The digit ratio is the ratio of the lengths of different digits or fingers typically measured from the midpoint of bottom crease (where the finger joins the hand) to the tip of the finger. It has been suggested by some scientists that the ratio of two digits in particular, the 2nd (index finger) and 4th (ring finger), is affected by exposure to androgens, e.g., testosterone while in the uterus and that this 2D:4D ratio can be considered a crude measure for prenatal androgen exposure, with lower 2D:4D ratios pointing to higher prenatal androgen exposure. There are also studies that suggest that the 2D:4D ratio is also influenced by prenatal estrogen exposure, and that it thus correlates negatively not with prenatal testosterone alone, but rather with the prenatal testosterone to estrogen ratio (T:O). The 2D:4D ratio is calculated by dividing the length of the index finger of a given hand by the length of the ring finger of the same hand. A longer index finger will result in a ratio higher than 1, while a longer ring finger will result in a ratio lower than 1.
The 2D:4D digit ratio is sexually dimorphic: although the second digit is typically shorter in both females and males, the difference between the lengths of the two digits is greater in males than in females.
A number of studies have shown a correlation between the 2D:4D digit ratio and various physical and behavioral traits.
- 1 History of research
- 2 Distribution
- 3 Evidence of androgen effect
- 4 Explanation of the digit ratio effect
- 5 Geographic and ethnic variation in 2D:4D
- 6 Correlation with traits
- 7 Palaeolithic hand stencils
- 8 Other animals
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
History of research
That a greater proportion of men have shorter index fingers than ring fingers than do women was noted in the scientific literature several times through the late 1800s, with the statistically significant sex difference in a sample of 201 men and 109 women established by 1930, after which time the sex difference appears to have been largely forgotten or ignored. In 1983 Dr Glenn Wilson of King's College, London, published a study examining the correlation between assertiveness in women and their digit ratio. This was the first study to examine the correlation between digit ratio and a psychological trait within members of the same sex. Wilson proposed that skeletal structure and personality were simultaneously affected by sex hormone levels in utero. In 1998, John T. Manning and colleagues reported the sex difference in digit ratios was present in two-year-old children and further developed the idea that the index was a marker of prenatal sex hormones. Since then research on the topic has burgeoned around the world.
A 2009 study in Biology Letters argues: "Sexual differences in 2D:4D are mainly caused by the shift along the common allometric line with non-zero intercept, which means 2D:4D necessarily decreases with increasing finger length, and the fact that men have longer fingers than women," which may be the basis for the sex difference in digit ratios and/or any putative hormonal influence on the ratios.
A 2011 paper by Zhengui Zheng and Martin J. Cohn reports "the 2D:4D ratio in mice is controlled by the balance of androgen to estrogen signaling during a narrow window of digit development". The formation of the digits in humans, in utero, is thought to occur by 13 weeks, and the bone-to-bone ratio is consistent from this point into an individual's adulthood. During this period if the fetus is exposed to androgens, the exact level of which is thought to be sexually dimorphic, the growth rate of the 4th digit is increased, as can be seen by analyzing the 2D:4D ratio of opposite sex dizygotic twins, where the female twin is exposed to excess androgens from her brother in utero, and thus has a significantly lower 2D:4D ratio.
Importantly, there has been no correlation between the sex hormone levels of an adult and the individual’s 2D:4D, which implies that it is strictly the exposure in utero that causes this phenomenon.
A major problem with the research on this topic comes from the contradiction in the literature as to whether the testosterone level in adults can be predicted by the 2D:4D ratio, but male sexual traits that are stereotypically attributed to testosterone levels have been found in correlation with the 2D:4D. So there should be a correlation with one or the other but not both.
From a study of 136 males and 137 females at the University of Alberta:
- Males: mean 0.947, standard deviation 0.029.
- Females: mean 0.965, standard deviation 0.026.
Assuming a normal distribution, the above lead to 95% prediction intervals for 2D:4D ratio of 0.889-1.005 for males and 0.913-1.017 for females.
Evidence of androgen effect
Women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), which results in elevated androgen levels before birth, have lower, more masculinized 2D:4D on average. Other possible physiological effects include an enlarged clitoris and shallow vagina.
Males with CAH have more masculine (smaller) digit ratios than control males, which also suggests that prenatal androgens affect digit ratios, since amniocentesis samples show that prenatal levels of testosterone are in the high normal range in males with CAH, while levels of the weaker androgen androstenedione are several fold higher than in control males. These measures indicate that males with CAH are exposed to greater prenatal concentrations of total androgens than are control males.
Digit ratio in men with Klinefelter's syndrome, who have reduced testosterone secretion throughout life compared to control males, are greater (i.e., more feminine) than in their fathers or control males.
In a non-clinical sample of women, digit ratio correlated with anogenital distance in the expected direction, i.e., women with a greater anogenital distance, indicating greater prenatal androgen exposure, had a smaller digit ratio.
Digit ratio in men correlates with genetic variation in the androgen receptor gene. Men with genes that produce androgen receptors that are less sensitive to testosterone (because they have more CAG repeats) have greater, more feminine, digit ratios. There are reports of a failure to replicate this finding. However, men carrying an androgen receptor with more CAG repeats compensate for the less sensitive receptor by secreting more testosterone, probably as a result of reduced negative feedback on gonadotropins. Thus, it is not clear that 2D:4D would be expected to correlate with CAG repeats, even if it accurately reflects prenatal androgen.
XY individuals with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) due to a dysfunctional gene for the androgen receptor present as women and have feminine digit ratios on average, as would be predicted if androgenic hormones affect digit ratios. This finding also demonstrates that the sex difference in digit ratios is unrelated to the Y chromosome per se.
The sex difference in 2D:4D is present before birth in humans, which rules out any social influences that might affect digit growth differentially in the two sexes. Because all somatic sex differences in mammals to date have been found to be due to either androgenic masculinization or effects of the sex chromosomes, and as the AIS finding rules out a role for sex chromosomes in the sex difference in digit ratios, the prenatal sexual dimorphism also indicates that androgens act before birth to affect digit ratios.
Studies in mice indicate that prenatal androgen acts primarily by promoting growth of the fourth digit.
The level of estrogen in the amniotic fluid is not correlated with higher 2D:4D, and when examined researchers found no difference in estrogen levels between males and females.
Explanation of the digit ratio effect
It is not clear why digit ratio is influenced by prenatal hormones. There is evidence of other similar traits, e.g. otoacoustic emissions and arm-to-trunk length ratio, which show similar effects. Hox genes responsible for both digit and penis development have been implicated in affecting these multiple traits (pleiotropy). Direct effects of sex hormones on bone growth might be responsible, either by regulation of Hox genes in digit development or independently of such genes. Likewise, it is unclear why digit ratio on the right hand should be more responsive than that on the left hand, as is indicated by the greater sex difference on the right than the left.
One study on mice from 2011 suggests that the 2D:4D ratio correlates with prenatal sex hormone levels because the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor activity is higher in digit 4 than in digit 2. Inactivation of AR decreases growth of digit 4, which causes a higher 2D:4D ratio, whereas inactivation of ER-α increases growth of digit 4, which leads to a lower 2D:4D ratio.
Geographic and ethnic variation in 2D:4D
Manning and colleagues have shown that 2D:4D ratios vary greatly between different ethnic groups. In a study with Han, Berber, Uygur and Jamaican children as subjects, Manning et al. found that Han children had the highest mean values of 2D:4D (0.954±−0.032), they were followed by the Berbers (0.950±0.033), then the Uygurs (0.946±0.037), and the Jamaican children had the lowest mean 2D:4D (0.935±0.035). This variation is far larger than the differences between sexes; in Manning's words, "There's more difference between a Pole and a Finn, than a man and a woman."
It should be noted, however, that the standard deviations associated with each given 2D:4D mean are considerable. For example, the ratio for Han children (0.954±−0.032) allows for a ratio as low as 0.922, while the ratio for Jamaican children (0.935±0.035) allows for a ratio as high as 0.970. Thus some ethnic groups' confidence intervals overlap.
A 2008 study by Lu et al. found that the mean values of 2D:4D of the Hui and the Han in Ningxia were lower than those in European countries like Britain.
In 2007 Manning et al. also found that mean 2D:4D varied across ethnic groups with higher ratios for Whites, Non-Chinese Asians, and Mid-Easterners and lower ratios in Chinese and Black samples.
Two studies explored the question of whether geographical differences in 2D:4D ratios were caused by gene pool differences, or whether some environmental variable associated with latitude might be involved (e.g., exposure to sunlight or different day-length patterns). The conclusions were that geographical differences in 2D:4D ratio were caused by genetic pool differences, not by geographical latitude.
Consanguinous parentage (inbreeding) has been found to lower the 2D:4D ratio in offspring, which may account for some of the geographical and ethnic variation in 2D:4D ratios, as consanguinity rates depend among others on religion, culture, and geography.
Correlation with traits
Some authors suggest that digit ratio correlates with health, behavior, and even sexuality in later life. Below is a non-exhaustive list of some traits that have been either demonstrated or suggested to correlate with either high or low digit ratio.
Low digit ratio
High digit ratio
|Physiology and disease|
|Physical and competitive behavior||Increased aggressive behavior in sports.|
|Cognition and personality||
Male-to-female transgender women
A study in Germany has found a correlation between digit ratio and male-to-female transgenderism. Trans women were found to have a higher digit ratio than males, and one that was more comparable to females.
Digit ratio and development
There is some evidence that 2D:4D ratio may also be indicative for human development and growth. Ronalds et al. (2002) showed that men who had an above average placental weight and a shorter neonatal crown-heel length had higher 2D:4D ratios in adult life. Moreover, studies about 2D:4D correlations with face shape suggest that testosterone exposure early in life may set some constraints for subsequent development. Prenatal sex steroid ratios (in terms of 2D:4D) and actual chromosomal sex dimorphism were found to operate differently on human faces, but affect male and female face shape by similar patterns. Fink et al. (2004) found that men with low (indicating high testosterone) and women with high (indicating high estrogen) 2D:4D ratios express greater levels of facial symmetry. However, exposure to very high levels of testosterone and/or estrogen in the womb may have negative effects as well.
Palaeolithic hand stencils
- Dennis McFadden and collaborators have demonstrated sexual dimorphism in hind limb digit ratio in a number of great apes, including gorillas and chimpanzees.
- Emma Nelson and Susanne Shultz are currently investigating how 2D:4D relates to primate mating strategies and the evolution of human sociality.
- Sexual dimorphism in hind limb 2D:4D has been demonstrated in mice by two studies by both John Manning and Marc Breedlove's research groups. There is some evidence to suggest that this effect is not seen in all mouse strains.
- Nancy Burley's research group has demonstrated sexual dimorphism in zebra finches, and found a correlation between digit ratio in females and the strength of their preference for sexually selected traits in males.
- Front limb D2:D3 has shown to be influenced by prenatal alcohol exposure in female rats.
- Alžbeta Talarovičová and collaborators found in rats that elevated testosterone during the prenatal period can influence 4D length, the 2D:4D ratio, and open field motor activity.
- Peter L. Hurd, Theodore Garland Jr., and their students have examined hindlimb 2D:4D in lines of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior (see experimental evolution). These high-runner mice exhibit increased 2D:4D. This apparent "feminization" is opposite to the relation seen between 2D:4D and physical fitness in human beings, and is difficult to reconcile with the idea that 2D:4D is a clear proxy for prenatal androgen exposure in mice. The authors suggest that 2D:4D may more accurately reflect effect of glucocorticoids or other factors that regulate any of various genes.
- Anogenital distance
- Body mass index
- Chiromancy—hand analysis
- Handedness and sexual orientation
- Waist–hip ratio
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- Özener, Baris; Hurd, Peter L.; Duyar, İzzet (2014). "Inbreeding is associated with lower 2D: 4D digit ratio". American Journal of Human Biology. 26 (2): 183–188. doi:10.1002/ajhb.22491.
- Tadmouri, Ghazi O.; Nair, Pratibha; Obeid, Tasneem; Al Ali, Mahmoud T.; Al Khaja, Najib; Hamamy, Hanan A. (2009-01-01). "Consanguinity and reproductive health among Arabs". Reproductive Health. 6: 17. doi:10.1186/1742-4755-6-17. ISSN 1742-4755. PMC . PMID 19811666.
- Manning, John T. (2002). Digit Ratio: A Pointer To Fertility, Behavior And Health. New Brunswick: Rutger University Press. pp. 65–68. ISBN 0813530296.
- Sudhakar, Hanumanthaiah Honnamachanahalli; Manjunatha, Revanna; Madhusudhana, Heragu Rangegowda (2015-05-01). "Relationship Between Second to Fourth Digit Ratios and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Aging Men". Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 9 (5): PC01–PC03. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2015/11992.5937. ISSN 2249-782X. PMC . PMID 26155515.
- Manning, J. T.; Barley, L.; Walton, J.; Lewis-Jones, D. I.; Trivers, R. L.; Singh, D.; Thornhill, R.; Rohde, P.; Bereczkei, T. (2000-05-01). "The 2nd:4th digit ratio, sexual dimorphism, population differences, and reproductive success: evidence for sexually antagonistic genes?". Evolution and Human Behavior. 21 (3): 163–183. doi:10.1016/S1090-5138(00)00029-5. PMID 10828555.
- Manning JT, Scutt D, Wilson J, Lewis-Jones DI; Scutt; Wilson; Lewis-Jones (November 1998). "The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: a predictor of sperm numbers and concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and oestrogen". Human Reproduction. 13 (11): 3000–4. doi:10.1093/humrep/13.11.3000. PMID 9853845.
- Manning JT, Bundred PE (2001). "The ratio of second to fourth digit length and age at first myocardial infarction in men: a link with testosterone?". British Journal of Cardiology. 8 (12): 720–3. ISSN 0969-6113.
- Fink B, Manning JT, Neave N; Manning; Neave (April 2006). "The 2nd-4th digit ratio (2D:4D) and neck circumference: implications for risk factors in coronary heart disease". International Journal of Obesity. 30 (4): 711–4. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803154. PMID 16261185.
- Walsh, Fergus (1 December 2010). "Index finger length prostate cancer clue". BBC News. Retrieved 1 December 2010.
- Ronalds G, Phillips DIW, Godfrey KM, Manning JT. The ratio of second to fourth digit lengths: a marker of impaired fetal growth? Early Hum. Dev. 2002;68:21–6.
- Klimek M, Galbarczyk A, Nenko I, Alvarado LC, Jasienska G.; Galbarczyk; Nenko; Alvarado; Jasienska (2014). "Digit ratio (2D:4D)as an indicator of body size, testosterone concentration and number of children in human males". Ann Hum Biol. 41: 1. doi:10.3109/03014460.2014.902993. PMID 24766144.
- McFadden, D.; Westhafer, J.G.; Pasanen, E.G.; Carlson, C.L. & Tucker, D.M. (2005). "Physiological evidence of hypermasculinization in boys with the inattentive subtype of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)". Clinical Neuroscience Research. 5 (5–6): 233–245. doi:10.1016/j.cnr.2005.09.004.
- Stevenson JC, Everson PM, Williams DC, Hipskind G, Grimes M, Mahoney ER.; Everson; Williams; Hipskind; Grimes; Mahoney (2007). "Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and digit ratios in a college sample". Am J Hum Biol. 19 (1): 41–50. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20571. PMID 17160985.
- Martel, M.M, K.L.Gobrogge, S.M.Breedlove & J.T.Nigg; Gobrogge; Breedlove; Nigg (2008). "Masculinized Finger-Length Ratios of Boys, but Not Girls, Are Associated With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder". Behavioral Neuroscience. 122 (2): 273–281. doi:10.1037/0735-7044.122.2.273. PMC . PMID 18410167.
- Martel, M.M. (2009). "Conscientiousness as a mediator of the association between masculinized finger-length ratios and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)". J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 50 (7): 790–798. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02065.x. PMID 19298468.
- Manning JT, Baron-Cohen S, Wheelwright S, Sanders G; Baron-Cohen; Wheelwright; Sanders (March 2001). "The 2nd to 4th digit ratio and autism". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 43 (3): 160–4. doi:10.1017/S0012162201000317. PMID 11263685.
- Quartier, Angélique; Chatrousse, Laure; Redin, Claire; Keime, Céline; Haumesser, Nicolas; Maglott-Roth, Anne; Brino, Laurent; Gras, Stéphanie Le; Benchoua, Alexandra. "Genes and pathways regulated by androgens in human neural cells, potential candidates for the male excess in autism spectrum disorders". Biological Psychiatry. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2018.01.002.
- Quinton, Stephanie Jane; Smith, April Rose; Joiner, Thomas (2011-09-01). "The 2nd to 4th digit ratio (2D:4D) and eating disorder diagnosis in women". Personality and Individual Differences. 51 (4): 402–405. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2010.07.024. ISSN 0191-8869. PMC . PMID 21765573.
- Carré, Justin M.; Ortiz, Triana L.; Labine, Brandy; Moreau, Benjamin J. P.; Viding, Essi; Neumann, Craig S.; Goldfarb, Bernard (2015-12-01). "Digit ratio (2D:4D) and psychopathic traits moderate the effect of exogenous testosterone on socio-cognitive processes in men". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 62: 319–326. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.08.023. ISSN 1873-3360. PMID 26356040.
- Kornhuber, Johannes; Erhard, Gabriele; Lenz, Bernd; Kraus, Thomas; Sperling, Wolfgang; Bayerlein, Kristina; Biermann, Teresa; Stoessel, Christina (2011-04-25). "Low Digit Ratio 2D∶4D in Alcohol Dependent Patients". PLoS ONE. 6 (4): e19332. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019332. PMC . PMID 21547078.
- Bailey, A. & Hurd, P., Allison A.; Hurd, Peter L. (2005). "Depression in men is associated with more feminine finger length ratios". Personality and Individual Differences. 39 (4): 829–836. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2004.12.017.
- Arató M, Frecska E, Beck C, An M, Kiss H; Frecska; Beck; An; Kiss (January 2004). "Digit length pattern in schizophrenia suggests disturbed prenatal hemispheric lateralization". Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry. 28 (1): 191–4. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2003.09.020. PMID 14687873.
- Blanchard, A.; Lyons, M. (May 2010). "An Investigation into the Relationship between Digit Length Ratio and Psychopathy". British Journal of Forensic Practice. 12 (2): 23–31. doi:10.5042/bjfp.2010.0183.
- Kornhuber J, Erhard G, Lenz B, Kraus T, Sperling W, Bayerlein K, Biermann T, Stoessel C; Erhard; Lenz; Kraus; Sperling; Bayerlein; Biermann; Stoessel (April 2011). Zhang, Xiang Yang, ed. "Low Digit Ratio 2D∶4D in Alcohol Dependent Patients". PLoS ONE. 6 (4): e19332. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019332. PMC . PMID 21547078.
- J. Kornhuber, EM Zenses, B Lenz, C Stoessel, P Bouna-Pyrrou, F Rehbein, S Kliem, T Mößle (2013): Low digit ratio 2D:4D associated with video game addiction. PLoS ONE 2013; Vol. 8, Nr. 11: e79539
- Evardone & Alexander, Milagros; Alexander, Gerianne M. (2009). "Anxiety, Sex-linked Behavior, and Digit Ratios". Arch. Sex. Behav. 38 (3): 442–55. doi:10.1007/s10508-007-9260-6. PMC . PMID 17943431.
- Quinton, Stephanie Jane; Smith, April Rose; Joiner, Thomas (2011-09-01). "The 2 to 4 digit ratio (2D:4D) and eating disorder diagnosis in women". Personality and Individual Differences. 51 (4): 402–405. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2010.07.024. ISSN 0191-8869. PMC . PMID 21765573.
- Mailhos, Alvaro; Buunk, Abraham P.; del Arca, Denise; Tutte, Verónica (2015-12-01). "Soccer players awarded one or more red cards exhibit lower 2D:4D ratios". Aggressive Behavior: n/a–n/a. doi:10.1002/ab.21638. ISSN 1098-2337.
- Manning JT, Taylor RP; Taylor (January 2001). "Second to fourth digit ratio and male ability in sport: implications for sexual selection in humans". Evolution and Human Behavior. 22 (1): 61–69. doi:10.1016/S1090-5138(00)00063-5. PMID 11182575.
- Coates JM, Gurnell M, Rustichini A; Gurnell; Rustichini (January 2009). "Second-to-fourth digit ratio predicts success among high-frequency financial traders". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106 (2): 623–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0810907106. PMC . PMID 19139402. Lay summary – Time (12 January 2009).
- Fink B, Manning JT, Neave N, Tan U; Manning; Neave; Tan (November 2004). "Second to fourth digit ratio and hand skill in Austrian children" (PDF). Biological Psychology. 67 (3): 375–84. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2004.03.012. PMID 15294393.
- Titus-Ernstoff (2003). "Psychosexual Characteristics of Men and Women Exposed Prenatally to Diethylstilbestrol". CDC.
- Schuurmans-Stekhoven JB, Buckingham, RM. "Ratio or Length? A Proposed Methodology for Understanding Digit Ratio and Personality Using a Female Sample". Journal of Individual Differences. 31 (3): 150–157. doi:10.1027/1614-0001/a000023.
- Benderlioglu Z, Nelson RJ; Nelson (December 2004). "Digit length ratios predict reactive aggression in women, but not in men". Hormones and Behavior. 46 (5): 558–64. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2004.06.004. PMID 15555497.
- Liu, Jianghong; Portnoy, Jill; Raine, Adrian (2012-08-01). "Association between a marker for prenatal testosterone exposure and externalizing behavior problems in children". Development and Psychopathology. 24 (3): 771–782. doi:10.1017/S0954579412000363. ISSN 0954-5794. PMC . PMID 22781854.
- Butovskaya, Marina; Burkova, Valentina; Karelin, Dmitry; Fink, Bernhard (2015-10-01). "Digit ratio (2D:4D), aggression, and dominance in the Hadza and the Datoga of Tanzania". American Journal of Human Biology. 27 (5): 620–627. doi:10.1002/ajhb.22718. ISSN 1520-6300. PMID 25824265.
- Joyce, C. W.; Kelly, J. C.; Chan, J. C.; Colgan, G.; O'Briain, D.; Mc Cabe, J. P.; Curtin, W. (2013-11-01). "Second to fourth digit ratio confirms aggressive tendencies in patients with boxers fractures". Injury. 44 (11): 1636–1639. doi:10.1016/j.injury.2013.07.018. ISSN 1879-0267. PMID 23972912.
- Marina Butovskaya; Valentina Burkova; Audax Mabulla (2010-01-29). "Sex differences in 2D: 4D ratio, aggression and conflict resolution in African children and adolescents: a cross‐cultural study". Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research. 2 (1): 17–31. doi:10.5042/jacpr.2010.0002. ISSN 1759-6599.
- Williams, Justin HG; Greenhalgh, K. D.; Manning, John T. (2003). "Second to fourth finger ratio and possible precursors of developmental psychopathology in preschool children". Early Human Development. 72 (1): 57–65. doi:10.1016/s0378-3782(03)00012-4.
- Beech, John R.; MacKintosh, Isla C. (July 2005). "Do differences in sex hormones affect handwriting style? Evidence from digit ratio and sex role identity as determinants of the sex of handwriting". Personality and Individual Differences. 39 (2): 459–68. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2005.01.024.
- Neave N, Laing S, Fink B, Manning JT; Laing; Fink; Manning (October 2003). "Second to fourth digit ratio, testosterone and perceived male dominance". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 270 (1529): 2167–72. doi:10.1098/rspb.2003.2502. PMC . PMID 14561281.
- Burriss RP, Little AC, Nelson EC; Little; Nelson (June 2007). "2D:4D and sexually dimorphic facial characteristics". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 36 (3): 377–84. doi:10.1007/s10508-006-9136-1. PMID 17203400.
- Sluming, Vanessa A.; Manning, John T. (January 2000). "Second to fourth digit ratio in elite musicians Evidence for musical ability as an honest signal of male fitness". Evolution and Human Behavior. 21 (1): 1–9. doi:10.1016/S1090-5138(99)00026-4.
- Nye, John V. C.; Androuschak, Gregory; Desierto, Desirée; Jones, Garett; Yudkevich, Maria (2012). "2D:4D Asymmetry and Gender Differences in Academic Performance". PLoS ONE. 7 (10): e46319. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046319. PMC . PMID 23056282. Retrieved 2014-09-20.
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- McIntyre, Matthew H.; Barrett, Emily S.; McDermott, Rose; Johnson, Dominic D. P.; Cowden, Jonathan; Rosen, Stephen P. (2007-03-01). "Finger length ratio (2D:4D) and sex differences in aggression during a simulated war game". Personality and Individual Differences. 42 (4): 755–764. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2006.08.009.
- Stenstrom, Eric; Saad, Gad; Nepomuceno, Marcelo V.; Mendenhall, Zack (2011-09-01). "Testosterone and domain-specific risk: Digit ratios (2D:4D and rel2) as predictors of recreational, financial, and social risk-taking behaviors". Personality and Individual Differences. Digit Ratio (2D:4D) and Individual Differences Research. 51 (4): 412–416. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2010.07.003.
- Siurana, David; Gadea, Marien; Espert, Raúl. "Efectos organizacionales y activacionales de la testosterona sobre la asunción de riesgos en conductas económicas: una revisión sistemática". Suma Psicológica. 24 (2): 142–152. doi:10.1016/j.sumpsi.2017.06.003.
- Millet, Kobe; Dewitte, Siegfried (2006-01-01). "Second to fourth digit ratio and cooperative behavior". Biological Psychology. 71 (1): 111–115. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2005.06.001.
- Crocchiola, Danae (2014-07-01). "Art as an Indicator of Male Fitness: Does Prenatal Testosterone Influence Artistic Ability?". Evolutionary Psychology. 12 (3): 147470491401200303. doi:10.1177/147470491401200303. ISSN 1474-7049.
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- Hoskin, Anthony W.; Ellis, Lee (2015-02-01). "Fetal Testosterone and Criminality: Test of Evolutionary Neuroandrogenic Theory". Criminology. 53 (1): 54–73. doi:10.1111/1745-9125.12056. ISSN 1745-9125.
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- Weisman, Omri; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Leckman, James F.; Feldman, Ruth; Lu, Yunfeng; Chong, Anne; Chen, Ying; Monakhov, Mikhail; Chew, Soo Hong (2015-04-16). "The association between 2D:4D ratio and cognitive empathy is contingent on a common polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR rs53576)". ResearchGate. 58: 23–32. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.04.007. ISSN 1873-3360.
- Austin, Elizabeth J.; Manning, John T.; McInroy, Katherine; Mathews, Elizabeth (November 2002). "A preliminary investigation of the associations between personality, cognitive ability and digit ratio". Personality and Individual Differences. 33 (7): 1115–24. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00002-8.
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- Burton, Leslie A.; Guterman, Elan; Baum, Graham (2013-04-23). "Effect of Prenatal Androgen on Adult Personality: Greater Openness with More Female-Typical 2D:4D Digit Ratios". Current Psychology. 32 (2): 197–202. doi:10.1007/s12144-013-9170-9. ISSN 1046-1310.
- Voracek, M. (July 2009). "Who wants to believe? Associations between digit ratio (2D:4D) and paranormal and superstitious beliefs". Personality and Individual Differences. 47 (2): 105–109. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2009.01.051.
- Brosnan MJ (February 2008). "Digit ratio as an indicator of numeracy relative to literacy in 7-year-old British schoolchildren". British Journal of Psychology. 99 (Pt 1): 75–85. doi:10.1348/000712607X197406. PMID 17535470. Lay summary – LiveScience (22 May 2007).
- Fink, Bernhard; Manning, John T; Neave, Nick. "Second to fourth digit ratio and the 'big five' personality factors". Personality and Individual Differences. 37 (3): 495–503. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2003.09.018.
- Borniger, Jeremy C.; Chaudhry, Adeel; Muehlenbein, Michael P. (2013-03-08). "Relationships among Musical Aptitude, Digit Ratio and Testosterone in Men and Women". PLoS ONE. 8 (3): e57637. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057637. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC . PMID 23520475.
- Poulin, Mary; O'Connell, Rachael L; Freeman, Louise M (2004-05-01). "Picture recall skills correlate with 2D:4D ratio in women but not men". Evolution and Human Behavior. 25 (3): 174–181. doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2004.03.004.
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- Csathó A, Osváth A, Bicsák E, Karádi K, Manning J, Kállai J; Osváth; Bicsák; Karádi; Manning; Kállai (February 2003). "Sex role identity related to the ratio of second to fourth digit length in women". Biological Psychology. 62 (2): 147–56. doi:10.1016/S0301-0511(02)00127-8. PMID 12581689.
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- Rahman Q, Wilson GD; Wilson (April 2003). "Sexual orientation and the 2nd to 4th finger length ratio: evidence for organising effects of sex hormones or developmental instability?". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 28 (3): 288–303. doi:10.1016/S0306-4530(02)00022-7. PMID 12573297.
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- Wallien MS, Zucker KJ, Steensma TD, Cohen-Kettenis PT; Zucker; Steensma; Cohen-Kettenis (August 2008). "2D:4D finger-length ratios in children and adults with gender identity disorder". Hormones and Behavior. 54 (3): 450–4. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2008.05.002. PMID 18585715.
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- Hirashi K, Sasaki S, Shikishima C, Ando J; Sasaki; Shikishima; Ando (Jun 2012). "The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) in a Japanese twin sample: heritability, prenatal hormone transfer, and association with sexual orientation". Arch Sex Behav. 41 (3): 711–24. doi:10.1007/s10508-011-9889-z. PMID 22270254.
- S.J. Robinson, J.T. Manning; Manning (2000). "The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length and male homosexuality". Evolution and Human Behavior. 21 (5): 333–345. doi:10.1016/S1090-5138(00)00052-0. PMID 11053694.
- Wlodarski, Rafael; Manning, John; Dunbar, R. I. M. (2015-02-01). "Stay or stray? Evidence for alternative mating strategy phenotypes in both men and women". Biology Letters. 11 (2): 20140977. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2014.0977. ISSN 1744-9561. PMC . PMID 25652222.
- McIntyre MH (December 2003). "Digit ratios, childhood gender role behavior, and erotic role preferences of gay men". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 32 (6): 495–6. doi:10.1023/A:1026054625638. PMID 14627046.
- Brown WM, Finn CJ, Cooke BM, Breedlove SM; Finn; Cooke; Breedlove (February 2002). "Differences in finger length ratios between self-identified 'butch' and 'femme' lesbians" (PDF). Archives of Sexual Behavior. 31 (1): 123–7. doi:10.1023/A:1014091420590. PMID 11910785.
- Hiraishi K, Sasaki S, Shikishima C, Ando J.; Sasaki; Shikishima; Ando (2012). "The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) in a Japanese twin sample: heritability, prenatal hormone transfer, and association with sexual orientation". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 41 (3): 711–24. doi:10.1007/s10508-011-9889-z. PMID 22270254.
- Churchchill AJG, Manning JT, Peters M; Manning; Reimers (2007). "The effects of sex, ethnicity, and sexual orientation on self-measured digit ratio (2D:4D)". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 36 (2): 251–260. doi:10.1007/s10508-006-9166-8. PMID 17394056.
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- M.V. Voracek, J.T. Manning & I. Ponocny; Manning; Ponocny (2005). "Digit ratio (2D:4D) in homosexual and heterosexual men from Austria". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 34 (3): 335–340. doi:10.1007/s10508-005-3122-x. PMID 15971016.
- Teresa Grimbos; Kenneth Zucker; Khytam Dawood; Robert P. Burriss (2010). "Sexual Orientation and the Second to Fourth Finger Length Ratio: A Meta-Analysis in Men and Women" (PDF). Behavioral Neuroscience. 124 (2): 278 –287. doi:10.1037/a0018764. PMID 20364887.
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- Ronalds, G; Phillips, DI; Godfrey, KM; Manning, JT (2002). "The ratio of second to fourth digit lengths: A marker of impaired fetal growth?". Early human development. 68 (1): 21–6. doi:10.1016/s0378-3782(02)00009-9. PMID 12191526.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Digit ratio.|
- PubMed listing of papers on digit ratios
- Mills, Michael E. (October 2002). "Review of Digit Ratio: A Pointer to Fertility, Behavior and Health by John T. Manning". Human Nature Review. 2: 418–23.