Dinaric Mountains mixed forests

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Montane and Oromediterranean biomes on Orjen, Montenegro

The Dinaric Mountains mixed forests form a terrestrial ecoregion of the Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests Biome in Southeastern Europe, according to both the WWF and Digital Map of European Ecological Regions by the European Environment Agency. It also is in the Palearctic ecozone.


The Dinaric Mountains mixed forests compose the montane forest region of the Dinaric Alps. This mountain range stretches along the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea and occupy 58,200 km² (22,500 mi²) in Slovenia, Croatia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, northern Albania, and northeastern Italy.


The climate of the ecoregion is wet and extremely humid. Precipitation ranges are generally above 1500 mm and ranges between 2000 and 3500 mm are common. Maximums measured in the hinterland of the Bay of Kotor surpass annual averages beyond 4500 mm (Crkvice), the highest precipitation ranges in Europe and one of the highest of the Northern Hemisphere. It is part of Köppen's temperate type with humid summers (Cfs) and mountain snow climates (Dfs). Due to snow abundance and avalanching, alpine biotopes are common for all high mountains. Several small glaciers still persist in the Durmitor and Prokletije ranges, the Dinaric Alps' highest massifs.

With high precipitation ranges and an overabundance of limestones, karst relief is dominating.

Due to the wide altitudinal range of this ecoregion the highest elevations (above 1,500 m) are covered with conifer forests, with a mixed broadleaf vegetation and occurring lower.

The conifer zone is dominated by the Norway spruce, silver fir, and European black pine with the admixture of the European beech. The dominant species of the lower zones include various deciduous oaks (Quercus frainetto, Q. pubescens, Q. cerris) and the oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis). The South European flowering ash (Fraxinus ornus) marks the submediterranean zone at region below 600–1000 m (from N to S).

Phytogeographically, the ecoregion is shared between the Adriatic and East Mediterranean provinces of the Mediterranean Region, within the Holarctic Kingdom (according to Armen Takhtajan's delineation).

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