Ancient Diocese of Apt

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The former French Catholic diocese of Apt, in southeast France, existed from the fourth century until the French Revolution. By the Concordat of 1801, it was suppressed, and its territory was divided between the diocese of Digne and the diocese of Avignon.[1] Its seat was at Apt Cathedral, in Vaucluse.

History[edit]

The Chapter of the Cathedral of Apt was founded on 4 August 991 by Bishop Teudericus, in consultation with Prince Guillaume of Provence, Archbishop Annone of Arles, Archbishop Amalric of Aix, and Bishop Ingilram of Cavaillon, out of the clerics who served the cathedral.[2] The original charter establishes a corporation composed of a Provost and twelve canons.[3] By March 1247, dignities of the chapter are named in addition to the Provost: the Archdeacon, the Sacristan, the Precentor, and the Operarius.[4]

In 1790 the National Constituent Assembly conceived a plan to destroy the influence of the Estates throughout France and bring the whole country under central administration. This was to be done by the creation of some 83 or 84 'départements'. At the same time the Church was to be brought into subordination by abolishing the old ecclesiastical diocesan system and creating new dioceses which would have the same boundaries as the departments. The plan made more than fifty of the 135 Catholic dioceses in France redundant. The details were enacted by the Legislative Assembly, under the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790).[5] The diocese of Apt was one of the dioceses which were declared redundant and were suppressed. The abolition of Catholic dioceses was a violation of Canon Law, and the requirement that the clergy were to be obliged to take an oath to the Constitution in order to hold their jobs and collect their state-supplied salaries brought about a schism. New bishops and priests under the Constitutional system were to be elected by special 'Electors' in each department, who did not need to be Catholics or even Christians. That too was uncanonical and schismatic. The vows of monks and nuns were abolished by the National Assembly, and their property was seized by the State.

In 1801 First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte was preparing to end the religious confusion in France by entering into a Concordat with the Vatican. He had plans for the future, and he required a united France in order to carry them out successfully. In separate actions both he and Pius VII called on all bishops in France to submit their resignations. On November 29 1801, by the bull Qui Christi Domini, Pope Pius VII suppressed all of the Roman Catholic dioceses in France, and immediately reinstituted them under papal authority. This act did away with whatever doubt or ambiguity might still exist as to a 'Constitutional Church' and 'Constitutional dioceses' in France.[6] Apt was not one of the dioceses that was restored.

The name of the diocese was revived, however, by Pope Benedict XVI in January 2009, as a titular see for bishops who have no diocese of their own.

Bishops[edit]

to 1100[edit]

[260?: Leonius][7]
[394: Octavius][8]
[546: Eusebius][14]
  • 549–573: Clementinus[15]
  • 581–585: Pappus[16]
  • 614: Innocentius[17]
  • 788: Magneric[18]
  • 853: Trutbertus[19]
  • 867: Paul (I.)[20]
879: Richard[21]
  • 885: Sendard[22]
  • 887: Paul (II.)[23]
  • c. 951 – c. 955: Rostan[24]
  • c. 960 – 964: Arnulf[25]
  • c. 965 – c. 984: Nartold[26]
  • 989–998: Theodoric[27]
  • 999–1110?: Ilbogus[28]
  • 1010–1046: Stephanus[29]
[1046?: Laugier I.][30]

from 1100 to 1500[edit]

from 1500 to 1800[edit]

Titular Bishops of Apt[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ David M. Cheney, Catholic Hierarchy: Apt,[self-published source?] Gabriel Chow, G-Catholic, Apt. retrieved: 2017-06-19[self-published source?]
  2. ^ Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 216.
  3. ^ Denis de Sainte-Marthe (1715). Gallia Christiana, in Provincias Ecclesiasticas Distributa (in Latin). Tomus primus. Paris: Johannes-Baptista Coignard, Instrumenta,. pp. 74–75, no. IV. 
  4. ^ Saint-Marthe, Instrumenta. p. 80.
  5. ^ Ludovic Sciout (1872). "Chapitre IV: La Constitution Civile". Historie de la constitution civile du clergé (1790-1801) (in French). Tome premier. Paris: Firmin Didot frères. 
  6. ^ Pius VI; Pius VII (1821). Collectio (per epitomen facta,) Bullarum, Brevium, Allocutionum, Epistolarumque, ... Pii VI., contra constitutionem civilem Cleri Gallicani, ejusque authores et fautores; item, Concordatorum inter ... Pium VII. et Gubernium Rei publicae, in Galliis, atque alia varia regimina, post modum in hac regione, sibi succedentia; tum expostulationum ... apud ... Pium Papam VII., Contra varia Acta, ad Ecclesiam Gallicanam, spectantia, a triginta et octo Episcopis, Archiepiscop. et Cardinal. antiquae Ecclesiae Gallicanae, subscriptarum, etc. 6 Avril, 1803 (in Latin). London: Cox & Baylis. pp. 111–121. 
  7. ^ Gams, p. 491, puts the name Leonius in parentheses and italics, and then adds a question mark. His doubts are extreme.
  8. ^ A Bishop Octavius is known only as a signatory to the synod of Nîmes. C. Munier, Concilia Galliae, A. 314 – A. 506 (Turnholt: Brepols 1963), p. 51. There is no evidence that he was Bishop of Apt. He is omitted by Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 193-194; and by Duchesne, pp. 283-284.
  9. ^ Quentin is known only from an 11th century reference. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 221, note 6.
  10. ^ Bishop Castor was a recipient of a letter of 13 June 419 from Pope Boniface I, summoning him to the Council of Valence. Duchesne believes he was dead by 426. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 195-199. Duchesne, p. 282, no. 1.
  11. ^ Auxonius was present at the consecration of the Church of S. Paul in Avignon in 436 (433?). Gallia christiana I (Paris 1716), Instrumenta, p. 137. Gams, p. 491. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 199-200.
  12. ^ Bishop Julius was present at the Councils of Riez (439), Orange (441), and Vaison (442). Duchesne, p. 282 no. 2. Munier, p. 71-72 (without naming the diocese), 87, 102.
  13. ^ Bishop Praetextatus attended the Council of Epaona (517), provincial councils of Arles (524), Orange (529), and Marseille (533); and the Council of Orange (541). Pope Vigilius addressed a letter to him on 22 May 545. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 201-203. Duchesne, p. 282, no. 3. C. De Clercq, Concilia Galliae, A. 511 – A. 695 (Turnholt: Brepols 1963), pp. 45 (without the name of the diocese), 64 (without diocese), 85 (without diocese), 142.
  14. ^ Eusebius' episcopacy is rejected by both Albanes and Duchesne. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 203-204 (affecting not to know the name Polycarpe de la Rivière, the notorious fabulist and forger). Duchesne, p. 282 note 8. Gams, p. 491, remarks that the Abbey of S. Eusebius was named after him. Boze, p. 50-51, points out that some scholars consider Eusebius to be Bishop Eusebius of Arles
  15. ^ Bishop Clementinus was present at the councils of 549 (Orléans), 552 (Paris), 573 (Paris), and the provincial council of 554 (Arles). Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 204. Duchesne, p. 282, no. 4.
  16. ^ Pappus was present at the Council of Mâcon on 1 November 581, and Valence in 584. He was represented at the second Council of Mâcon in 585. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 205. Duchesne, p. 283, no. 5.
  17. ^ Bishop Innocentius took part in the Council of Paris in 614. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 205-206. Duchesne, p. 283, no. 6. De Clercq, p. 281.
  18. ^ Magnericus was present at the false council of Narbonne on 27 June 788. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 206-207. Duchesne, p. 283, no. 7.
  19. ^ Bishop Trutbertus participated in the adjudication of the conflict between Archbishop Agilmar of Vienne and Count Wigeric. The assembly took place at the villa of Salmoringa (Sermorens) ca. 853. Luc d' Achery; Etienne Baluze; Edmond Martène (1723). Spicilegium; sive, Collectio veterum aliquot scriptorum qui in Galliae bibliothecis delituerant (in Latin). Tomus III. Paris: Apud Montalant. p. 343. 
  20. ^ Bishop Paul concluded an agreement with the Bishop of Sisteron on 4 July 867. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 207-208. Duchesne, p. 283, no. 9.
  21. ^ Richard is known by only one document, which names him as episcopus Agathensis (Agde). He becomes bishop of Apt only by emendation. Duchesne, p. 283 no. 10.
  22. ^ Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 209-210. Duchesne is doubtful about Sendard's inclusion, based as it is on a falsified charter and on an eleventh century document which gives no date. Duchesne, p. 283 note 5.
  23. ^ Bishop Paul is known from one document, showing that he participated in a council summoned by Archbishop Theodardus of Narbonne on 17 November 887. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 210-211. J.-D. Mansi (ed.), Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus XVIII (Venice: A. Zatta 1773), p. 45.
  24. ^ Bishop Rostan, the nephew of Count Grifon, is known from two charters, of 951 and 955. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 211-212.
  25. ^ In 960 Bishop Arnulf concluded a transaction with Abbot Mayeul of Cluny in which the Abbot gave the Bishop a dozen properties in precarious tenure. On 19 April 964 the Bishop established a foundation in his cathedral for the good of his own soul. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 212.
  26. ^ Bishop Nartold is known from a considerable number of minor charters, dating between 965 and 984. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 212-214.
  27. ^ Bishop Theoderic established the corporation of Canons of the Cathedral of Apt. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 214-215.
  28. ^ Ilbogus (Hilbod) is known from two charters, one of 999, the other with dating problems. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 215-216.
  29. ^ Bishop Étienne died on 6 November 1046, after a reign of 35 years, 10 months, and 20 days. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 216-219.
  30. ^ Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 219-220, considers such evidence as there is for Laugier, and rejects it all. He states that he is strongly tempted to omit him entirely.
  31. ^ Alfant: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 220-222.
  32. ^ Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 222-223. There is no contemporary evidence for Isoard.
  33. ^ Bertrand is said to have settled a conflict, but the document referring to the event does not exist, or no longer exists. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 223, doubts the existence of this bishop.
  34. ^ Pope Paschal II, in the bull Officii nostri of 13 January 1116, confirmed various privileges to the Church of Apt and Bishop Laugier. Denis de Sainte-Marthe (1715). Gallia Christiana, In Provincias Ecclesiasticas Distributa (in Latin). Tomus primus. Paris: Johannes-Baptista Coignard, Instrumenta,. pp. 77, no. XI.  Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 223-225.
  35. ^ Raimond: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 225-226.
  36. ^ Guillaume visited Pope Adrian IV in Rome in 1158, and was present for Easter. He obtained a bull, dated 15 April 1158, confirming the possessions and privileges of the Church of Apt. Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 226-227.
  37. ^ Pierre de Saint-Paul had been Provost of the Cathedral of Apt. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 227-229.
  38. ^ Daniel Williman , The Right of Spoil of the Popes of Avignon, 1316-1415 (American Philosophical Society, 1988), p. 494.
  39. ^ Geofroy: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 230-232.
  40. ^ Geofroy (II.): Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 232-233.
  41. ^ Guillaume died on 26 January 1246. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 233-234. Eubel, I, p. 95.
  42. ^ Godefredus Dalmatii died on 28 August 1256. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 234-235. Eubel, I, p. 95.
  43. ^ Bayle died on 31 May 1268. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 236-237. Eubel, I, p. 95.
  44. ^ Ripertus died on 1 February 1272. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 237. Eubel, I, p. 95.
  45. ^ Raimond died on 10 July 1275. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 238.Eubel, I, p. 95.
  46. ^ Raymond Bot was dead by 22 August 1303. Eubel, I, p. 95.
  47. ^ Hugues Bot died on 18 January 1319. Eubel, I, p. 95.
  48. ^ Raimond Bot, nephew of Bishop Hugues Bot and a member of the Cathedral Chapter, was elected by the Chapter and provided by Pope John XXII on 6 May 1319. He died in January 1330. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 242-243. Eubel, I, p. 96. Daniel Williman , The Right of Spoil of the Popes of Avignon, 1316-1415 (American Philosophical Society, 1988) , p. 225.
  49. ^ Languissel was Archdeacon of Corbières in the diocese of Narbonne when Pope John XXII appointed him to Apt on 1 June 1330. After less than a year he was named Bishop of Nîmes on 10 April 1331. He died in 1337. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 243-245. Eubel, I, p. 95, 361.
  50. ^ Bertrand Accaioli of Florence, Archdeacon of Bologna, was appointed to the diocese of Apt on 10 April 1331 by Pope John XXII. He had not been elected by the Cathedral Chapter. He was only twenty-five years old, and thus was still Bishop-elect when he was transferred to the diocese of Bologna on 5 June 1332. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 245-246. Eubel, I, pp. 95, 140.
  51. ^ Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 246-247. Eubel, I, p. 95.
  52. ^ Guillaume Audibert, a Doctor in utroque iure (Civil and Canon Law), had been Provost of the Collegiate Church of S. Pierre d'Aire (Thérouanne), and was a Canon of the Cathedral of Périgueux (1335). He was appointed to the diocese of Apt by Pope Benedict XII on 2 December 1336, and was consecrated on 1 March 1337 by Cardinal Annibale (Gaetani) Ceccano. He was transferred to the diocese of Périgueux on 1 October 1341. He died in 1347. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 247-249. Eubel, I, p. 95, 397.
  53. ^ Amici was a Doctor in utroque iure (Civil and Canon Law), and had been Provost of the Chapter of Lavaur. He was later Patriarch of Jerusalem (1349–1360), and Administrator of Frejus, 1349-1360. He died on 9 June 1360. Eubel, I, pp. 252, 276. Williman, p. 126.
  54. ^ Arnaldo had previously been Bishop of Fossombrone (1334–1342). He was named Bishop of Apt on 7 October 1342 by Pope Clement VI. He died in 1348, while the plague was raging in Avignon and southern France. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 250-252. Eubel, I, pp. 95, 254.
  55. ^ Meissenier was named Bishop of Apt on 10 July 1348 by Clement VI. He was transferred to the diocese of Naples on 4 June 1358 by Pope Innocent VI. He died on 30 October 1362. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 252-254. Eubel, I, pp. 95, 360.
  56. ^ Eliziarius died in December 1361. Williman, p. 98.
  57. ^ Savini had been Provost of the Cathedral Chapter of Apt. His election was approved by Pope Innocent VI on 23 March 1362. Having tried unsuccessfully to balance allegiances between Urban VI and Clement VII in the Great Western Schism, on 22 April 1383 he was deprived of his diocese by Clement VII. He was transferred to the diocese of Sulci in Sardinia. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 255-258. Eubel, I, p. 96.
  58. ^ Breuil was a Doctor in Canon Law and Sub-Cantor of the Cathedral Chapter of Vic. He was appointed by Clement VII to replace Bishop Savini. He was transferred to the diocese of Conserans on 17 October 1390. On 18 September 1405 he was transferred to the diocese of Uzès by Benedict XIII. He died at the end of 1425 or the beginning of 1426. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 258-260. Eubel, I, p. 96, 203, 511.
  59. ^ Fillet was appointed to the See of Apt on 17 October 1390 by Pope Clement VII. He died on 26 June 1410. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 260-261. Eubel, I, p. 96.
  60. ^ Perricaud was appointed by John XXIII on 27 February 1411. Eubel states that he died in December 1412. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 262-263. Eubel, I, p. 96.
  61. ^ In 1411 he was Papal Vicar in Avignon. He was also Papal Collector General in Provence with the title of Nuncio. Constantinus was appointed bishop of Apt by John XXIII on 19 December 1412. He did not spend his time in Apt, since he was an active official in papal government. In 1414 he was Papal Referendary and Nuncio, sent to Aquileia, Grado, Zara and Spalato. In 1416 he was in Avignon to participate in the selection of delegates to the Council of Constance. In 1419 Pope Martin V made him Rector of the Patrimony of St. Peter, with powers over Sabina and the Duchy of Spoleto. On 13 May 1130, aware that he was seriously ill, Constantine chose a Coadjutor, Canon André of Aix. He died in Avignon in December 1430. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 263-265. Eubel, I, p. 96.
  62. ^ Étienne d'Épernay received his bulls on 27 October 1430. He was not elected by the Cathedral Chapter, since Pope Martin V had reserved the provision of the diocese on the resignation of Constantinus de Pergola. Étienne d'Épernay was dead by 25 November 1437. Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 266-269. Eubel, I, p. 96; II, p. 90 note 1.
  63. ^ Pierre Nasondi was a Canon of Apt, and perhaps was elected by the Chapter of the Cathedral of Apt. He received his bulls on 20 January 1438 from Pope Eugene IV. He died on 1 July 1466. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 266-269. Eubel, II, p. 90.
  64. ^ Jean d'Ortigue: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 269-270. Eubel, II, p. 90.
  65. ^ Panisse was a doctor of Canon Law, and Precentor in the Cathedral Chapter of Vaison. He was named Bishop of Apt in the Consistory of 8 July 1482. He died in January 1490. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 270-271. Eubel, II, p. 90.
  66. ^ Chabrol: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 271-272. Eubel, II, p. 90.
  67. ^ Montaigu was replaced on 13 June 1515 due to illness. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 273-275. Eubel, II, p. 90; III, p. 112
  68. ^ Nicolai: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 275-276. Eubel, III, p. 112 with note 3.
  69. ^ Cesare Trivulzio had been Coadjutor of the diocese of Asti for his uncle Antonio Trivulzio. He was already Bishop of Como (1519–1548), and therefore from 1533 to 1540 he held two dioceses simultaneously. In 1533 he was Papal Legate to France. In 1534 he became papal Governor and Vice-Legate of Perugia. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 276-279. Eubel, III, p. 112 with notes 4 and 5; 182 with note 6.
  70. ^ Pietro: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 279-280. Eubel, III, p. 112 with note 6.
  71. ^ Jean-Baptiste Raimbaud de Simiane had previously been Bishop of Vence (1556). He was approved in Consistory on 7 February 1560. He was deposed in 1571 for apostasy and heresy. He died on 23 February 1584. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 280-282. Eubel, III, p. 112, 328.
  72. ^ François de Simiane was the brother of his predecessor. He had been a Cistercian monk for more than 30 years when appointed Bishop of Apt and Abbot Commendatory of S. Sernin. Boze, p. 294-296. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 282-284. Eubel, III, p. 112 with note 7.
  73. ^ Periglio: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 284-285. Eubel, III, p. 112.
  74. ^ Pelissier was a doctor of theology. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 285-286. Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, p. 88 with note 2.
  75. ^ Villeneuve: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 286-288. Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, p. 88 with note 3.
  76. ^ Gaillard: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 288-289. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 91 with note 2.
  77. ^ Foresta: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 289-293.Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 92 with note 3.
  78. ^ Vaccon: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 293-295. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 92 with note 4.
  79. ^ Merlière was a native of the diocese of Vienne. He was a licenciate in utroque iure. He was a Canon and Prebend of the Collegiate Church of S. Andrew (Grenoble). He was nominated Bishop of Apt by King Louis XV on 6 January 1752, and preconised (approved) by Pope Benedict XIV on 15 May 1752. He resigned on 11 December 1778, and died in Paris on 26 October 1788. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 295-296. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, p. 91 with note 2.
  80. ^ Cély fled to Rome in 1789 and remained there until the French army seized the city in 1798, when he fled to Naples. He resigned his See in 1801, at the demand of Pope Pius VII. He moved to Marseille, where he died on 16 December 1815. Jean, pp. 22-23. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 296-298. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, p. 91 with note 3.

Bibliography[edit]

Reference works[edit]

Studies[edit]