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Order and disorder in difluorides
A parallelogram-shaped outline with space-filling diatomic molecules (joined circles) arranged in two layers cube of 8 yellow atoms with white ones at the holes of the yellow structure
The fluorite structure Beryllium fluoride glass

Difluorides are chemical compounds with two fluorine atoms per molecule (or per formula unit).

Metal difluorides are all ionic. Despite being highly ionic, the alkali earth metal difluorides generally have extremely high lattice stability and are thus insoluble in water. One exception is beryllium difluoride. In addition, many transition metal difluorides are water-soluble.

Calcium difluoride is a notable compound. In the form of the mineral fluorite it is the major source of commercial fluorine. It also has an epynomic crystal structure, which is an end member of the spectrum starting from bixbyite and progressing through pyrochlore.

List of the difluorides[edit]

Examples of the difluorides include:

Alkaline earth metal difluorides[edit]

The alkaline earth metals all exhibit the oxidation state +2, and form difluorides. The difluoride of radium is however not well established due to the element's high radioactivity.

Solubility-related constants of alkaline earth metal fluorides
M2+ HE[1] F HE[2] "MF2" unit
MF2 lattice
energies (−kJ/mol)[3]
Be 2,455 458 3,371 3,526 soluble
Mg 1,922 458 2,838 2,978 0.0012
Ca 1,577 458 2,493 2,651 0.0002
Sr 1,415 458 2,331 2,513 0.0008
Ba 1,361 458 2,277 2,373 0.006

Lanthanide difluorides[edit]

Transition metal difluorides[edit]

Compounds of the form MF2:

Post-transition metal difluorides[edit]

Nonmetal and metalloid difluorides[edit]

Noble gas difluorides[edit]


The bifluorides contain the two fluorine atoms in a covalently bound HF2 polyatomic ion rather than as F anions.

Organic difluorides[edit]



  • Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. (1998). Chemistry of the Elements (second edition). Butterworth Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4. 
  • Lide, David R. (2004). Handbook of chemistry and physics (84th ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0566-7.