This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-OH group of donor with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor. The systematic name of this enzyme class is cis-3,4-leucopelargonidin:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include dihydroflavanol 4-reductase (DFR), dihydromyricetin reductase, NADPH-dihydromyricetin reductase, and dihydroquercetin reductase. This enzyme participates in flavonoid biosynthesis.
Researchers in Japan have genetically manipulated roses by using RNA interference to knock out endogenous DFR, adding a gene DFR from an iris, and adding a gene for the blue pigment, delphinidin, in an effort to create a blue rose, which is being sold worldwide.
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Heller W, Forkmann G, Britsch L and Grisebach H (1985). "Enzymatic reduction of (+)-dihydroflavonols to flavan-3,4-cis- diols with flower extracts from Matthiola incana and its role in anthocyanin biosynthesis". Planta165 (2): 284–287. doi:10.1007/BF00395052.
Stafford HA and Lester HH (1985). "Flavan-3-ol biosynthesis the conversion of (+)- dihydromyricetin to its flavan-3,4-diol (leucodelphinidin) and to (+)-gallocatechin by reductases extracted from tissue-cultures of Ginkgo biloba and Pseudotsuga-menziesii". Plant Physiol.78 (4): 791–794. doi:10.1104/pp.78.4.791.