotive pollution.

Definition and composition[edit]

Diesel exhaust is the gaseous exhaust produced by a diesel type of internal combustion engine, plus any contained particulates. Its composition may vary with the fuel type or rate of consumption, or speed of engine operation (e.g., idling or at speed), and whether the engine is in an on-road vehicle, farm vehicle, locomotive, marine vessel, or stationary generator or other application.[citation needed] The physical and chemical conditions that exist inside any such diesel engines under any conditions differ considerably from spark-ignition engines; diesel engine power is directly controlled by the fuel supply, not by control of the air/fuel mixture as in conventional gasoline engines.[citation needed] As a result of these differences, diesel engines generally produce a different array of pollutants than spark-driven engines, differences that are sometimes qualitative (what pollutants are there, and what are not), but more often quantitative (how much of particular pollutants or pollutant classes are present in each). For instance, very little carbon monoxide is produced, in general, in diesel engines, as they burn their fuel in excess air even at full load.[4][better source needed][third-party source needed]

The lean-burning nature of diesel engines and the high temperatures and pressures of the combustion process result in significant production of gaseous nitrogen oxide air pollutants.[citation needed] While total nitrogen oxides from petrol cars have decreased by around 96% through adoption of exhaust catalytic converters (as of 2012), while diesel cars still produce nitrogen oxides at a similar level to those bought a decade and a half ago under real world tests; hence, resulting in diesel cars emit around 20 times more nitrogen oxides than petrol cars.[5][verification needed] [6][verification needed][better source needed] Auxiliary diesel systems designed to remediate the nitrogen oxide pollutants are described in a separate section below.

More critically, diesel exhaust contains fine particles (fine particulate matter, e.g., soot, sometimes visible as opaque dark-colored smoke), and this is of greater concern as it is rarely produced in significant quantities by spark-ignition engines,[citation needed] and the particulates present significant, distinct health concerns (see below). These especially harmful particulate contaminants are at their peak when such engines are run without sufficient oxygen to fully combust the fuel;[citation needed] when a diesel engine runs at idle, enough oxygen is usually present to burn the fuel completely.[7] (The oxygen requirement in non-idling engines is usually mitigated using turbocharging.[citation needed])

Diesel exhausts, long known for their characteristic smells, changed significantly with the reduction of sulfur content of diesel fuel, and again when catalytic converters were introduces in exhaust systems.[citation needed] Even so, diesel exhausts continue to contain an array of inorganic and organic pollutants, in various classes, and in varying concentrations (see below). Some components of diesel exhaust are listed as carcinogenic for humans by the IARC (part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations), as present in their List of IARC Group 1 carcinogens.[8][better source needed]

Chemical classes[edit]

The following are classes of chemical compounds that have been found in diesel exhaust.[9][verification needed][needs update] [10][page needed][verification needed]

Class of chemical contaminant Note
antimony compounds Toxicity similar to arsenic poisoning[citation needed]
beryllium compounds IARC Group 1 carcinogens
chromium compounds IARC Group 3 carcinogens
cobalt compounds
cyanide compounds
dioxins and dibenzofurans
manganese compounds
mercury compounds IARC Group 3 carcinogens
nitrogen oxides
polycyclic organic matter, including
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
selenium compounds
sulfur compounds

Specific chemicals[edit]

The following are classes of specific chemicals that have been found in diesel exhaust.[9][verification needed][needs update] [10][page needed][verification needed]

Chemical contaminant Note Concentration, ppm
acetaldehyde IARC Group 2B carcinogens
acrolein IARC Group 3 carcinogens
aniline IARC Group 3 carcinogens
arsenic IARC Group 1 carcinogens, endocrine disruptor[citation needed]
benzene IARC Group 1 carcinogens
biphenyl Mild toxicity[citation needed]
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate Endocrine disruptor[citation needed]
1,3-Butadiene IARC Group 2A carcinogens
cadmium IARC Group 1 carcinogens, endocrine disruptor[citation needed]
chlorine Byproduct of urea injection[citation needed]
chlorobenzene "[L]ow to moderate" toxicity[this quote needs a citation]
cresol§
dibutyl phthalate Endocrine disruptor[citation needed]
1,8-dinitropyrene Carcinogen[citation needed]
ethylbenzene
formaldehyde IARC Group 1 carcinogens
inorganic lead Endocrine disruptor[citation needed]
methanol
methyl ethyl ketone
naphthalene IARC Group 2B carcinogens
nickel IARC Group 2B carcinogens
3-Nitrobenzanthrone Strongly carcinogenic[citation needed] 0.6-6.6[citation needed]
4-nitrobiphenyl 2.2[citation needed]
phenol
phosphorus
Pyrene 3532–8002[citation needed]
Benzo(e)pyrene 487–946[citation needed]
Benzo(a)pyrene IARC Group 1 carcinogen 208–558[citation needed]
Fluoranthene 3399–7321[citation needed]
propionaldehyde
styrene IARC Group 2B carcinogens
toluene IARC Group 3 carcinogens
xylene§ IARC Group 3 carcinogens

§Includes all regioisomers of this aromatic compound. See ortho-, meta-, and para-isomer descriptions at each compound's article.

Water vapor[edit]

Vehicle exhaust contains much water vapor.

Water recovery[edit]

There has been research into ways that troops in deserts can recover drinkable water from their vehicles' exhaust gases. [11]

Regulation[edit]

International and federal[edit]

Miscellaneous[edit]

To rapidly reduce particulate matter from heavy-duty diesel engines in California, the California Air Resources Board created the Carl Moyer Program to provide funding for upgrading engines ahead of emissions regulations.[citation needed] In 2008 the California Air Resources Board also implemented the 2008 California Statewide Truck and Bus Rule which requires all heavy-duty diesel trucks and buses, with a few exceptions, that operate in California to either retrofit or replace engines in order to reduce diesel particulate matter.[citation needed] The US Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) issued a health standard in January 2001 designed to reduce diesel exhaust exposure in underground metal and nonmetal mines; on September 7, 2005, MSHA published a notice in the Federal Register proposing to postpone the effective date from January 2006 until January 2011.[citation needed]

Health concerns[edit]

General concerns[edit]

Emissions from diesel vehicles have been reported to be significantly more harmful than those from petrol vehicles.[12][better source needed] Diesel combustion exhaust is a source of atmospheric soot and fine particles, which is a component of the air pollution implicated in human cancer,[13][14] heart and lung damage,[15] and mental functioning.[16] Moreover, diesel exhaust contains contaminants listed as carcinogenic for humans by the IARC (part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations), as present in their List of IARC Group 1 carcinogens.<[8][better source needed] Diesel exhaust pollution is thought[by whom?] to account for around one quarter of the pollution in the air in previous decades,[when?] and a high share of sickness caused by automotive pollution.[17][better source needed]

Occupational health effects[edit]

Exposure to diesel exhaust and diesel particulate matter (DPM) is an occupational hazard to truckers, railroad workers, and miners using diesel-powered equipment in underground mines. Adverse health effects have also been observed in the general population at ambient atmospheric particle concentrations well below the concentrations in occupational settings.

In March 2012, U.S. government scientists showed that underground miners exposed to high levels of diesel fumes have a threefold increased risk for contracting lung cancer compared with those exposed to low levels. The $11.5 million Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS) followed 12,315 miners, controlling for key carcinogens such as cigarette smoke, radon, and asbestos. This allowed scientists to isolate the effects of diesel fumes.[18][19]

For over 10 years, concerns have been raised in the USA regarding children's exposure to DPM as they ride diesel-powered school buses to and from school.[20] In 2013, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Clean School Bus USA initiative in an effort to unite private and public organizations in curbing student exposures.[21]

Concerns regarding particulates[edit]

Heavy truck, with visible particulate soot

Diesel particulate matter (DPM), sometimes also called diesel exhaust particles (DEP), is the particulate component of diesel exhaust, which includes diesel soot and aerosols such as ash particulates, metallic abrasion particles, sulfates, and silicates. When released into the atmosphere, DPM can take the form of individual particles or chain aggregates, with most in the invisible sub-micrometre range of 100nanometers, also known as ultrafine particles (UFP) or PM0.1.

The main particulate fraction of diesel exhaust consists of fine particles. Because of their small size, inhaled particles may easily penetrate deep into the lungs. The rough surfaces of these particles makes it easy for them to bind with other toxins in the environment, thus increasing the hazards of particle inhalation.[7][verification needed]

A study of particulate matter (PM) emissions from transit buses running on ULSD and soybean biodiesel (B20) was reported by Omidvarborna and coworkers, where they conclude PM emissions appeared lower in cases of biodiesel use, where they were dependent on the engine model, cold and hot idle modes, and fuel type, and that heavy metals in PM emitted during hot idling were greater than those from cold idling; reasons for PM reduction in biodiesel emissions were suggested to result from the oxygenated structure of biodiesel fuel, as well as arising from changes in technology (including the use of a catalytic converter in this test system).[22]

Specific effects[edit]

Exposures have been linked with acute short-term symptoms such as headache, dizziness, light-headedness, nausea, coughing, difficult or labored breathing, tightness of chest, and irritation of the eyes and nose and throat[citation needed]. Long-term exposures can lead to chronic, more serious health problems such as cardiovascular disease, cardiopulmonary disease, and lung cancer.[13][14][23] Elemental carbon attributable to traffic was significantly associated with wheezing at age 1 and persistent wheezing at age 3 in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study birth cohort study.[24]

The NERC-HPA funded Traffic Pollution and Health in London project at King's College London is currently[when?] seeking to refine understanding of the health effects of traffic pollution.[25] Ambient traffic-related air pollution was associated with decreased cognitive function in older men.[16]

Mortality from diesel soot exposure in 2001 was at least 14,400 out of the German population of 82 million, according to the official report 2352 of the Umweltbundesamt Berlin (Federal Environmental Agency of Germany).[citation needed]

The study of nanoparticles and nanotoxicology is in its infancy, and health effects from nanoparticles produced by all types of diesel engines are still being uncovered. It is clear, that diesel health detriments of fine particle emissions are severe and pervasive. Although one study found no significant evidence that short-term exposure to diesel exhaust results in adverse extrapulmonary effects, effects that are correlated with an increase in cardiovascular disease,[26] a 2011 study in The Lancet concluded that traffic exposure is the single most serious preventable trigger of heart attack in the general public, as the cause of 7.4% of all attacks.[15] It is impossible to tell how much of this effect is due to the stress of being in traffic and how much is due to exposure to exhaust.[citation needed]

Since the study of the detrimental health effects of nanoparticles (nanotoxicology) is still in its infancy, and the nature and extent of negative health impacts from diesel exhaust continues to be discovered. There is little controversy, however, that the public health impact of diesels is higher than that of petrol-fuelled vehicles despite the wide uncertainties.[27]

Variation with engine conditions[edit]

The types and quantities of nanoparticles can vary according to operating temperatures and pressures, presence of an open flame, fundamental fuel type and fuel mixture, and even atmospheric mixtures. As such, the resulting types of nanoparticles from different engine technologies and even different fuels are not necessarily comparable. One study has shown that 95% of the volatile component of diesel nanoparticles is unburned lubricating oil.[28] Long-term effects still need to be further clarified, as well as the effects on susceptible groups of people with cardiopulmonary diseases.

Diesel engines can produce black soot (or more specifically diesel particulate matter) from their exhaust. The black smoke consists of carbon compounds that have not burned because of local low temperatures where the fuel is not fully atomized. These local low temperatures occur at the cylinder walls, and at the surface of large droplets of fuel. At these areas where it is relatively cold, the mixture is rich (contrary to the overall mixture which is lean). The rich mixture has less air to burn and some of the fuel turns into a carbon deposit. Modern car engines use a diesel particulate filter (DPF) to capture carbon particles and then intermittently burn them using extra fuel injected directly into the filter. This prevents carbon buildup at the expense of wasting a small quantity of fuel.

The full load limit of a diesel engine in normal service is defined by the "black smoke limit", beyond which point the fuel cannot be completely burned. As the "black smoke limit" is still considerably lean of stoichiometric, it is possible to obtain more power by exceeding it, but the resultant inefficient combustion means that the extra power comes at the price of reduced combustion efficiency, high fuel consumption and dense clouds of smoke. This is only done in high performance applications where these disadvantages are of little concern.

When starting from cold, the engine's combustion efficiency is reduced because the cold engine block draws heat out of the cylinder in the compression stroke. The result is that fuel is not burned fully, resulting in blue and white smoke and lower power outputs until the engine has warmed. This is especially the case with indirect injection engines, which are less thermally efficient. With electronic injection, the timing and length of the injection sequence can be altered to compensate for this. Older engines with mechanical injection can have mechanical and hydraulic governor control to alter the timing, and multi-phase electrically controlled glow plugs, that stay on for a period after start-up to ensure clean combustion; the plugs are automatically switched to a lower power to prevent their burning out.

Other effects[edit]

Experiments in 2013 showed that diesel exhaust impaired bees' ability to detect the scent of oilseed rape flowers.[29]

Remedies[edit]

General[edit]

With emissions standards increasing, diesel engines are having to become more efficient and have less pollutants in their exhaust.[citation needed] For instance, light duty truck must now have NOx emissions less than 0.07 g/mile,[when?][citation needed] and in the U.S., by 2010, NOx emissions must be less than 0.03 g/mile.[citation needed] Moreover, in recent years the United States, Europe, and Japan have extended emissions control regulations from covering on-road vehicles to include farm vehicles and locomotives, marine vessels, and stationary generator applications.[30] Engineers have come up with two principle and distinct systems to all on-market products meet the U.S. 2010 emissions criteria,[citation needed][needs update] selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Both are in the exhaust system of diesel engines, and are further designed to promote efficiency.[citation needed]

Selective non-catalytic reduction[edit]

Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) injects a reductant such as ammonia or urea — the latter aqueous, where it is known as diesel exhaust fluid, DEF) — into the exhaust of a diesel engine to convert nitrogen oxides (NOx) into gaseous dinitrogen and water. SNCR systems have been prototyped that reduce 90% of the NOx in the exhaust system, with commercialized systems being somewhat lower.[citation needed] SNCR systems do not necessarily need particulate matter (PM) filters; when SNCR and PM filters are combined, some engines have been shown to be 3-5% more fuel efficient.[citation needed] A disadvantage of the SNCR system, in addition to added upfront development cost (which can be offset by compliance and improved performance),[citation needed] is the need to refill the reductant, the periodicity of which varies with the miles driven, load factors, and the hours used.[31][full citation needed][better source needed][third-party source needed] The SNCR system is not as efficient at higher revolutions per minute (rpm).[citation needed] SNCR is being optimized to have higher efficiency with broader temperatures, to be more durable, and to meet other commercial needs.[30]

Exhaust gas recirculation[edit]

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), on diesel engines, can be used to achieve a richer fuel to air mixture and a lower peak combustion temperature. Both effects reduce NOx emissions, but can negatively impact efficiency and the production of soot particles. The richer mix is achieved by displacing some of the intake air, but is still lean compared to petrol engines, which approach the stoichiometric ideal. The lower peak temperature is achieved by a heat exchanger that removes heat prior to re-entering the engine, and works due to the exhaust gases' higher specific heat than air. With the greater soot production, EGR is often combined with a particulate matter (PM) filter in the exhaust.[32][full citation needed] In turbocharged engines, EGR needs a controlled pressure differential across the exhaust manifold and intake manifold, which can be met by such engineering as use of a variable geometry turbocharger,[citation needed] which has inlet guide vanes on the turbine to build exhaust backpressure in the exhaust manifold directing exhaust gas to the intake manifold.[32] It also requires additional external piping and valving, and so requires additional maintenance.[citation needed] [33]

Combined systems[edit]

John Deere, the farm equipment manufacturer is implementing such a combined SNCR-EGR design, in a 9-liter "inline 6" diesel engine that involves both system types, a PM filter and additional oxidation catalyst technologies.[34][better source needed][third-party source needed] The combined system incorporates two turbochargers, the first on the exhaust manifold, with variable geometry and containing the EGR system; and a second a fixed geometry turbocharger. Recirculated exhaust gas and the compressed air from the turbochargers have separate coolers, and air merges before entering the intake manifold, and all subsystems are controlled by a central engine control unit that optimizes minimization of pollutants released in the exhaust gas.[34]

Other remedies[edit]

Further reading[edit]

See also[edit]

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ Song, Chunsham (2000). Chemistry of Diesel Fuels. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press. p. 4. Retrieved 24 October 2015. 
  2. ^ Krivoshto, Irina N.; Richards, John R., Albertson Timothy E. and Derlet, Robert W. (January 2008). "The Toxicity of Diesel Exhaust: Implications for Primary Care". Medical Journal. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. pp. 55–62. Retrieved 22 October 2015. 
  3. ^ Gajendra Babu, M.K.; Subramanian, K.A. (18 June 2013). "Alternative Transportation Fuels: Utilisation in Combustion Engines". Book. CRC Press. p. 230. Retrieved 24 October 2015. 
  4. ^ Majewski, W. Addy (2012). "What Are Diesel Emissions". Ecopoint Inc. Retrieved 5 June 2015. [third-party source needed]
  5. ^ Fuller, Gary (Jul 8, 2012). "Diesel cars emit more nitrogen oxides than petrol cars". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 June 2015. 
  6. ^ Lean, Geoffrey (Jul 19, 2013). "Why is killer diesel still poisoning our air?". The Telegraph. Retrieved 5 June 2015. 
  7. ^ a b Omidvarbornaa, Hamid; Kumara, Ashok; Kim, Dong-Shik (2015). "Recent Studies on Soot Modeling for Diesel Combustion". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 48: 635–647. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2015.04.019. 
  8. ^ a b IARC. "Diesel Engine Exhaust Carcinogenic" (Press release). International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Retrieved June 12, 2012. After a week-long meeting of international experts, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which is part of the World Health Organization (WHO), today classified diesel exhaust as probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), based on enough evidence that exposure is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. [better source needed]
  9. ^ a b "EPA Report on diesel emissions" (PDF). EPA. 2002. p. 113. Retrieved 19 August 2013. ][verification needed][needs update]
  10. ^ a b Lippmann, Morton, ed. (2009). Environmental Toxicants (PDF). doi:10.1002/9780470442890. ISBN 9780470442890. [page needed][verification needed]
  11. ^ Google search
  12. ^ Vidal, John (Jan 27, 2013). "Diesel fumes more damaging to health than petrol engines". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 June 2015. 
  13. ^ a b "Diesel exhausts do cause cancer, says WHO - BBC News". Bbc.co.uk. 2012-06-12. Retrieved 2015-10-22. 
  14. ^ a b "WHO: Diesel Exhaust Causes Lung Cancer". Medpage Today. Retrieved 2015-10-22. 
  15. ^ a b "Public health importance of triggers of myocardial infarction: comparative risk assessment". The Lancet 377 (9767): 732–740. 2011. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62296-9. : "Taking into account the OR and the prevalences of exposure, the highest PAF was estimated for traffic exposure (7.4%)... "
    "... [O]dds ratios and frequencies of each trigger were used to compute population-attributable fractions (PAFs), which estimate the proportion of cases that could be avoided if a risk factor were removed. PAFs depend not only on the risk factor strength at the individual level but also on its frequency in the community. ... [T]he exposure prevalence for triggers in the relevant control time window ranged from 0.04% for cocaine use to 100% for air pollution. ... Taking into account the OR and the prevalences of exposure, the highest PAF was estimated for traffic exposure (7.4%) ...
  16. ^ a b Power; Weisskopf; Alexeeff; Coull; Spiro; Schwartz (May 2011). "Traffic-related air pollution and cognitive function in a cohort of older men". Environmental Health Perspectives 119 (5): 682–7. doi:10.1289/ehp.1002767. PMC 3094421. PMID 21172758. 
  17. ^ Health Concerns Associated with Excessive Idling North Central Texas Council of Governments, 2008.[better source needed]
  18. ^ Attfield, M. D.; Schleiff, P. L.; Lubin, J. H.; Blair, A.; Stewart, P. A.; Vermeulen, R.; Coble, J. B.; Silverman, D. T. (5 March 2012). "The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: A Cohort Mortality Study With Emphasis on Lung Cancer". JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 104: 869–883. doi:10.1093/jnci/djs035. 
  19. ^ Silverman, D. T.; Samanic, C. M.; Lubin, J. H.; Blair, A. E.; Stewart, P. A.; Vermeulen, R.; Coble, J. B.; Rothman, N.; Schleiff, P. L.; Travis, W. D.; Ziegler, R. G.; Wacholder, S.; Attfield, M. D. (5 March 2012). "The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: A Nested Case-Control Study of Lung Cancer and Diesel Exhaust". JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 104: 855–868. doi:10.1093/jnci/djs034. 
  20. ^ Solomon, Gina; Campbell, Todd (January 2001). "No Breathing in the Aisles. Diesel Exhaust Inside School Buses". NRDC.org. Natural Resources Defense Council. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  21. ^ "Clean School Bus". EPA.gov. United States Government. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  22. ^ Omidvarbornaa, Hamid; Kumara, Ashok; Kim, Dong-Shik (2014). "Characterization of Particulate Matter Emitted from Transit Buses Fueled with B20 in Idle Modes". Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 2 (4, December): 2335–2342. doi:10.1016/j.jece.2014.09.020. 
  23. ^ Ole Raaschou-Nielsen; et al. (July 10, 2013). "Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)". The Lancet Oncology 14 (9): 813–22. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(13)70279-1. PMID 23849838. Retrieved July 10, 2013. Particulate matter air pollution contributes to lung cancer incidence in Europe. 
  24. ^ Bernstein, David I. (Jul 2012). "Diesel Exhaust Exposure, Wheezing and Sneezing". Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 4 (4): 178–183. doi:10.4168/aair.2012.4.4.178. PMC 3378923. PMID 22754710. 
  25. ^ http://www.erg.kcl.ac.uk/ResearchProjects/Traffic/. Retrieved March 8, 2013.  Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  26. ^ [1] Archived January 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  27. ^ Int Panis, L; Rabl; De Nocker, L; Torfs, R (2002). "Diesel or Petrol ? An environmental comparison hampered by uncertainty". Mitteilungen Institut für Verbrennungskraftmaschinen und Thermodynamik, Publisher: Institut für Verbrennungskraftmaschinen und Thermodynamik 81 (1): 48–54. 
  28. ^ "On-line measurements of diesel nanoparticle composition and volatility". Atmospheric Environment 37: 1199–1210. doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(02)01017-8. 
  29. ^ "Diesel exhaust rapidly degrades floral odours used by honeybees : Scientific Reports". Nature.com. doi:10.1038/srep02779. Retrieved 2015-10-22. 
  30. ^ a b Guan, B; Zhan, R; Lin, H; Huang, Z. (2014). "Review of state of the art technologies of selective catalytic reduction of NOx from diesel engine exhaust". Applied Thermal Engineering 66: 395–414. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2014.02.021. Retrieved 22 October 2015.  (subscription required)
  31. ^ "What is SCR? | Diesel Technology Forum". Dieselforum.org. 2010-01-01. Retrieved 2015-10-22. 
  32. ^ a b Bennett, Sean (2004). Medium/Heavy Duty Truck Engines, Fuel & Computerized Management Systems 2nd Edition, ISBN 1401814999.[full citation needed][page needed]
  33. ^ "Behaviour Study of Particulate Matter and Chemical Composition with Different Combustion Strategies". Retrieved 2016-06-17. 
  34. ^ a b "Technology to Reduce Emissions in Large Engines" (PDF). Deere.com. Retrieved 2015-10-22. 

External links[edit]