Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Baltimore
|Archdiocese of Baltimore
|Territory||The City of Baltimore and nine counties across central and western Maryland|
|Area||4,801 km2 (1,854 sq mi)|
|(as of 2015)
|Sui iuris church||Latin Church|
|Established||November 6, 1789 (228 years)|
|Cathedral||Cathedral of Mary Our Queen|
|Co-cathedral||Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary|
|Patron saint||Immaculate Conception
St. Ignatius of Loyola
|Metropolitan Archbishop||William E. Lori|
|Auxiliary Bishops||Mark E. Brennan
Adam J. Parker
|Emeritus Bishops||Denis J. Madden|
The Metropolitan Archdiocese of Baltimore (Latin: Archidioecesis Baltimorensis) is the premier see of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States. The archdiocese comprises the City of Baltimore and 9 of Maryland's 23 counties in the central and western portions of the state: Allegany, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Carroll, Frederick, Garrett, Harford, Howard, and Washington. The archdiocese is the metropolitan see of the larger regional Ecclesiastical Province of Baltimore.
The Archdiocese of Baltimore is the oldest diocese in the United States whose see city was within the nation's boundaries when the United States declared its independence in 1776. The Holy See granted the Archbishop of Baltimore the right of precedence in the nation at liturgies, meetings, and Plenary Councils on August 15, 1859. Although the Archdiocese of Baltimore does not enjoy "primatial" status, it is the premier episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States of America, as "prerogative of place".
Within the archdiocese are 518,000 Catholics, 145 parishes, 545 priests (244 diocesan priests, 196 priests resident in diocese), 159 permanent deacons, 55 brothers, 803 sisters, 205 lay extraordinary ministers of Holy Communion, five hospitals, 28 aged homes, 7 diocesan/parish high schools, 13 private high schools, 4 colleges/universities, and two seminaries (St. Mary's Seminary and University in Roland Park, of north Baltimore and Mount St. Mary's Seminary (at Mount Saint Mary's University) in Frederick County's Emmitsburg, Maryland).
This archdiocese was featured in the Netflix documentary The Keepers exposing the sexual abuse history at Archbishop Keough High School and the murder of Sister Catherine Cesnik in 1969. It was revealed in late 2016 that the Archdiocese of Baltimore had paid off numerous settlements since 2011 for abuse victims.
- 1 History
- 2 Sexual abuse
- 3 Prelature
- 4 Parishes
- 5 Education
- 6 Shrines of the archdiocese
- 7 Province of Baltimore
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Before and during the American Revolutionary War, the Catholics in Great Britain's thirteen colonies in America (and also its colonies in Canada) were under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the bishop of the Apostolic Vicariate of the London District, in England. After the Treaty of Paris, signed September 3, 1783, ended the war, Maryland clergy delivered a petition to the Holy See, on November 6, 1783, for permission for the missionaries in the United States to nominate a superior who would have some of the powers of a bishop. In response, Pope Pius VI on June 6, 1784, confirmed Father John Carroll, who had been selected by his brother priests, as Superior of the Missions in the newly independent thirteen United States of North America, with power to give the sacrament of confirmation. This act established a hierarchy in the United States and removed the Catholic Church in the U.S. from the authority of the Vicar Apostolic of the London District.
The Holy See then established the Apostolic Prefecture of the United States on November 26, 1784. Because Maryland was one of the few regions of the colonial United States with a substantial Roman Catholic population, the apostolic prefecture was elevated to become the Diocese of Baltimore—the first diocese in the United States—on November 6, 1789. In 1790, Father Carroll traveled to England where he was ordained and consecrated as a bishop in Lulworth Castle in Dorset, by authority of the Bishop of London.
On April 8, 1808, Pope Pius VII erected the suffragan dioceses of Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Bardstown in Bardstown, Kentucky, which moved in 1841 to the larger city of Louisville, from the territory of the Diocese of Baltimore and simultaneously raised it to the rank of metropolitan archdiocese, thereby making it the "Archdiocese of Baltimore". The newly established "Province of Baltimore"—whose metropolitan was the Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Baltimore—comprised all of the states and territories of the nation.
On July 22, 1939, the City of Washington was erected as a separate archdiocese. The archbishop of Baltimore, Michael J. Curley, was simultaneously named the first archbishop of the new Archdiocese of Washington (D.C.) and continued to administer the two archdioceses as a single unit — in persona episcopi. The see was temporarily renamed the Archdiocese of Baltimore-Washington, in recognition of the nation's capital. Eight years later, on November 15, 1947, Patrick A. O'Boyle was appointed the second archbishop — and first residential archbishop — of the Archdiocese of Washington, which consequently began to function as a separate diocese. Therefore, the territory of the "new" archdiocese — consisting of the District of Columbia and the two Washington suburban and three southern counties of Maryland — were permanently separated from the Archdiocese of Baltimore, which was thus reduced to its current extent.
From 1808 until 1847, Baltimore was the only archdiocese in the United States and therefore the entire country was one ecclesiastical province. As the nation's population grew and waves of Catholic immigrants arrived, the Holy See continued to erect new dioceses and elevate certain others to the status of metropolitan archdioceses, which simultaneously became metropolitan sees of new ecclesiastical provinces. Thus, the Province of Baltimore gradually became smaller and smaller. In 1847, the then-Diocese of Saint Louis was elevated to an archdiocese and metropolitan see of the new Province of Saint Louis. In 1850, the Diocese of New York was raised to an archdiocese. Also in 1850, the Diocese of Oregon City, now Portland, Oregon was raised to an archdiocese. In 1875, the dioceses of Boston and Philadelphia were likewise elevated.
The archdiocese began to publish its diocesan newspaper, The Baltimore Catholic Review since 1913 as the successor to the earlier diocesan publication The Catholic Mirror, published 1833 to 1908. The name has since been shortened to The Catholic Review. In 2012, it changed from weekly to biweekly issues and in December 2015, it transformed again to a monthly magazine.
In 2016 the Archdiocese of Baltimore confirmed that settlements had been paid to past students of Seton Keough High School who were sexual abused by Father A. Joseph Maskell, a priest at the school in the 1960s and '70s. In January 1970, a popular English and drama teacher at Archbishop Keough, Sister Cathy Cesnik, was found murdered in the outskirts of the city of Baltimore. Her murder was never solved and is the topic of a true crime documentary The Keepers that was released on Netflix on May 19, 2017.
In general; "Prerogative of Place"
The Archdiocese of Baltimore is led by the prelature of the Archbishop of Baltimore and a corps of auxiliary bishops who assist in the administration of the archdiocese as part of a larger curia. Sixteen people have served as Archbishop of Baltimore; the current archbishop is William E. Lori.
In 1858, the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith (Propaganda Fide), with the approval of Pope Pius IX, conferred "Prerogative of Place" on the Archdiocese of Baltimore. This decree gave the archbishop of Baltimore precedence over all other archbishops of the United States (but not cardinals) in councils, gatherings, and meetings of whatever kind of the hierarchy (in conciliis, coetibus et comitiis quibuscumque), regardless of the seniority of other archbishops in promotion or ordination.
The archbishop is concurrently the pastor of the Cathedral of Mary Our Queen in Homeland in north Baltimore and the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary (old Baltimore Cathedral). The older cathedral is located on Cathedral Hill above downtown, near the Mount Vernon-Belvedere neighborhood. Both are called co-cathedrals. The Archbishop appoints a rector for each of the co-cathedrals. The Basilica, built in 1806–1821, is the first cathedral constructed in the United States (within its boundaries at the time). It is considered the mother church of the United States. During the time from the first bishop John Carroll's installation in 1790 to the dedication of the old Baltimore Cathedral in 1821, the bishop's throne ("cathedra") was at St. Peter's Church (first parish in the diocese, founded 1770). It was located two blocks south on the northwestern corner of North Charles Street and West Saratoga Streets, serving as the pro-cathedral with its attached rectory, school and surrounding cemetery. Old St. Peter's interestingly was across the street from the "Mother Church of the Anglican Church" in Baltimore, Old St. Paul's Church (Anglican/Episcopal) with four successive buildings at the site beginning in 1730 at the southeast corner of Charles and Saratoga, in downtown, overlooking the harbor. St. Peter's Roman Catholic parish was razed in 1841.
The Archdiocese of Baltimore is one of only five United States dioceses that have two churches serving as cathedrals in the same city, the others being the Diocese of Honolulu; the Diocese of Burlington; the Diocese of Brooklyn and the Archdiocese of Anchorage, Alaska. Other dioceses with two cathedrals have them in separate cities.
Archbishops of Baltimore
The list of archbishops and their terms of service:
- John Carroll, S.J. (1784–1815) died; had been raised to archbishop in 1808
- Leonard Neale, S.J. (1815–1817) died
- Ambrose Maréchal, P.S.S. (1817–1828) died
- James Whitfield (1828–1834) died
- Samuel Eccleston, P.S.S. (1834–1851) died
- Francis Patrick Kenrick (1851–1863) died
- Martin John Spalding (1864–1872) died
- James Roosevelt Bayley (1872–1877) died
- James Gibbons (1877–1921) died
- Michael Joseph Curley (1921–1947) died
- Francis Patrick Keough (1947–1961) died
- Lawrence Shehan (1961–1974) retired; deceased (coadjutor, 1961); Cardinal in 1965
- William Donald Borders (1974–1989) retired; deceased
- William Henry Keeler (1989–2007) retired; deceased; Cardinal in 1994
- Edwin Frederick O'Brien (2007–2011) appointed Pro-Grand Master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem; future Cardinal
- William Edward Lori (2012–present)
Coadjutor and auxiliary bishops
Following is the list of coadjutor and auxiliary bishops and their terms of service (auxiliary is assumed unless noted as coadjutor). Once a diocese is raised to archdiocese, the coadjutor also has the rank of archbishop.
- Dominic Laurence Graessel S.J. (Coadjutor: 1793) posthumous appointment
- Leonard Neale S.J. (Coadjutor: 1795–1815) succeeded to see
- James Whitfield (Coadjutor: January 8 – 28, 1828) succeeded to see
- Samuel Eccleston P.S.S. (Coadjutor: March – October 1834) succeeded to see
- James Gibbons (Coadjutor: May – October 1877) succeeded to see
- Alfred Allen Paul Curtis (1897–1908) had retired as Bishop of Wilmington
- Owen Patrick Bernard Corrigan (1908–1929) died
- Thomas Joseph Shahan (1914–1932) died
- John Michael McNamara (1927–1947) appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Washington
- Lawrence Joseph Shehan (1945–1953) appointed Bishop of Bridgeport (later named coadjutor archbishop; see #12 below)
- Jerome Aloysius Daugherty Sebastian (1953–1960) died
- Lawrence Joseph Shehan (Coadjutor: July – December 1961) succeeded to see (used to be auxiliary; see #10 above)
- Thomas Austin Murphy (1962–1984) retired
- Thomas Joseph Mardaga (1966–1968) appointed Bishop of Wilmington
- Francis Joseph Gossman (1968–1975) appointed Bishop of Raleigh
- Philip Francis Murphy (1976–1999) died
- James Francis Stafford (1976–1982) appointed Bishop of Memphis; later appointed Archbishop of Denver; later President of the Pontifical Council for the Laity; created Cardinal; later appointed Major Penitentiary of the Apostolic Penitentiary; retired 2 June 2009
- William Clifford Newman (1984–2003) retired
- John Ricard S.S.J. (1984–1997) appointed Bishop of Pensacola-Tallahassee
- Gordon Dunlap Bennett S.J. (1997–2004) appointed Bishop of Mandeville in Jamaica
- William Francis Malooly (2000–2008) appointed Bishop of Wilmington
- Mitchell T. Rozanski (2004–2014) appointed Bishop of Springfield (Massachusetts)
- Denis J. Madden (2005–2016) retired
- Mark E. Brennan (2017–present)
- Adam J. Parker (2017–present)
Other affiliated bishops
The following men began their service as priests in Baltimore before being appointed bishops elsewhere (years in parentheses refers to their years in Baltimore):
- Ignatius A. Reynolds, Bishop of Charleston (1823–1843)
- John J. Chanche, Bishop of Natchez (1841–1851)
- William Henry Elder, Archbishop of Cincinnati (1846–1857)
- Thomas Patrick Roger Foley, Coadjutor Bishop of Chicago (1846–1869)
- John Samuel Foley, Bishop of Detroit (1856–1888)
- Thomas Albert Andrew Becker, Bishop of Savannah (1859–1868); was Bishop of Wilmington, 1868-1886
- Placide Louis Chapelle, Archbishop of New Orleans, Apostolic Delegate to Cuba, Apostolic Delegate to Philippines (1865–1891)
- John Joseph Keane, Archbishop of Dubuque (1866–1878)
- Patrick James Donahue, Bishop of Wheeling (1885–1894)
- William Thomas Russell, Bishop of Charleston (1889–1916)
- Peter Leo Ireton, Bishop of Richmond (1906–1935)
- Thomas Joseph Toolen, Archbishop ad personam and Bishop of Mobile (1910–1927)
- William Joseph Hafey, Bishop of Scranton (1914–1925)
- John Joyce Russell, Bishop of Charleston and Richmond (1923–1950)
- Michael William Hyle, Bishop of Wilmington (1927–1958); was coadjutor (with right of succession) of Wilmington, 1958-1960
- Philip Matthew Hannan, Archbishop of New Orleans (1939–1948)
- Victor Benito Galeone, Bishop of Saint Augustine (1960–2001)
- F. Richard Spencer, Auxiliary Bishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese for the Military Services, USA (1988–1994)
|St. Alphonsus (W. Saratoga Street)||Baltimore||1845|
|St. Alphonsus Rodriguez||Woodstock||1889|
|St. Ambrose (Cumberland)||Cumberland||1886|
|St. Andrew by the Bay||Annapolis|
|St. Ann (Greenmount Avenue, Oliver)||Baltimore|
|St. Ann (Grantsville)||Grantsville|
|St. Ann (Hagerstown)||Hagerstown|
|Church of the Annunciation||Baltimore|
|St. Anthony of Padua||Baltimore|
|St. Anthony Shrine||Emmitsburg|
|Church of the Ascension||Halethorpe||1913|
|St. Athanasius (Curtis Bay)||Baltimore|
|St. Augustine (Elkridge)||Elkridge||1844|
|St. Augustine (Williamsport)||Williamsport|
|Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary||Baltimore||1821|
|Cathedral of Mary Our Queen||Baltimore||1959|
|St. Charles Borromeo||Baltimore|
|St. Clement Mary Hofbauer||Baltimore|
|Corpus Christi (Mount Royal)||Baltimore|
|Church of the Crucifixion||Glen Burnie|
|St. Elizabeth of Hungary||Baltimore||1895|
|St. Elizabeth Ann Seton||Crofton|
|St. Francis de Sales||Abingdon|
|St. Francis Xavier (Baltimore)||Baltimore|
|St. Francis of Assisi (Baltimore)||Baltimore|
|St. Francis of Assisi (Brunswick)||Brunswick|
|St. Francis of Assisi (Fulton)||Fulton|
|St. Francis Xavier (Hunt Valley)||Hunt Valley|
|Church of the Good Shepherd||Glen Burnie|
|St. Gregory the Great||Baltimore|
|Holy Cross (South Baltimore-Federal Hill)||Baltimore|
|Holy Family (Davidsonville)||Davidsonville|
|Holy Family (Middletown)||Middletown|
|Holy Family (Randallstown)||Randallstown||1876|
|Holy Korean Martyrs||Baltimore|
|Church of the Holy Spirit||Joppa|
|Holy Trinity Catholic Church||Glen Burnie|
|St. Ignatius (Mount Vernon-Belvedere)||Baltimore|
|St. Ignatius (Hickory)||Forest Hill, Bel Air|
|St. Ignatius Loyola||Frederick|
|Church of the Immaculate Conception (Baltimore)||Baltimore|
|Church of the Immaculate Conception (Towson)||Towson|
|Immaculate Heart of Mary||Baltimore|
|St. Isaac Jogues||Baltimore|
|St. Jane Frances de Chantal||Pasadena|
|St. Joan of Arc||Aberdeen|
|St. John Neumann||Annapolis|
|St. John the Evangelist (Columbia)||Columbia|
|St. John the Evangelist (Frederick)||Frederick|
|St. John the Evangelist (Long Green Valley)||Hydes|
|St. John the Evangelist (Severna Park)||Severna Park|
|St. John (Westminster)||Westminster|
|St. Joseph (Fullerton)||Baltimore|
|St. Joseph’s Passionist Monastery (Irvington)||Baltimore|
|St. Joseph (Cockeysville-Texas)||Cockeysville|
|St. Joseph (Sykesville)||Eldersburg|
|St. Joseph (Emmitsburg)||Emmitsburg|
|St. Joseph-On-Carrollton Manor||Frederick|
|St. Joseph (Hagerstown)||Hagerstown|
|St. Joseph (Midland)||Midland|
|St. Joseph (Odenton)||Odenton|
|St. Joseph (Taneytown)||Taneytown|
|St. Katharine Drexel||Frederick|
|St. Lawrence Martyr||Hanover|
|St. Mary Magdalen||Bel Air|
|St. Margaret||Bel Air|
|St. Mark (Catonsville)||Baltimore|
|St. Mark (Fallston)||Fallston|
|St. Mary (Annapolis)||Annapolis|
|St. Mary, Star of the Sea (South Baltimore-Riverside)||Baltimore|
|St. Mary of the Assumption (Govans)||Baltimore|
|St. Mary (Cumberland)||Cumberland|
|St. Mary (Hagerstown)||Hagerstown|
|St. Mary of the Annunciation||Lonaconing|
|St. Mary (Petersville)||Petersville|
|St. Mary of the Assumption (Pylesville)||Pylesville|
|St. Michael the Archangel||Overlea|
|St. Michael (Clear Spring)||Clear Spring|
|St. Michael (Frostburg)||Frostburg|
|St. Michael (Poplar Springs-Mt. Airey)||Mount Airy|
|Most Precious Blood||Baltimore|
|Nativity of Our Lord Jesus Christ||Timonium|
|New All Saints||Baltimore|
|Our Lady of Fatima||Baltimore|
|Our Lady of Good Counsel (Locust Point)||Baltimore|
|Our Lady of Grace||Parkton|
|Our Lady of Hope||Baltimore|
|Our Lady of LaVang||Baltimore|
|Our Lady of Mount Carmel (Frederick)||Thurmont|
|Our Lady of Mount Carmel (Middle River)||Baltimore|
|Our Lady of Perpetual Help (Edgewater)||Edgewater|
|Our Lady of Perpetual Help (Ellicott City)||Ellicott City||1893|
|Our Lady of Pompei||Baltimore|
|Our Lady of Sorrows||West River|
|Our Lady of the Angels||Catonsville|
|Our Lady of the Chesapeake (Lake Shore)||Pasadena|
|Our Lady of the Fields||Millersville|
|Our Lady of Victory||Baltimore|
|Our Lady, Queen of Peace||Baltimore|
|St. Patrick (Broadway-Fells Point)||Baltimore|
|St. Patrick (Cumberland)||Cumberland|
|St. Patrick (Havre de Grace)||Havre de Grace|
|St. Patrick (Little Orleans)||Little Orleans|
|St. Patrick (Mt. Savage)||Mount Savage|
|St. Paul||Ellicott City||1838|
|St. Peter Claver||Baltimore|
|SS. Peter & Paul Shrine||Cumberland|
|St. Peter (Hancock)||Hancock|
|St. Peter (Libertytown)||Libertytown|
|St. Peter at the Lake Center||McHenry|
|St. Peter the Apostle (Oakland)||Oakland|
|St. Peter (Westernport)||Westernport|
|SS. Philip & James (Charles Village)||Baltimore|
|St. Philip Neri||Linthicum Heights|
|St. Pius V||Baltimore|
|St. Pius X||Baltimore|
|Prince of Peace||Edgewood|
|Church of the Resurrection||Ellicott City||1974|
|Resurrection of Our Lord||Laurel|
|St. Rose of Lima (Brooklyn)||Baltimore|
|Sacred Heart of Jesus||Baltimore|
|Sacred Heart of Mary||Baltimore|
|Shrine of the Little Flower||Baltimore|
|Shrine of the Sacred Heart||Baltimore|
|St. Thomas Aquinas||Baltimore|
|St. Thomas More||Baltimore|
|Transfiguration Roman Catholic Congregation||Baltimore|
|St. Veronica (Cherry Hill)||Baltimore|
|St. Vincent de Paul (Jonestown-Old Town)||Baltimore|
|St. William of York||Baltimore||1914|
|St. Michael (Wolfe Street)||Baltimore||1852||30 July 2011||Sacred Heart of Jesus|
|Church of the Holy Apostles||Gambrills||1999||30 June 2014||St. Joseph|
- Archbishop Curley High School, Baltimore
- Archbishop Spalding High School, Severn
- Bishop Walsh School, Cumberland
- Calvert Hall College (high school), Baltimore
- Cristo Rey Jesuit High School, Baltimore
- Institute of Notre Dame, Baltimore
- Loyola Blakefield (formerly Loyola High School), Towson
- Maryvale Preparatory School, Brooklandville
- Mercy High School, Baltimore
- Mount de Sales Academy, Baltimore
- Mount Saint Joseph College (high school), Baltimore
- Notre Dame Preparatory School, Baltimore
- Our Lady of Mount Carmel High School, Baltimore
- St. Frances Academy, Baltimore (Oldest in Archdiocese of Baltimore)
- St. John's Catholic Preparatory (formerly St. John's Literary Institution), Buckeystown (formerly Frederick)
- St. Maria Goretti High School, Hagerstown
- St. Mary's High School, Annapolis
- The Catholic High School of Baltimore, Baltimore
- The John Carroll School, Bel Air
- The Seton Keough High School (formerly Archbishop Keough High School and Seton High School), Baltimore
Shrines of the archdiocese
- Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Baltimore, Maryland
- Basilica of the National Shrine of St. Elizabeth Ann Seton, Emmitsburg, Maryland
Province of Baltimore
- Historical list of the Catholic bishops of the United States
- List of the Catholic dioceses of the United States
- List of Roman Catholic archdioceses (by country and continent)
- List of Roman Catholic dioceses (alphabetical) (including archdioceses)
- List of Roman Catholic dioceses (structured view) (including archdioceses)
- "St. Ignatius Feast Day – The Archdiocese of Baltimore". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
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- Kay, Liz F. (July 14, 2007). "New home for a new archbishop". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2016-02-26.
- Corrigan, G.M. (August 4, 2007). "Archbishop O'Brien to begin stewardship with listening tour". The Washington Examiner.
- Knezevich, Alison (November 15, 2016). "Baltimore archdiocese pays settlements to a dozen people alleging abuse by late priest". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2017-08-05.
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- "Catholic Review History". The Catholic Review. Retrieved 2016-02-26.
- "Is This Netflix Docuseries the Next Making a Murderer?". Vogue. April 19, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
- "RINUNCE E NOMINE: NOMINA DELL'ARCIVESCOVO DI BALTIMORE (U.S.A.)" [Waivers and Appointments: Appointment of Archbishop of Baltimore (U.S.A.)] (PDF) (in Italian). Holy See Press Office. 20 March 2012. Retrieved 2016-02-26.
- "Cathedrals in United States". GCatholic.org. Retrieved 2008-01-27.
- "About us". St. Agnes & St. William of York. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
- Nancy Miller; Michael Bourne & William Morgan (December 1972). "National Register of Historic Places Registration: St. Alphonsus' Church, Rectory, Convent and Halle" (PDF). Maryland Historical Trust. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
- "History and Heritage". St. Alphonsus Rodriguez Catholic Church. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
- "St. Ambrose". Our Lady of the Mountains Parish. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
- "History of Ascension". Catholic Community of Ascension and St. Augustine. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
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- "Cathedral of Mary Our Queen". Archdiocese of Baltimore. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
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- "Home". Holy Family Roman Catholic Church-Randallstown, Maryland. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
- "Parish History". Our Lady of Perpetual Help Catholic Church. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
- "History". St. Paul Catholic Church. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
- "History & Tradition". Resurrection-St. Paul School. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
- "Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary". americasfirstcathedral.org. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "National Shrine of Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton". Seton Heritage. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
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